Skip to main content

Full text of "Ancient India as Described by Ptolemy: Being a Translation of the Chapters ..."

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 










yj 8)0 


^^' ^N.^ 



* • **- 














J. W. McCRINDLE, M.A., M.R.A.S*, 





Reprinted from the ** Indian Antiquary ^** 1884. 

Cttltttttat §0ntbag: 


|t n h a it : 


^'" f .'' :. /', 







Ptolemy's *^ Treatise on Greography," likeliis 
famous work on astronomy to which it formed 
the seqael, was destined to govern the world's 
opinion on the subject of which it treated, from, 
the time of its publication until the dawn of 
the modern era, a period of about 1,300 years^ 
This treatise must have been composed in the 
interests of chartography rather than of geo» 
graphy, for the author's aim is not so much 
to describe the earth's surface as to lay down 
the principles on which maps should be con- 
structed, and to determine the latitude and 
longitude of places with a view to their 
being mapped in their proper positions. The 
principles he here laid down have proved of 
permanent validity, and are still practically 
applied in the art of map-construction, but his 
determinations of the position of places, owing 
to the paucity and imperfection of the astro- 
nomical observations on which, in combination 
with the existing measurements of terrestrial 
distances his conclusions were based, are all, 
with very few exceptions, incorrect. The work 
lost, of course, much of its old authority as soon 
as the discoveries of modern times had brought 
its grave and manifold errors to light. It did 


not, however, on this account cease to be of 
high interest and value as an antiquarian re- 
cord, if we may judge from the multiplicity of 
the learned disquisitions which have from time 
to time been published in elucidation of many 
points of Ptolemaic Geography. 

There is perhaps no part of the contents 
which has received more attention from scholars 
than the chapters relating to India, where the 
tables abound to a surprising extent with 
names which are found nowhere else in classi- 
cal literature, and which were doubtless ob- 
tained directly from Indian sources, rather than 
from reports of travellers or traders who had 
visited the country. On glancing over these 
names one cannot fail to remark how very few 
of them have any but the most distant resem- 
blance to the indigenous names which they 
must have been intended to represent. Philo- 
logists, however, have made persistent efforts 
to penetrate the disguise which conceals the 
original forms of the names so much dis- 
torted by Ptolemy, and have succeeded in 
establishing a great number of satisfactory 
identifications, as well as in hitting upon others 
which have a balance of probability in their 
favour — a similar service has been rendered by 
the archseological investigations which have 
now for many years been systematically prose- 
cuted under the auspices of the Indian 


THe present work has for its main object to 
show concisely wliat has been accomplished 
np to this time in this department of enquiry. 
It has been compiled from multifarious sources 
which are not easily accessible, as for instance 
from foreign publications not yet translated 
into our own language, and from the Journals 
and Transactions of various societies at home 
and abroad which concern themselves with 
Oriental literature. 

I venture therefore to hope that my com- 
pendium, which it has taken much time and 
laborious research to prepare, may meet with 
recognition and acceptance as a useful contri- 
bution to general literature, while proving 
also serviceable to scholars as a work of re- 

I proceed now to indicate the method which 
I have followed in the treatment of my subject, 
and to specify the authorities on which I have 
principally relied. I have then, in an intro- 
ductory chapter, attempted to give a succinct 
account of the general nature of Ptolemy's 
geographical system, and this is followed by 
a translation of several chapters of his First 
Book which serve to exhibit his general mode 
of procedure in dealing with questions of Geo- 
graphy, and at the same time convey his views 
of the configuration of the coasts of India, both 
on this side the Ganges and beyond. In 
translating the text I have taken it in detach- 


ments of convenient length, to each of which 
I have subjoined a commentary, the main 
object of which is — Ist, to show, as far as has 
been ascertained, how each place, named by 
Ptolemy in his Indian Tables has been identi- 
fied ; 2nd, to trace the origin or etymology of 
each name, so far as it is possible to do so ; and 
' 3rd, to notice very concisely the most promi- 
nent facts in the ancient history of the places 
of importance mentioned. I have, as a rule? 
quoted the sources from which my information 
has been derived, but may here state that I 
have generally adopted the views of M. Vivien 
de Saint-Martin and those of Colonel Yule, 
whose map of ancient India in Smith's well- 
known historical Atlas of Ancient Geography is 
allowed on all hands to be the best that has yet 
been produced. These authors have examined 
the greater part of the Ptolemaic Greography 
of India, and their conclusions are for the most 
part coincident. The w^orks of Saint- Martin, 
which I have consulted, are these : mude sur 
la Geographie Grecque et Latine de Vlnde, et eii 
jparticulier sur Vlnde de Ftolemee^ dans ses 
rapports avec la Geographie Sanshrite j Memoire 
Analytique sur la Carte de VAsie Centrale et de 
Vlnde ; et ^tiide sur la Geographie et les popula- 
tions primitives du Nord-Ouest de Vlnde. d'apres 
les hymnes vediq_ues. Colonel Yule has expressed 
his views chiefly in the notes upon the map 
referred to, but also occasionally in the notes 


to kis edition of Marco Polo and in other works 
from his pen. Frequent reference will be 
found in my notes to that work of vast erudi- 
tion, Prof. Lassen's Indisclie Alter tlimmlcunde. 
Unfortunately the section which he has devoted 
to a full examination of Ptolemy's India is the 
least satisfactory portion of his work. His 
system of identification is based on a wrong 
principle, and many of the conclusions to 
which it has led are such as cannot be accepted. 
His work is notwithstanding, as Yule says, 
" a precious mine of material for the study of 
the amcient grography of India." For elucida- 
tions of the Ptolemaic geography of particular 
portions of India I have consulted with great 
advantage such works as the folloAving ,— 
Wilson's ArianaJntiqtm, General Cunningham's 
Geography of Ancient India, Vol. I. (all yet 
published), and his Eeports on the Archcwlogical 
Survey of India ; Bishop Caldwell's Introduc- 
tion to his Bravidian Grammar, valuable for 
identification of places in the south of the 
Peninsula; the Bombay Gazetteer, edited by 
. Mr. J. M. Campbell, who has carefully investi- 
gated the antiquities of that Presidency • the 
volumes of Asiatic Researches-, the Journals of 
the Boyal Asiatic Society and of the kindred 
Societies in India ; the Journals of the Boyal 
Geographical Society ; the articles on India and 
places m India in Smith's Dictionary of Cla^si^ 
cal Geography, ^viiien almost all by Mr 

Viii PreMCBi 

Vaux ; articles in the Indian Antiquary ; Ben* 
fej*s Indien in the Encyclopddie of Ersch 
and Gruber; the Abbe Halma's Traits de Geo*^ 
graphie de Claude PtoUmee, Paris, 1828 ; the 
Chapters on Marinus and Ptolemy's System 
of Geography in Bunbury's History of Ancient 
Geography j Prianlx's Indian Travels of ApoU 
lonius of Tyana^ &c. ; Stephanos of Byzantium 
On Cities ; Sir Emerson Tennent's Ceylon ; Sir 
H. Rawlinson*s articles on Central Asia which 
have appeared in various publications^ and 
other works which need not here be specified » 

There has recently been issued from the 
press of Firmin-Didot, Paris, the first volume of 
a new and most elaborate edition of Ptolemy's 
Geography, prepared by C. Miiller, the learned 
editor of the Geographi Graeoi Minor es^ but 
the work unfortunately has not advanced so 
far as to include the chapters which contain 
the geography of India* 

I would here take the opportunity of ex- 
pressing my obligations to Dr. Burgess, the 
late editor of the Indian Antiquary ^ for his 
careful revision of the proofs, and for sundry 
valuable suggestions. 

Having thought it advisable to extend the 
scope of the work beyond the limits originally 
contemplated, I have included in it those 
chapters of the geography in which China, 
Central Asia, and all the provinces adjacent 
to India are described. The reader is thus 


presented with the Ptolemaic Geography of 
the whole of Asia, with the exception only of 
those countries which from propinquity and 
frequency of intercourse were well known to 
the nations of the West. 

In a short Appendix will be found some 
additional notes. 

The present volume forms the fourth of the 
Series of Annotated Translations of the Works 
of the Classical Writers which relate to India. 
Another volume, containing Strabo's Indian 
Geography and the Accounts given by Arrian 
and Gurtius of the Makedonian Invasion of 
India, will complete the series. 

3, Abbotsford Pabk, Edinburgh, 
Juncy 1885. 



Introduction 1 

Description of India within the Ganges.. 33 

„ of India beyond the Ganges 

(including Indo- China) ... 189 

„ of the Sinai (Southern China). 244» 

„ of the Island of Taprobane 

(Ceylon) 247 

„ of Hyrkania 260 

„ of Margiane 262 

„ of Baktriane 267 

„ of Sogdiana 274 

„ oftheSakai 283 

„ of Skythia within Imaos 285 

„ of Skythia beyond Imaos 292 


of strike (Northern China)... 297 

of Areia ,.,.•. 305 

of the Par opanisadai 310 

of Drangiane 313 

of Arakh6sia , 315 

of Gedrosia 319 

• • 



Appendix of Additional Notes 331 

1. On the La|}itude of Byzantium and 

that of Tash-Knrghan (p. 14) ... 331 

2. On Kouronla (pp. 22, 63-4) 331 

3. On the Argaric Gulf and Argeirou 

(pp. 22, 59 and 60) 331 

4. On Thelkheir (pp. 63 and 64) 332 

5. On Orthoura (pp. 64 and 184) ... 332 

6. On Arkatos (p. 64) 332 

7. On the River Adamas (p.. 71) 333 

8. On Mount Sardonyx (p. 77) 334 

9. On Talara (p. 90) 334 

10. On Pounnata (p. 180) 334 

11. On Arembour (pp. 180, 182) ...... 334 

12. On Abour (p. 184) 334 

13. OnArgyra(p. 196) 334 

14. On the Golden Khersonese (p. 197). 335 

15. On the Loadstone rocks (p. 242). . 335 

16. On the sandy deserts of Baktria 

(p. 270) 335 

17. On the River Ochos (p. 273) 335 

18. On the Avestic names of rivers, 

&c., in Afghanistan 336 

19. On the Griffins or Gryphons (p.295). 338 


Ptolemy and his System of Geography. 

Klaudios Ptolemaios, or as he is commonly 
caUed, Ptolemy, was distinguished alike as a 
Mathematician, a Musician, an Astronomer and a 
Geographer, and was altogether one of the most 
accomplished men of science that antiquity 
produced. His works were considered as of para- 
mount authority from the time of their 
publication until the discoveries of modem times 
had begun to show their imperfections and errors. 
It is surprising that with all his fame, which had 
even in his own lifetime become pre-eminent, 
that the particulars of his personal history should 
be shrouded in all but total darkness. Nothing 
in fact is known for certain regarding him further 
than that he flourished in Alexandria about the 
middle of the 2nd century of our sera, in the reign 
of Antoninus Pius, whom he appears to have 

His work on Geography formed a sequel to his 
great work on Astronomy, commonly called the 
Almagest. From its title rfayypaftuKr} 'Y<l>qyr}a-iSy 
an Outline of Geography, we might be led to infer 

1 G 

that it was a general treatise on the subject, like 
the comprehensive work of Strabo, but in reality 
it treats almost exclusively of Mathematical, or 
what may be called Cosmical, Geography. Ptole- 
my's object in composing it was not like that of 
the ordinary Geographer to describe places, but 
to correct and reform the map of the world in 
accordance with the increased knowledge which 
had been acquired of distant countries and 
with the improved state of science. He there- 
fore limits his argument to an exposition of 
the geometrical principles on which Geography 
should be based, and to a determination of the 
position of places on the surface of the earth by 
their latitudes and longitudes. What he consi- 
dered to be the proper method of determining 
geographical positions he states very clearly in the 
following passage : " The proper course," he says, 
**in drawing up a map of the world is to lay 
down as the basis of it those points that were 
determined by the most correct (astronomical) 
observations, and to fit into it those derived from 
other sources, so that their positions may suit as 
well as possible with the principal points thus laid 
down in the first instance."^ 

Unfortunately, as Bimbury remarks, it was 
impossible for him to carry out in practice — even 
approximately — the scheme that he had so well 
laid down in theory. The astronomical obser- 
vations to which he could refer were but few — 
and they were withal either so defective or so 
inaccurate that he could not use them with con- 

^ Book I. cap. 4. The translation is Bunbury's. 

fidence. At the same time his information con- 
cerning many parts of the earth, whether owing 
to their remoteness or the conflicting accounts of 
travellers regarding them, was imperfect in the 
extreme. The extent, however, of his geo^aphical 
knowledge was far' greater than that possessed by 
any of his predecessors, and he had access to 
sources of information which enabled him to 
correct many of the errors into which they had , 

He was induced to undertake the composition 
of his Geography through his being dissatisfied 
more or less with all the existing systems. There 
was however one work — that of his immediate 
• precursor, Marinos of Tyre — ^which approximated 
somewhat closely to his ideal, and which he there- 
fore made the basis of his own treatise. Mari- 
nes, he tell us, had collected his materials with 
the most praiseworthy diligence, and had more- 
over sifted them both with care and judgment. 
He points out, however, that his system required 
correction both as to the method of delineating 
the sphere on a plane surface, and as to the com- 
putation of distances, which he generally exag- 
gerated. He censures him likewise for having 
assigned to the known world too great a length 
from west to east, and too great a breadth from 
north to south. 

Of Ptolemy's own system, the more prominent 
characteristics may now be noted : He assumed 
the earth to be a sphere, and adopting the estimate 
of Poseidonios fixed its circumference at 180,000 
stadia, thus making the length of a degree at the 
equator to be only 500 stadia, instead of 60O, which 

is its real length." To this fundamental mis- 
calculation may be ref en'ed not a few of the most 
serious errors to be found in his work. With regard 
to the question of the length and the breadth of the 
inhabited part of the earth, a question of first 
impoi'tance in those days, he estimated its length 
as measured along the parallel of Rhodes* which 
divided the then known world into two nearly 
equal portions at 72,000 stadia, and its breadth 
at 40,000. The meridian in the west from which 
he calculated his longitudes was that which passed 
through the Islands of the Blest {MaKaptov N^o-oi) 
probably the Canary Islands,* and his most 

* The Olympic stadium^ which was in general use 
throughout Greece, contained 600 Greek feet, which were 
equal to 625 Boman feet, or 606f English feet. The Boman 
mile contained 8 stadia, or about half a stadium less 
than an English mile. A stadium of 600 Greek feet was 
very nearly the 600th part of a degree, and 10 stadia are 
therefore just about equal to a Nautical or Geographical 
mile. According to Eratosthenes, a degree at the Equator 
was equal to 700 stadia, but according to Posoidonios 
it was equal to only 500. The truth Lay between, but 
Ptolemy unfortunately followed Poseidonios in his 

' '* The equinoctial line was of course perfectly fixed 
and definite in Ptolemy's mind, as an astronomical line ; 
but ho had no means of assigning its position on the Map 
of the World, except with reference to other parallels, 
such as the tropic at Syene, or the parallels of Alexandria 
and Bhodes, which had been determined by direct 
observation." — Bunbury, Hist, of Anc. Oeog., vol. II, 
p. 560, n. 2. 

* The Island of Ferro — ^the westernmost of the Group 
of the Canaries, which was long taken as the prime 
meridian, and is still so taken in Germany — is really 
situated 18^ 20' west of Greenwich, while Capo St. 
Vincent (called anciently the Sacred Ca%ye) is just about 9°, 
so that the real difference between the two amounted to 
9^ 20' instead of only 21'. Two corrections must there- 
fore be applied to Ptolemy's longitudes — one-sixth must 
be deducted because of his under-cstimate of the length 

eastern meridian was that which passed through 
the Metropolis of the Sinai, which he calls Sinai 
or Thinai, and places in 180° 4(y E. Long, and 
3° S. Lat. The distance of this meridian from 
that of Alexandria he estimated at 119^ degrees, 
and the distance of the first meridian from the 
same at 60i degrees, making together 180 de- 
grees, or exactly one-half of the circumference 
of the earth. His estimate of the breadth he 
obtained by fixing the southern limit of the 
inhabited parts in the parallel of 16i degrees 
of South Latitude, which passes through a point 
as far south of the Equator as Meroe is north 
of it. And by fixing the northern limit in the 
parallel of 63 degrees North Latitude, which passes 
through Thoule (probably the Shetland Islands), 
a space of nearly 80 degrees was thus included 
between the two parallels, and this was equivalent 
in Ptolemy's mode of reckoning to 40,000 stadia. 
Having made these determinations he had next 
to consider in what mode the sui-face of the earth 
with its meridians of longitude and parallels of 
latitude should be represented on a sphere and 
on a plane surface — of the two modes of delinea- 
tion that on the sphere is the much easier to 
make, as it involves no method of projection, but 
a map drawn on a plane is far more convenient for 
use, as it presents simultaneously to the eye a far 
greater extent of surface. Marinos had drawn 
his map of the world on a plane, but his method 

of a degree along the Equator, and 6° 60' must be added bo- 
cauBO Ferro was so much further west than ho supposed. 
Subject to these corrections his longitudes would bo 
fairly accurate, provided his calculations of distances 
were otherwise free from error. 

of projection was altogether unsatisfactory. It 
is thus described by Ptolemy : Marinos, lie says, 
on account of the importance of the countries 
around the Mediterranean, kept as his base the 
line fixed on of old by Eratpsthenes, tn«.» the 
parallel through Bhodes in the 36th degree of 
north latitude. He then calcidated' the length 
of a degree along this parallel, and found it to 
contain 400 stadia, the equatorial degree being 
taken at 500. Havuig divided this parallel 
into degrees he drew perpendiculars through the 
points of division for the meridians, and his 
parallels of latitude were straight lines parallel to 
that which passed through Bhodes. The imper- 
fections of such a projection are obvious. It 
represented the parts of the earth north of the 
parallel of Rhodes much beyond, and those south 
of it much below, their proper length. Places 
again to the north of the line stood too far apart 
from each other, and those to the south of it too 
close together. The projection, moreover, is an 
erroneous representation, since the parallels of 
latitude ought to be circular arcs and not straight 

Ptolemy having pointed out these objections 
to the system of Marinos proceeds to explain the 
methods which he himself employed. We need 
say nothing more regarding them than that they 
were such as presented a near approximation to 
some of those which are still in use among 
modem Geographers. 

Ptolemy's treatise is divided into 8 books. In 
the 1st or introductory book he treats first 
of Geography generally — ^he then explains and 

criticizes the system of Marines, and concludes by 
describing themethods of projection which may 
be employed in the construction of maps. The 
next 6 books and the first 4 chapters of the 7th 
book consist of tables which give distinctly in 
degrees and parts of a degree the latitudes and 
longitudes of all the places in his map. These 
places are arranged together in sections accoi'd- 
ing to the country or tribe to which they belong, 
and each section has prefixed to it a brief de- 
scription of the boundaries and divisions of the 
part about to be noticed. Descriptive notices are 
also occasionally interspersed among the lists, but 
the number of such is by no means considerable. 
The remainder of the 7th book and the whole of 
the 8th are occupied with a description of a series 
of maps which, it would appear, had been prepared 
to accompany the publication of the work, and 
which are still extant. The number of the maps is 
twenty-six, viz. 10 for Europe, 4 for Libya, and 12 
for Asia. They are drawn to different scales, lai^er 
or smaller, according as the division represented 
was more or less known. He gives for each 
map the latitudes and longitudes of a certain 
number of the most important cities contained 
in it, but these positions were not given in the 
same manner as in the tables, for the latitudes 
are now denoted by the length of the longest day 
and the longitudes according to the difference of 
time from Alexandria. It might be supposed 
that the positions in question were such as had 
been determined by actual astronomical observa- 
tions, as distinguished from those in the Tables, 
' which were for the most part derived from itine- 


raries, or from records of voyages and travels. 
This supposition is however untenable, for we 
find that while the statements as to the length of 
the longest days at the selected places are always 
correct for the latitudes assigned them, they are 
often glaringly wrong for their real positions. 
Ptolemy, it is evident, first mapped out in the best 
way he could the places, and then calculated 
for the more impoi-tant of these places the 
astronomical phenomena incident to them as so 
situated. I conclude by presenting the reader 
with a translation of some chapters of the In- 
troductory Book,* where Ptolemy in reviewing the 
estimate made by Marinos of the length of the 
known world from west to east, has frequent 
occasion to mention India and the Provinces 
beyond the Ganges, which together constitute 
what is now called Indo- China. 

Book L, Cap. 11. 

§ 1 . What has now been stated will suffice 
to show us what extent in breadth it would 
be fair to assign to the inhabited world. 
Its length is given by Marinos at 15 hours, 
this being the distance comprised between his 
two extreme meridians — but in our opinion ho 
has unduly extended the distance towards the 
east. In fact, if the estimate be properly 
reduced in this direction the entire length 
must be fixed at less than 12 hours, the Islands 
of the Blest being taken as the limit towards 

* The edition used is that of C. F. A. Noble, Leipsic, 

the west, and the remotest parts of Sdra and 
the Sinai* and Kattigara' as the limit towards 

' " Ohifta for nearly 1,000 years has been known to the 
nations of Inner Asia, and to those whose aoqoaintanoe 
with it was got by that channel, under the name of 
Khitai, Khata, or Cathay, e.g., the Russians still call it 
Khitai. The pair of names, Khitai and Machin, or 
Cathay and China, is analogous to the other pair Seres 
and Sinai. Seres was the name of the great nation in 
the far east as known by land, Sinai as known by sea ; 
and they were often supposed to be diverse, just as 
Cathay and China were afterwards." Tule's Marco 
Folo, 2nd ed., Introd., p. 11 and note. 

' The locality of Kattigara has been fixed very 
variously. Bichthofen identified it witii Kian-chi in 
Tong-king, and Colonel Yule has adopted this view. 
"To myself," he says, ''the arguments adduced by 
Bichthofen in favour of the location of Kattip^a in the 
Gulf of Tong-king, are absolutely convincing. This 
position seems to satisfy evei^ condition. For 1st, 
Tong-king was for some centuries at that period (B. C 
111 to A.D. 263), only incorporated as part of the Chinese 
Empire. 2nd, the onlv part mentioned in the Chinese 
annals as at* that period open to foreign traffic was Kian- 
ohi, substantially identical with the modem capital of 
Tong-king, Kesho or Hanoi. Whilst there are no 
notices of foreign arrivals by an^ other approach, there 
are repeated notices of such arrivals by this province, 
including that famous embassy from Antun, King of 
Ta-t'sin, i.e., M. Aurelius Antoninus (A.D. 161-180) in 
A.D. 166. The province in question was then known 
as Ji-nan (or Zhi-nto, French) ; whence possiblv the 
name Sinai, whioh has travelled so far and spread over 
such libraries of literature. The Chinese Annalist who 
mentions the Boman Embassy adds : ' The people of 
that kingdom (Ta-t'sin or the Boman Empire) came in 
numbers for trading purposes to Fu-nan, Ji-nan, and 
Kian-chi.' Fu-nan we have seen, was Champa, or Zabai. 
In Ji-nan with its chief port Kian-ohi, we may recognize 
with assurance Kattigara, Portus Sinarum. Bichthofen's 
solution has the advantages of preserving the true mean- 
ing of Sinai as the Chinese, and of locating the Portus 
Sinarum in what was then politically a part of China, 
whilst the remote Metropolis Thinae remains unequivo- 
cally the capital of the Empire, whether Si-gnan-fu in 
Chen-si, or Lo-yang in Ho-nan be meant. I will only 
add that though we find Katighora in Edrisi*s Geography ^ 
I apprehend this to be a mere adoption from the Chogra^ 

2 G 


ihe ea6t. § 2. Now the entire distance frofil 
tlie Islsmds of the Blest to the passage of 

phy of Ptolemy, founded on no recent authority. It 
nust hare kept its place also on the later medi8BYal< 
maps ; for Pigaf etta, in that part of the oircumnayiga' 
tion where the crew of the Victoria began to look out 
for the Asiatic coast, says that Magellan ' changed the 
course . . . until in 13* of N. Lat, in order to approach 
tifcie land of Cape Gaticara, which Cape (under correction 
f>f those who have made cosmography their study, for they 
have never seen it), is not placed where they think, but 
is towards the noith in 12° or thereabouts.* [The Cape 
looked for was evidently the extreme Si* E. point of Asia, 
actually represented by Cape Varela or Cape St. James 
on the coast of Coohin-China.] It is probable that, a» 
Bichthofen points out, Kattigara, or at any rate Kian- 
chi, was the Lnkin or Al-Wflkin of the early Arab Geo- 
graphers. But the terminus of the Arab voyagers of the 
ith century was no longer in Tong-Kingy it was Khfin-f Ay 
apparently the Kan-pu of the Clmiese,the haven of the 
great city which we know as Hang-chow, and which then 
^y on or near a delta-arm of the great Yang-tse." 
These arguments may be accepted as conclusively settling' 
the vexed question as to the position of Kat'tigara. In 
a paper, however, recently read before the B. Asiatio 
Society, Mr.^ Holt, an eminent Chinese scholar, expressed 
a different view. He '*" showed that there was good 
evidence of a very early communication from some port 
on the Chinese coast to near Martabauy or along tho 
valley of the Ir&wadS to the northrwest capital of China,, 
then at Si-gnan-f u or Ho-nan-'f u. He then showed that the 
name of China had been derived from the Indians, who 
first knew China, and was not due to the Tsin Dynasty , 
but more probably came from the name of the Compass, 
specimens of which were supplied to the early envoys, 
the Chinese being thus known in India as the * Compass* 
people,' just as the Seresy another Chinese population^ 
derived their western name from * Silk.' That the 
knowledge of this fact was lost to both Indians and 
Chinese is clear from the use by Hiuen-Tsiang and 
later writers of two symbols (see Morrison's Dic^ 
tionary^ syllabic part, !Ko. &,033) to designate th» 
counti^, as tl^se, while giving the so«nd * Che-ha,' 
indicate that they are substitutes for original words 6£ 
like sounds, the true sense of which cannot now be re- 
eoyered. Having shown that M. Eeinaud's view of an 
intercourse between China and £gypt in the first 
century A.D. has no real foundation, Mr. Holt 


tliB Enplirates at Hierapolis, as measured along 
the parallel of Bhodes, is accurately determined 
by summing together the several intervening 
distances as estimated in stadia by Marines, 
for not only were the distances well ascertained 
from being frequently traversed, but Marines 
seems moreover in his computation of the 
greater distances, to have taken into account 
the necessary corrections for irregularities and 
deviations." He understood, besides, that while 
the length of a single degree of the 360 
degrees into which the equatorial circle is 
divided measures, as in the commonly accepted 
estimate, 500 stadia, the parallel circle which 
passes through Rhodes in 36 degrees of N. 
latitude, measures about 400 stadia, § 3. It 
measures, in fact, a little over that number if 
we go by the exact proportion of tho parallels, 
but the excess is so trifling as in the case of the 
equatorial degree, that it may be neglected. Bnt 

further stated tkat there was no eyiden<se of an embassy 
from M. Amrelius having gone by sea to China in A.D. 
166. In conclusion, he urged, that in his judgment, 
there was no proof whatever of any knowledge of a 
maritime way to China before the 4th century A.D., the 
voyige even of Fa-hian, at that period being open to 
serious criticism. He believes therefore with M. Gos- 
eelin that the Kattigara of Ptolemy was probably not far 
from the present Martaban, and that India for a consi- 
derable period up to the 7th century A.D. dominated 
over Cambodia." 

* Deviations from the straight line by which the route 
would be represented in the map. The irregularities 
refer to the occasional shortening of the daily march by 
obstacles of various kinds, bad roads, hostile attacks, 
fatigue, &o. 


his estimates of the distances beyond Hierapolia 
require correction. § 4. He computes the 
distance from the passage of the Euphrates 
abeady mentioned to the Stone Tower^ at 876 

' " One of the oircmnstanoes of the route that Pto- 
lemy has reproduced from Marinos is that on learing 
Baktra the traveller directed his course for a long 
enough time towards the North. Assuredly the oaravans 
touched at Samarkand (the Marakanda of Greek authors) 
which was then, as now, one of the important centres of 
the region beyond the Oxus. For passing from Sogdia- 
na to the east of the snowy range, which covers the 
sources of the Jazartes and the Ozus, three main routes 
have existed at all times : that of the south, which ascends 
tiie high valleys of the Oxus through Badakshdn ; that 
in the centre, which goes directly to Kfishgar by the 
high valleys of the Syr-Darya or Jaxartes ; and lastly 
that of the north, which goes down a part of the middle 
valley of the Jaxartes before turning to the east towards 
Chinese Tartary. Of these three routes, the itinerary of the 
Greek merchants could only apply to the 2nd or the 3rd ; 
and if, as has been for a long time supposed with much 
probability, the Stone Tower of the Itinerary is found in 
an important place belonging to the valley of the 
Jaxartes, of which the name Tfishkand has precisely the 
same meaning in the language of the Turkomans, it 
would be the northern route that the caravan of Maes 
would have followed. The march of seven months in 
advancing constantly towards the east leads necessarily 

towards the north of China (Saint-Martin, Etude, pp. 
428-9.) Sir H. Bawlinson however assigns it a more 
southern position, placing it at Tash-kurghan, an ancient 
city which was of old the capital of the Sarik-kul 
territory, a district lying between Yarkand and Badak- 
shan, and known to the Chinese as Ko-panto. The walls 
of Tash-kurghan are built of unusually large blocks of 
stone. It was no doubt, Sir Henry remarks, owing to 
the massive materials of which it was built, that it 
received the name of Tash-kurghan or the * Stone Fort,' 
and it seems to have every claim to represent the 
\idivos irvpyos of Ptolemy, where the caravans rendez- 
voused before entering China, in preference to Tashkand 
or Ush, which have been selected as the site of the Stone 
Tower by other geographers." — J<mr, iJ, Chog, 8oc, 
vol. XLII, p. 327. 


aehoani^^ or 26,280 stadia, and from the Stone 
Tower to S^ra, the metropolis of the Sdres, at a 
7 months'" journey or 36»200 stadia as reckoned 
along the same parallel. Now in neither 
case has he made the proper deductions for the 
excess caused by deviations ; and for the second 
route he falls into the same absurdity as when 
he estimated the distance from the Garamantes 
to Agisymba/* § 5. Where he had to deduct 
above half of the stadia in the march of the 3 
months and 14 days, since such a march could not 
possibly have been accomplished without halting. 

*® According to Herodotos (lib. II, o. vi), the achoinoa 
was equal to two Persian para«an$r8 or 60 stadia, bat it 
was a very vague and uncertain measure, varying as 
Strabo informs us (lib. XVII, c. i, 24) from 30 to 120 
stadia. In the case before us, it was taken as equivalent 
to theparaeang of 30 stadia and afforded with correction 
some approximation to the truth. 

^^ ** The Soman arms had been carried during the 
reign of Augustus (B. C. 19) as far as the land of the 
(Garamantes, the modem Fezzan, and though the 
Boman Emperors never attempted to establish their 
dominion over the country, they appear to have per- 
manently maintained friendly relations with its rulers, 
which enabled their officers to make use of the oasis of the 
Qaramantes as their point of departure from which to 
penetrate further into the interior. Setting out from 
thence, a (General named Septimius Plancus 'arrived at 
the land of the Ethiopians, after a march of 3 months 
towards the south.' Another (I!ommander named Julius 
Maternus, apparently at a later date, setting out from 
Leptis Magna, proceeded from thence to Garama, where 
he united his forces with those of the king of the 
Garamantes, who was himself undertaking a hostile 
expedition against the Ethiopians, and their combined 
armies 'after marching for four months towards the 
south,' arrived at a country inhabited by Ethiopians, 
called Agisymba, in which rhinoceroses abounded.*' — 
Bunbury, Hiat, of Anc, Oeog., vol. II, pp. 622-3. 


The necessity for halting would be still more 
urgent when* the march was one which occupied 
7 months. § 6. But the former march was ac- 
complished even by the king of the country him- 
self, who would naturally use every precaution, 
and the weather besides was all throughout 
most propitious. But the route from the Stone 
Tower to Sera is exposed to violent storms, for 
as he himself assumes, it lies under the parallels 
of the Hellespont and Byzantium,*' so that 
the progress of travellers would be frequently 
interrupted. § 7. Now it was by means of 
commerce this became known, for Marines tells 
us that one Maes, a Makedonian, called also 
Titian as, who was a merchant by hereditary 
profession, had written a book giving the 
measurement in question, which he had obtained 
not by visiting the Seres in person, but from 
the agents whom he had sent to them. But 
Marines seems to have distrusted accounts 
borrowed from traders. § 8. In giving, for 
instance, on the authority of Philemon, the 
'length of Ivemia (Ireland) at a 20 days* journey, 
he refuses to accept this estimate, which was 
got, he tells us, from merchants, whom he 
reprobates as a class of men too much engrossed 
with their own proper business to care about 
ascertaining the truth, and who also from mere 
vanity frequently exaggerated distances. So 


Lat. 40* 1'— Lat. of Tfish-kupghfin. 


toO) in the case before ns, it is manifest that 
nothing in the course of the 7 months' journey 
was thought worthy either of recoi'd or remem- 
brance by the travellers except the prodigious 
time taken to perform it. 

Cap. 12. 

§ 1. Taking all this into consideration, to- 
gether with the fact that the route does not lie 
along one and the same parallel (the Stone Tower 
being situated near the parallel of Byzantium, 
and Sera lying farther south than the parallel 
through the Hellespont) it would appear but 
reasonable in this case also to diminish by not 
less than a half the distance altogether traver- 
sed in the 7 months' journey, computed at 36,200 
stadia, and so let us reduce the number of 
stadia which these represent at the equator 
by one-haK only, and we thus obtain (22,625) 
stadia or 45 J degrees.^* § 2. For it would 
be absurd, and show a want of proper judg- 
ment, if, when reason enjoins us to cur- 
tail the length of both routes, we should 
follow the injunction with respect to the 
African route, to the length of which there 
is the obvious objection, viz.y the species of 
animals in the neighbourhood of Agisymba, 

^' 36,200 stadia along the parallel of Bhodes are equi- 
valent, according to Ptolemy's system, to 45,250 stadia 
along the equator, and this sum reduced "by a half gives 
the figures in the text. 


which cannot bear to be transplanted from 
their own climate to another, while we refuse 
to follow the injunction with regard to the 
route from the Stone Tower, because there is 
not a similar objection to its length, seeing that 
the temperature all along this route is uniform, 
quite independently of its being longer or 
shorter. Just as if one who reasons according 
to the principles of philosophy, could not, 
unless the case were otherwise clear, arrive at 
a sound conclusion.^^ 

§ 3. With regard again to the first of the two 
Asiatic routes, that, I mean which leads from 
the Euphrates to the Stone Tower, the estimate 
of 870 schceni must be reduced to 800 only, or 
24,000stadia, on account of deviations. § 4. We 

^* Marinos was aware that Aeisymba lay in a hot 
climate, from the fact that its neighboiirhood was report- 
ed to be a fayonrite resort for rhinoceroses, and he was 
thns compelled to reduce his first estimate of its distance, 
which would have placed it in far too cold a latitude 
for these animals, which are found only in hot regions. 
But no such palpable necessity compelled him to reduce 
his estimate of tne distance from the Stone Tower to the 
Melaropolis of the S^es, for here the route had an equa- 
ble temperature, as it did not recede from the equator 
but lay almost uniformly along the same parallel of 
latitude A little reflexion, however, might have shown 
Marinos that his enormous estimate of the distance to 
the Seric Metropolis required reduction as much as the 
distance to Agisymba, though such a cogent argument as 
that which was based on the habitat of the rhinoceros 
was not in this instance available. It is on the very 
face of it absurd to suppose that a caravan could have 
marched through a difficult and unknown country for 
7 months consecutively at an average progress of 170 
stadia (about 20 miles) daily. 


may accept as correct his figures for the entire 
distance as the several stages had been fre- 
quently traversed and had therefore been 
measured with accuracy. But that there 
were numerous deviations is evident from 
what Marines himself tells us. § 5. For the 
route from the passage of the Euphrates at 
Hierapolis through Mesopotamia to the 
Tigris, and the route thence through the 
Garamaioi of Assyria, and through 
Media to Ekbatana and the K a s p i a n 
Gates, and through Parthia to Heka'tom- 
pylos Marinos considers to lie along the 
parallel which passes through Rhodes, for he 
traces {in his map) this parallel as passing 
through these regions. § 6. But the route from 
Hekatompylos to the capital city of 
Hyrkania must, of necessity, diverge to the 
north, because that city lies somewhere between 
the parallel of Smyrna and that of the Helles- 
pont, since the parallel of Smyrna is traced as 
passing below Hyrkania and that of the Helles- 
pont through the southern parts of the Hyrka- 
nian Sea from the city bearing the same name, 
which lies a little farther north. § 7. But;, 
again, the route herefrom to Antiokheia 
(Merv) of Margiana through Areia, afc first 
bends towards the south, since Areia lies 
under the same parallel as the Kaspian Gates, 
and then afterwards turns towards the north, 
Antiokheia being situated under the parallel of 
3 a 


the Hellespont.^' The route after this rami 
in an eastward direction to B a k t r a whence 
it turns towards the north in ascending the 
mountains of the Komddoit and then in 
passing through these mountains it pursues 
a southern course as far as the ravine that 
opens into the plain country. § 8. For the 
northern parts of the mountain region and 
those furthest to the west where the ascent 
begins, are placed by him under the parallel of 
Byzantium, and those in the south and the 
east under the parallel of the Hellespont. 
For this reason, he says, that this route makes 
a detour of equal length in opposite directions, 
that in advancing to the east it bends towards 
the south, and thereafter probably runs up 
towards the north for 50 schoent, till it reaches 
the Stone Tower. § 9. For to quote his own 

^' The aotnal latitudes of the places here mentioned 
may be compared with those of Ptolemy : — 

Beal Lat. Ptolemy's Lat* 

Byzantium 41* 43° 5' 

HeUespont 4/0^ 41° 15' 

Smyrna 88° 28' 88° 35' 

Issus 37° 36° 85' 

Ehodes S&> 24' 36° 25' 

Hierapolis 86° 28' 36° 15' 

Ekbatana 34« 60' 37° 45' 

Kaspian Gates 35«> 30' 87° 

Hekatompylos 35° 40' 37° SC 

Antiokheia (Merv) 37° 35' 40° 20' 

Baktra (Balkh) 36° 40' 41° 

Stone Tower (TAshkand) 42° 58' 43° 

Sera Metropolis (Ho-nan) 38° 35' 83° 68^ 


words, " When the traveller has ascended the 
ravine he arrives at the Stone Tower, after 
which the mountains that trend to the east 
nnite with Imaus, the range that runs up to the 
north from Palimbothra." § 10. If, then, to 
the 60 degrees made up of the 24,000 stadia, we 
add the 45J degrees which represent the dis- 
tance from the Stone Tower to Sera, we get 
105 J degrees as the distance between the 
Euphrates and S^ra as measured along the 
parallel of Rhodes.^* § 11. But, further, we 

^* Saint-Martin identifies S^ra,tlie Metropolis of the 
Sdres, with a site near Ho-nan-fu. He says, {Etudes^ p. 
432) " At the time when the caravan journey reported by 
Maes was made (in the first half of the first century of 
our era), the Han surnamed Eastern held the reins of 
gOYomment, and their residence was at Lo-yang near 
the present City of Ho-nan-fou, not far from the southern 
Isank of the lower Hoang-ho. It is there then we should 
look to find the place which in their ignorance of the 
language of the country, and in their disdain for barbar- 
ous names, the Greek traders designated merely as the 
Metropolis of the Seres." The road these traders took 
appears to have been the same by which Hiuen-Tsiang 
travelled towards India. 

We may here insert for comparison with Ptolemy's dis- 
tances two itineraries, one by Strabo and the other by 
Pliny. Strabo (lib. XI, c viii, 9) sajrs : " These are the 
distances which he (Eratosthenes) gives : — 


From the Kaspian Sea to the Eyros about ... 1,800 

Thence to the Kaspian Gates 5,600 

Thence to Alexandreia of the Areioi (Herat).. 6,400 

Thence to Baktra, called also Zariaspa (Balkh) 3,870 
Thence to the Jaxartes, which Alexander 

reached, about 5,000 

Making a total of 22,670." 

He also assigns the following distances from the 
Kaspian Gates to India : — Stadia. 

*' To Hekatompylos , 1,960 

To Alexandreia of the Areioi (Her&t) 4,530 


can infer from the number of stadia which he 
gives as the distance between successive places 
lying along the same parallel, that the distance 
from the Islands of the Blest to the sacred 
Promontory in Spain (jOape St. Vincent), is 
2^ degrees, and the distance thence to the 
month of the Beetis (Guadalquimr), the same. 


Thence to Prophthasia in Dranga (a little 

north of lake Zarah 1,600 

Thence to the City Arakhotos (Ulan EobAt) . . . 4,120 

Then to Ortospana (K^bul) on the 3 roads 

fromBaktra 2,000 

Thence to the confines of India 1,000 

Which together amount to 15,300.** 

The sum total however is only 16,210 " 

Pliny (lib. VI, c. xii) says : *' Diognetus and Baeton,hi8 
(Alexander's) measurers, have recorded that from the Kas- 
pian Gates to Hekatompylos of the Parthians there were 
as many miles as we have stated, thence to Alexandria 
Arion a city built by that king, 575 miles, to Prophthasia 
of the Drangae 198 miles, to the town of the Arakhosii 
665 miles, to Hortospanum 175 miles, thence to Alexan- 
der's town (Opiane) 60 miles. In some copies numbers 
differing from these are found. Thoy state that the last- 
named city lay at the foot of Caucasus ; from that the 
distance to the Cophes and Peucolatis, a town of the 
Indians, was 237 miles, and thence to the river Indus and 
town of Taxila 60 miles, to the Hydaspes, a famous river, 
120 miles, to the Hypasis, no mean river [iXXXIXI] 390 — 
which was .the limit of Alexander's progress, although 
he crossed the river and dedicated altars on the far-off 
bank, as the letters of the king himself agree in stat- 
ing. ' ' The Kaspian Gates formed a point of great import- 
ance in ancient Geography, and many of the meridians 
were measured from it. The pass has been clearly 
identified with that now known as the Sirdar Pass between 
Veramin and Kishlak in Khowar. Arrian states that the 
distance from the city of Rhagai to the entrance of the 
Gates was a one day's march. This was, however, a 
forced march, as the ruins of Bhagai (now Rai, about 5 
miles from Tehran) are somewhere about 30 miles distant 
from the Pass. 


From the Bsetis to KalpS, and the entrance of 
the Straits, 2^ degrees. From the Straits to 
Karallis in Sardinia, 25 degrees. From Karallis 
to Lilybaion, in Sicily, 4^ degrees. From this 
Cape to Pakhynos, 3 degrees. Then again, 
from Pakhynos to Tainaros, in Lakonia, 10 
degrees. Thence to Rhodes, 8J degrees. From 
Rhodes to Issus, 11 J degrees, and finally from 
Issos to the Enphrates, 2^ degrees.^' § 12. The 

" I may present here the tabular form in which Mr. 
Bunbury (vol. II, p. 638) exhibits the longitudes of the 
principal points in the Mediterranean as given by 
Ptolemy, and the actual longitudes of the same points 
computed from Ferro : 

Longitude in Beal longitude 
Ptolemy. E. of Ferro. 

Sacred Promontory 2^ 30' 9° 20' 

Mouth of Bsetis 6** 20' 12° 

Calpe (at mouth of Straits). T 30* 13° 

Caralis in Sardinia 32° 30' 27° 30' 

Lilybfieum in Sicily 37° 30° 45' 

Pachynus (Prom.) in Sicily. 40° 33° 25' 

TsBnarus (Prom.) 60° 40° 50' 

Rhodes 58° 20' 46° 45' 

Issus 69° 20' 54° 30' 

The same authority observes (vol. II, p. 664) '* Pto- 
lemy thus made the whole interval from the Sacred 
Cape to Issus, which really comprises only about 45° 16' 
to extend over not less than 67 degrees of longitude, and 
the length of the Mediterranean itself from Calpe to 
Issus, to amount to 62 degrees : rather more than 20 
degrees beyond the truth. It is easy to detect one 
principal source of this enormous error. Though the 
distances above given are reported by Ptolemy in de- 
grees of longitude, they were computed by Marines 
himself from what he calls stadiasmif that is from dis- 
tances given in maritime itineraries and reported in 
stadia. In other words, he took the statements and esti- 
mates of preceding authorities and converted them into 
degrees of longitude, according to his own calculatioi^ 
that a degree on the equator was equal to 500 stadia, and 


sum of these particular distances gives a total 
of 72 degrees, consequently the entire length of 
the known world between the meridian of the 
Islands of the Blest and that of the Sdres is 
177} degrees, as has been already shown.*' 

Cap. 13. 
§ 1. That such is the length of the inhabited 
world may also be inferred from his estimate 
of the distances in a voyage from India to the 
Gulf of the Sinai and Kattigara, if the 
sinuosities of the coast and irregularity of the 
navigation be taken into account, together 
with the positions as drawn into nearer 
proximity in the projections ; for, he says, that 
beyond the Cape called Kory where the 
K o 1 k h i c Gulf terminates, the Argaric Gulf 
begins, and that the distance thence to the 
City of Kouroula, which is situated to the 
north-eaflt of K or y is 3,400 stadia. § 2. The 

consequently a degree of longitude in latitude 36** would 
be equal (approximately) to 400 stadia.** The total 
length of the Mediterranean computed from the stadias- 
moi must have been 24,800. This was an improvement 
on the estimate of Eratostiienes, but was still excessive. 
In the ancient mode of reckoning sea distances the 
tendency was almost uniformly towards exaggeration. 

" The different corrections to be applied to Ptolemy's 
eastern longitudes have been calculated by Sir Henry 
fiawlinson to amount to three-tenths, which is within 
one-seventieth part of the empirical correction used by 
M. Gossellin. [If we take one-fifth from Ptolemy*8 
longitude of a place, and deduct 17** 43' for the W. longi- 
tude of Ferro, we obtain very approximately the modem 
English longitude. Thus, for Barygaza, Ptolemy*8 
longitude is 113^5' and 113°15'— 22°39'— 17°43'=72°B3', 
or only 5' less than the true longitude W. of Ghreenwich. 
—J. B.l 


distance right across may, therefore, be esti- 
mated at about 2,030 stadia, since we have to 
deduct a third because of the navigation 
having followed the curvature of the Gulf, and 
have also to make allowances for irregularities 
in the length of the courses run. § 3. If now we 
further reduce this amount by a third, because 
the sailing, tJiough suhject to interruption, was 
taken as continuous, there remain 1,850 stadia, 
determining the position of Kouroula as situ- 
ated north-east from Kory. § 4. If now this 
distance be referred to a line running parallel 
to the equator and towards the East, and we 
reduce its length by half in accordance with 
the intercepted angle, we shall have as the dis- 
tance between the meridian of Kouroula 
and that of K6ry, 675 stadia, or 1^ degree, 
since the parallels of these places do not differ 
materially from the great circle.^® 

§ 6. But to proceed : the course of the voyage 
from Kouroura lies, he says, to the south- 
east as far as P a 1 o u r a, the distance being 
9,450 stadia. Here, if we deduct as before one- 
third for the irregularities in the length of the 
courses, we shall have the distance on account 
of the navigation having been continuous to 

^' By the intercepted angle is meant the angle con- 
tained by two straight lines drawn from Kdry, one 
running north-east to Kouroula and the other parallel 
to the Equator. In Ptolemy's map Kouroula is so placed 
that its distanoe in a straight line from Kory is about 
double the distance between the meridians of those two 


the south-east about 6,300 stadia. § 6. And 
if we deduct from this in like manner as before 
one-sixth, in order to find the distance parallel 
to the equator, we shall make the interval 
between the meridians of these two places 5,250 
stadia, or 10^ degrees. 

§ 7. At this place the Gangetic Gulf begins, 
which he estimates to be in circuit 19,000 
stadia. The passage across it from P a 1 o u r a 
to S a d a in a direct line from west to east 
is 1,300 stadia. Here, then, we have but 
one deduction to make, viz., one-third on ac- 
count of the irregularity of the navigation, 
leaving as the distance between the meridians 
of Paloura and Sada 8,670 stadia, or 17J de- 
grees. § 8. The voyage is continued onward 
from Sada to the City of Tamala, a dis- 
tance of 3,500 stadia, in a south-eastward 
direction. If a third be here again deducted on 
account of irregularities, we find the length of 
the continuous passage to be 2,330 stadia, but we 
must further take into account the divergence 
towards the south-east, and deduct one-sixth, so 
we find the distance between the meridians in 
question to be 1,940 stadia, or 3° 50' nearly. 
§ 9. He next sets down the passage from 
Tamala to the Golden Khersonese at 1,600 
stadia, the direction being still towards the 
south-east, so that after making the usual de- 
ductions there remain as the distance between 
the two meridians 900 stadia, or 1° 48'. The 


stlin of these particulars makes the distance 
from Cape K 6 r y to the Golden Khersoneso 
to be 34° 48'. 

Cap. 14. 
§ 1. Marinos does not state the number of 
stadia in the passage from the Golden Kherso- 
nese to Kattigara, but says that one Alexander 
had written that the land thereafter faced the 
south, and that those sailing along this coast 
reached the city of Z a b a in 20 days, and by 
continuing the voyage from Zaba southward, 
but keeping more to the left, they arrived after 
some days at Kattigara. § 2. He then makes 
this distance very great by taking the expres- 
sion ** some days" to mean " many days,'* 
assigning as his reason that the days occupied 
by the voyage were too many to be counted, — a 
most absurd reason, it strikes me. § 3. For 
would even the number of days it takes to go 
round the whole world be past counting ? And 
was there anything to prevent Alexander writing 
" many" instead of '* some,** especially when 
we find him saying that Dioskoros had reported 
that the voyage from Bhapta to Cape 
Prasum took **many days.'* One might in 
fact with far more reason take " some " to mean 
" a few,*' for we have been wont to censuro 
this stjle {of expression).*^ § 4. So now lest we 


• To aocoant for the seeming caprice which led 
Marinos to take the expression some days as equivalent 
to ever so many days it has boon supposed that he had 

4 G 


should appear to fall ourselves into the same errorr, 
that of adapting conjectures about distances 
to some number already fixed on, let us compare 
the voyage from the Golden Khersonese to 

adopted the theory that Katti^ra, the farthest point 
eastward that had been reached by sea, was situated 
nearly under the same meridian as Sdra, the furthest 
point in the same direction that had been reached by 
land. Unfortunately the expression used by Alexander 
some days did not square with this theory, and it was 
all the worse in consequence for that expression. ''The 
result," says Mr. Bunbury (vol. II, p. SSf), " derived by 
Marines from these calculations was to place Kattigara 
at a distance of not less than 100 degrees of longitude, 
or nearly 50,000 stadia, east of Cape Kory ; and as he 
placed that promontory in 125^° of longitude east of the 
Fortunate Islands, he arrived at the conclusion that the 
total length of the inhabited world was, in round num- 
bers, 225"*, equivalent, according to his calculation to 
112,500 stsbdia. As he adopted the system of Poseidonios, 
which gave only 180,000 stadia for the circumference of 
the globe, he thus made the portion of it which he sup- 
posed to be known, to extend over nearly two-thirds 
of the whole circumference. This position of Cape 
Kdrv, which was adopted by Ptolemy as a position well 
established, was already nearly 34° too far to the east ; 
but it was by giving the enormous extension we have 
pointed out to the coast of Asia beyond that promon- 
tory, that he fell into this stupendous error, which though 
partly corrected by Ptolemy, was destined to exercise so 
great an influence upon the future progress of geogra- 
phy.** Columbus by accepting Ptolemy's estimate 
of the circumference of the globe greatly under-esti- 
mated the distance between the western shores of the 
Atlantic and the eastern shores of Asia, and hence was 
led to undertake his memorable enterprise with all the 
greater hope and courage. 

With reference to the position of Cape Kory as given 
by Ptolemy, Bunbury says (Vol. II, p. 537, note) : " Cape 
Kdry is placed by Ptolemy, who on this point apparently 
follows Marinos, in 125** E. Longitude. It is really situ- 
ated 80° E. of Greenwich and 98° E. of Ferro ; but as 
Ptolemy made a fundamental error in the position of his 
primary meridian of nearly 7^ this must be added to the 
amount of his eiTor in this instance. He himself states 
that Cape Kory was 120° E. of the mouth of the Bactis, 
the real difference of longitude being only 86°20'." 


Kattigara, consisting of the 20 days to Zaba 
and the *^ some days" thence to Kattigara with 
the voyage from Ar6mata to Cape Prasnm, and 
we find that the voyage from Aromata to 
Rhapta took also 20 days as reported by 
Theophilos, and the voyage from Rhapta to 
Prasum "many more days" as reported by 
Dioskoros, so that we may set side by side* the 
" some days " with the ** many days " and like 
Marinos take them to be equivalent. §6. Since 
then, we have shown both by reasoning and by 
stating ascertained facts, that Brasum is under 
the parallel of 16^ 25' in South latitude, while 
the parallel through Cape Aromata is 4° 15' 
in North latitude, making the distance between 
the two capes 20° 40', we might with good reason 
make the distance from the Golden Khersonese 
to Zaba and thence to Kattigara just about the 
same, § 6. It is not necessary to curtail the 
distance from the Golden Khersonese to Zaba, 
since as the coast faces the south it must run 
parallel with the equator. We must reduce, 
however, the distance from Zaba to Kattigara, 
since the course of the navigation is towards the 
south and the east, in order that we may find 
the position parallel to the equator. § 7. If 
again, in our uncertainty as to the real excess of 
the distances, we allot say one -half of the degrees 
to each of these distances, and from the 13° 20' 
between Zaba and Kattigara we deduct a third 
on account of the divergence, we shall have the 


distance from the Golden Khersonese to Katti- 
gara along a line parallel to the equator of about 
17° 10'. § 8. Bat it has been shown that the 
distance from Cape Kory to the Grolden Kher- 
sonese is 34° 48', and so the entire distance from 
Kory to Kattigara will be about 52°. 

§ 9. But again, the meridian which passes 
through the source of the River Indus is a little 
further west than the Northern Promontory of 
Taprobane, which according to Marines is 
opposite to Kory, from which the meridian 
which passes through the mouths of the River 
Baetis is a distance of 8 hours or 120°. Now as 
this meridian is 5° from that of the Islands of 
the Blest, the meridian of Cape Kory is more 
than 125° from the meridian of the Islands of 
the Blest. But the meridian through Kattigara 
is distant from that through the Islands of the 
J31est a little more than 177° in the latitude of 
Kory, each of which contains about the same 
number of stadia as a degree reckoned along 
the parallel of Rhodes. § 10. The entire length 
then of the world to the Metropolis of the Sinai 
may be taken at 180 degrees or an interval of 12 
hours, since it is agreed on all hands that this 
Metropolis lies further east than Kattigara, so 
that the length along the parallel of Rhodes 
will be 72,000 stadia. 

Cap. 17, (part). 
§ 3. For all who have crossed the seas to those 
places agree in assuring me that the district of 


Sakhalites in Arabia, and tlie Gulf of the same 
name, lie to the east of S y a g r o s, and not to 
the west of it as stated by Marinos, who also 
makes S i m y 1 1 a, the emporium in India, to be 
further west not only than Cape K o m a r i, but 
also than the Indus. § 4. But according to the 
unanimous testimony both of those who have 
sailed from us to those places and have for a 
long time frequented them, and also of those 
who have come from thence to us, S i m y 1 1 a, 
which by the people of the country is called 
Timoula, lies only to the south of the 
mouths of the river, and not also to west of 
them. § 5. From the same informants we have 
also learned other particulars regarding India 
and its different provinces, and its remote parts 
as far as the Golden Khersonese and onward 
thence to Kattigara. In sailing thither, the 
voyage, they said, was towards the east, and in 
returning towards the west, but at the same 
time they acknowledged that the period which 
was'occupied in making the voyages was neither 
fixed nor regular. The country of the Seres and 
their Metropolis was situated to the north of 
the Sinai, but the regions to the eastward of 
both those people were unknown, abounding 
it would appear, in swamps, wherein grew 
reeds that were of a large size and so close to- 
gether that the inhabitants by means of them 
could go right across from one end of a swamp 
to the other. In travelling from these parts there 


was not only the road that led to Baktriand 
by way of the Stone Tower, but also a road 
that led into India through Palimbothra. The 
road again that led from the Metropolis of 
the Sinai to the Haven at Kattigara ruus in a 
south-west direction, and hence this road does 
not coincide with the meridian which passes 
through Sera and Kattigara, but, from what 
Marines tell us, with some one or other of those 
meridians that are further east. 

I may conclude this prefatory matter by quoting 
from Mr. Bunbury his general estimate of the 
value of Ptolemy's Indian Geogi-aphy as set forth 
in his criticism of Ptolemy's Map of India. 

His strictures, though well grounded, may per- 
haps be considered to incline to the side of severity. 
He says (vol. II, pp. 642-3), " Some excellent re- 
marks on the portion of Ptolemy's work devoted 
to India, the nature of the different materials of 
which he made use, and the manner in which he 
employed them, will be found in Colonel Yule's 
introduction to his Map of India, in Dr. Smith's 
Atlas of Ancient Geography (pp. 22-24). These 
remarks are indeed in great measure applicable 
to the mode of proceeding of the Alexandrian 
Geographer in many other cases also, though the 
result is particularly conspicuous in India from the 
fulness of the information — crude and undigested 
as it was — which he had managed to bidng to- 
gether. The result, as presented to us in the tables 
of Ptolemy, is a map of utter confusion, out of 
which it is very difficult to extract in a few 
instances any definite conclusions." The attempt 


of Lassen to identify the various places mentioned 
by Ptolemy, is based throughout upon the funda*" 
mental error of supposing that the geographer 
possessed a Map of India similar to our own, and 
that we have only to compare the ancient and 
modem names in order to connect the two. As 
Col. Yule justly observes: " Practically, he 
(Lassen) deals with Ptolemy's compilation as if 
that Geographer had possessed a collection of real 
Indian surveys, with the data systematically 
co-ordinated. The fact is, that if we should take one 
of the rude maps of India that appeared in the 
16th century {e.g. in Mercator or in Lindschoten), 
draw lines of latitude and longitude, and then more 
Ptolemaico construct tables registering the co- 
ordinates of cities, sources and confluences as they 
appeared in that map, this would be the sort of 
material we have to deal with in Ptolemy's India." 
But, in fact, the case is much stronger than Col. 
Tule puts it. For such a map as he refers to, of the 
16th centnry, however rude, would give a generally 
correct idea of the form and configuration of the 
Indian Peninsula. But this, as we have seen, 
was utterly misconceived by Ptolemy. Hence 
he had to fit his data, derived from various sources, 
such as maritime and land itineraries, based upon 
real experience, into a framework to which they 
were wholly unsuited, and this could only be 
effected by some Procrustean process, or rather 
by a repetition of such processes, concerning which 
we are left wholly in the dark. 

Col. Yule's map of Ancient India is undoubtedly 
by far the best that has yet been produced : it 
is indeed the only attempt to intei'pret Ptolemy 



data, npon which such a map must mainly be 
founded upon anything like sound 'critical prin- 
ciples. But it must be confessed that the result 
is fai* from encouraging. So small a proportion 
of Ptolemy's names can find a place at all, and 
so many of those even that appear on the map are 
admitted by its author to rest upon very dubious 
authority ; that we remain almost wholly in the 
dark as to the greater part of his voluminous 
catalogues ; and are equally unable to identify the 
localities which he meant to designate, and to 
pronounce an opinion upon the real value of his 

Book VII. 

D^cription of the furthest parts of Greater 
Asia, according to the existing provinces and 

1. [Tenth Map'] 

of India within the River Ganges. 

2. [Eleventh Map] ' 

of India beyond the Ganges, 
of the Sinai. 

3. [Twelfth Map] 

of the Island of Taprohan6 and the 
islands surrounding it. 

4. Outline Sketch of the Map of the Inha- 

hited World. 
Delineation of the Armillary Sphere with 

the Inhabited World. 
Sketch of the World in Projection. 
[5. There arc 4:00 Provinces and 30 Maps.] 



Cap. I. 

Description of India within the Ganges, 

§ 1. India within the river Gunges is bounded 
on the west by the Paropanisadai and Ara- 
khosia and Gedrosia along their eastern sides 
already indicated ; on the north by Mount 
Imaos along the Sogdiaioi and the Sakai lying 
above it ; on the east by thB river Gaoages ; 
and on the south and again on the west by a 
portion of the Indian Ocean. The circuit of 
the coast of this ocean is i^us described : — 

2. In S y r a s t r e n 6, on the Gulf called Kan- 
thi, a roadstead and harbour..l09° 3(y 20° 
The most western mouth of 

the River Indus called 

Sagapa IIO^ 20' 19^50' 

The next mouth called Sin- 

thon 110° 4y 19° 50^ 

The 3rd mouth called Khry- 

soun (the Golden) 111° 20^ 19° 50' 

The 4th called Kariphron ... 1 1 1° 40' 19° 50^ 

The 5th called Sapara 112° 30^ 19° 50' 

The 6th called Sabalaessa ...113° 20° 15' 

The 7th called Lonibare 113° 30' 20° 15' 

3. Bardaxema, a town ...113° 40^ 19^" 40' 

Syrastra, a village 114° 19° 30' 

Monoglosson, a mart 114^ 10' 18° 40' 

Comment. — Strabo, following Eratosthenes, re- 
garded the Indus as the boundary of India on the 
west, and this is the view which has been generally 
prevalent. Ptolemy,ho wever,included within India 
5 Q 


the regions which lay immediately to the west of 
that river, comprehending considerable portions 
of the countries now known as Bal(!ichistS.n and 
Afghanistsln. He was fully justified in this de- 
termination, since many places beyond the Indus, 
as the sequel will show, bore names of Sanskrit 
origin, and such parts were ruled from the earliest 
times down to the Muhammadan conquests 
by princes of Indian descent. The western 
boundary as given by Ptolemy would be roughly 
represented by a line drawn from the mouth of 
the Indus and passing through the parts adjacent 
to Kandahar, Ghazni, Kabul, Balkh, and even 
places beyond. The Fkropanisadai inhabit- 
ed the regions lying south of the mountain range 
called Faropanisos, now known as the Central 
HindA-Ktish. One of these towns was Ortospana, 
which has been identified with the city of 
K&bul, the Karoura of our author. He gives 
as the eastern boundary of the Paropanisadai 
a line drawn south from the sources of the river 
Oxus through the Kaukasian Mountains (the 
eastern portion of the Hind(i-Ktish) to a point 
lying in long. 119° 30' and lat. 39°. Arakho- 
sia lay to the south of the Paropanisadai — its 
chief city was Arakhotos, whose name, according 
to Rennell, is preserved in Arokhaj. There is a 
river of the same name which has been iden- 
tified with the Helmand (the Etymander or 
Erymanthos of the ancients) but also and more 
probably with the Urghand-&b or Arkand-ab, 
which passes by K!andahar. Gedrosia, the 
modem Baldchist^n, had for its eastern boundary 
the River Indus. The boundary of India on the 


north was formed by Mount Imaos (Sansk. hima, 
cold), a name which was at first applied by the 
Greeks to the Hindti-Ki^h and the chain of the 
Himalayas running parallel to the equator, but 
which was gradually in the course of time trans- 
ferred to the Bolor range which runs from north 
to south and intersects them. Ptolemy, however, 
places Imaos further east than the Bolor, and 
in the maps which accompany his Geography, this 
meridian chain, as he calls it, is prolonged up to 
the most northemly plains of the Irtish and Obi. 

Sogdiana lay to the north of Baktria and 
abutted on Skythia, both towards the north 
and towards the west. The name has been 
preserved in that of Soghd, by which the country 
along the Kohik from Bokhara to Samarkand has 
always been known . Our author places the Sogdian 
Mountains (the Pamir range) at the sources of the 
Oxus, and the mountains of the K 6 m e d a i be- 
tween the sources of that river and the Jaxartes. 

The Sakai were located to the east of the 
Sogdians — Ptolemy describes them as nomadic, 
as without towns and as living in woods and caves. 
He specifies as their tribes, the £! a r a t a i (proba- 
bly connected with the Elir&tai of India), the 
Komaroi, the Komedai, the Massage- 
tai, the Grynaioi Skythai, the Toor- 
nai and the Byltai. The Sakai it would 
appear therefore were the Mountaineers of Kafi- 
ristan, Badakshan, Shign&n, Roshan, Baltistan 
or Little Tibet, &c. 

SyraaMnS and LariM. 

Syrastr^ne : — The name is formed from the 
Sanskrit Surashtra (now Sorath) the ancient 


name of the Peninsula of Gujar&t. It is men-* 
tioned in the PeripMs of the Erythraean Sea as 
the sea-board of Aberia, and is there praised for 
the great fertility of its soil, for its eotton fabrics, 
and for the superior stature of its inhabitants. 

K a n t h i : — The Gulf of this name is now called 
the Gulf of Kachh. It separates Kachh, the 
south coast of which is still called K a n t h a, 
from the Peninsula of Gujaiut. In the PeriplUs 
the gulf is called Barake and is described as of 
very dangerous navigation. In Ptolemy, Barake 
is the name of an island in the Gulf. 

Two mouths only of the Indus are mentioned 
by the followers of Alexander and by Strabo. 
The PeripMs gives the same number (7) as 
Ptolemy. There are now 11, but changes are 
continually taking place. Sagapa, the western 
mouth, was explored by Alexander. It separates 
from the main stream below Thatha. In the 
chronicles of Sindh it is called S&g^ra, from which 
perhaps its present name Gli&ra, may be derived. 
It has long ceased to be navigable. 

S i n t h 6 n : — This has been identified with the 
Piti branch of the Indus, one of the mouths of 
the Baghar River, This branch is otherwise 
called the Sindhi Khrysoun. This is the Kediwart 

Khariphron: — Cunningham identifies this 
with the Kyar river of the present day which, he 
says, leads right up to the point where the southern 
branch of the Gh&ra joins the main river near 

S a p a r a : — ^this is the W&ri mouth. 

Sabalaessais now the Sir mouth. 



Lonibarein Sanskrit is L6navfi.ri (or Lonava- 
d&, or Lavanay&ri or L&vanav&tft.*^ It is now the 
Kori, but is called also the Launi which preserves 
the old name. 

Bardaxema : — This, according to Tnle, is now 
Pur-bandar, but Dr. Burgess prefers Srinagar, a 
much older place in the same district, having 
near it a small village called Bai*diy&, which, as he 
thinks, may possibly be a reminiscence of the 
Greek name. 

Syrastra : — This in the Prakritized form is 
Sorath. It has been identified by Lassen with 
Jun&gadh, a place of great antiquity and historical 
interest in the interior of the Peninsula, about 40 
miles eastward from the coast at Navi-bandar. 
The meaning of the name is the old fort. The 
place was anciently called Gimagara, from its 
vicinity to the sacred mountain of Gim&r, near 
which is the famous rock inscribed with the edicts 
of Asoka, Skandagupta and Budra D&ma. Yule 
identifies Syrastra with Navi-bandar, a port at the 
mouth of the Bh&dar, the largest river of the 
Peninsula, said to be fed by 99 tributaries. Ju- 
n&gadh was visited by Hiuen Tsiang, who states 
that after leaving the kingdom of Valabhl (near 
Bhaunagar) he went about 100 miles to the west 
and reached the country of Su-la-ch'a (Saur&sh- 
tra) that was subject to the kingdom of Valabhi 
See Tar(kh'i-8orath, edited by Dr. Burgess, pp. 33- 

Monoglosson : — This is now represented by 
Mangrol, a port on the S. W. coast of the Penin- 

** Lavana is the Saiiskfit word for salt. 



sula below Navi-bandar. It is a veiy poptdous 
place, with a considerable traffic, and is tributary 
to Jun&gadh. 

4. InLarik8. 

Mouth of the River Mophis. . .1 14° 18° 20' 

Pakidare, a village 113° 17° 51/ 

CapeMale6 111° 17° 30' 

5. In the Gulf ofBarygaza. 

KamanS 112° 17° 

Mouth of the River Namados 1 12° 17° 45' 

Nausaripa 112° 30' 16° 30' 

Poulipoula 112° 30' 16° 

Larike, according to Lassen, represents the 
Sansk. RS.shtrikainits Prakrit form L a t i k a. 
Lar-desa, however, the country of L S« r (Sansk. 
Lata) was the ancient name of the territory 
of Gujarat, and the northern parts of Konkan, 
and L a r 1 k S may therefore be a formation from 
L&r with the Greek termination iM appended. The 
two great cities of Barygaza (Bharoch) and Ozen^ 
(Uj jain) were in Larike, which appears to have been 
a political rather than a geographical division. 

Male 6 must have been a projection of the 
land somewhere between the mouth of the Mahi 
and that of Narmada — ^but nearer to the former 
if Ptolemy's indication be correct. 

The Gulf of Barygaza, now the Gulf of 
Eliambhat, was so called from the great com- 
mercial emporium of the same name (now Bha- 
roch) on the estuary of the Narmadft at a distance 
of about 300 stadia from the Gulf. This river is 
called the Namados or Namades by Ptolemy and 
the Namnadios by the Author of the Periplus, 


who gives a vivid account of the difficulties attend- 
ing the navigation of the gulf and of the estuary 
which was subject to bores of great frequency 
and violence. 

K am an 6 is mentioned as Kammone in the 
Periplus, where it is located to the south of the 
Narmada estuary. Ptolemy probably errs in 
placing it to northward of it. 

Nausaripa has been identified with Nau- 
s^ri, a place near the coast, about 18 miles south 
from SGrat. 

Poulipoula is in Yule's map located at 
Sanjan, which is on the coast south from Nausari. 
It was perhaps nearer Bals&r. 

6. Ariake Sadinon. 

Soupara 112° 30' 15° 3(y 

Mouth of the River Goaris ...112° 15' 15° 10^ 

Dounga 111° 30' 15° 

Mouth of the River B^nda ... 110° 30' 15° 

Simylla, a mart and a cape... 110° 14° 45' 

Hippokoura 111° 45' 14° 10^ 

Baltipatna 110° 30' 14° 20' 

A r i ak e corre gpon dsn early to Ma haraghtra — 
the country of the M!arabh4s. It may have been 
so called, because its inhabitants being chiefly 
Aryans and ruled by Indian princes were there- 
by distinguished from their neighbours, who 
were either of different descent or subject to 
foreign domination. The territory was in Pto- 
lemy's time divided among three potentates, one 
of whom belonged to the dynasty of the S a d i- 
n e i s and ruled the prosperous trading commu- 
nities that occupied the seaboard. This dynasty 


is mentioned in the Periplus (cap. 52) whence 
we learn that Sandanes after having made 
himself master of Kalliena (now Kaly&na), which 
had formerly belonged to the house of S a r a- 
g a ne s the elder, subjected its trade to the severest 
restrictions, so that if Greek vessels entered its 
port even accidentally, they were seized and sent 
under guard to Barygaza, the seat evidently of 
the paramount authority. Sadanes, according to 
Lassen, corresponds to the Sanskrit word S & d- 
h a n a, which means completion or a perfecter, 
and also an agent or representative. By Saraganes 
is probably indicated one of the great ^atakarni or 
Andhra dynasty. The PeriplUs makes Ari&k^ to 
be the beginning of the kingdom of Mambares 
and of all India. 

Soupara has been satisfactorily identified 
by Dr. Burgess with Sup&r^, a place about 6 
miles to the north of Yasai (Bassein). It appears 
to have been from very early times an important 
centre of trade, and it was perhaps the capital of 
the district that lay around it. Among its ruins 
have been preserved some monuments, which are 
of historical interest, and which also attest its 
high antiquity. These are a fragment of a block 
of basalt like the rocks of Gim&r, inscribed with 
edicts of As6ka, and an old Buddhist St(!lpa. 
The name of Sup&ra figures conspicuously in the 
many learned and elaborate treatises which were 
evoked in the course of the famous controversy 
regarding the situation of Ophir to which Solomon 
despatched the ships he had hired from the 
Tyrians. There can now be little doubt that if 
Ophir did not mean India itself it designated 


some place in India, and probably Supara, which 
lay on that part of the coast to which the traders 
of the west, who took advantage of the monsoon 
to cross the ocean, would naturally direct their 
course. The name moreover of Supar^ is almost 
identical with that of Ophir when it assumes, as 
it often does, an initial S, becoming Sophara as in 
the Septuagint form of the name, and Sofir which 
is the Coptic name for India, not to mention 
other similar forms, (See Benfey's Indien, 
pp. 30-32). 

The mouths of the G o a r i s and B e n d a 
Yule takes to be the mouths of the Strait that 
isolates Salsette and Bombay. The names repre- 
sent, as he thinks, those of the Godavari and 
Bhima respectively, though these rivers flow 
in a direction different from that which Ptolemy 
.assigns to them, the former discharging into the 
Bay of Bengal and the latter into the Krishna, 
of which it is the most considerable tributary, 
Ptolemy's rivers, especially those of th^j Peninsula, 
are in many instances so dislocated, that it is 
difficult to identify them satisfactorily. It 
appears to have been his practice to connect the 
river-mouths which he found mentioned in re- 
cords of coasting voyages with rivers in the 
interior concerning which he had information 
from other sources, and whose courses he had 
only partially traced. But, as Yule remarks, 
with his erroneous outline of the Peninsula this 
process was too hazardous and the result often 
wrong. Mr. J. M. Campbell, Bo.C.S., would 
identify the Goaris with the Vaitama River, 
as Gore is situated upon it and was probably the 

C a 


highest point reached by ships sailing up its 
stream. The sources of the Yaitama and the 
Oodavari are in close propinquity. The Benda 
he would identify with the Bhiwandl River, and 
the close similarity of the names favours this 

D o u n g a is placed in Tule's map to the 
S. E. of SupsLrtl on the Strait which separates 
Salsette from the mainland. Ptolemy, however, 
through his misconception of the configuration 
of this part of the coast, places it a whole degree 
^to the west of Supara. Mr. Campbell, from some 
similarity in the names, suggests its identity 
with Dug&d — a place about 10 miles N. of Bht- 
wan<^ and near the Vajrab&i hot springs. Dug&d, 
however, is too far inland to have been here 
mentioned by Ptolemy, and moreover, it lies to 
the north of Sup&ra, whereas in Ptolemy's enu^ 
meration, which is from north to south, it is 
placed after it. 

Sim y 11 a: — Yule identifies this with Ohaul 
and remarks : " Chaul was still a chief port of 
"Western India when the Portuguese arrived. Its 
position seems to correspond precisely both with 
Simylla and with the Saimth* or Jaimih* {i.e. 
Chaimur, the Arabs having no ch) of the Arabian 
geographers. In Al-Bfriini the coast cities 
run : Kambayat, Bahruj, Sind&n (Sanj&n), Suf&i<a 
(SupS,rll), Tana (near Bombay). ** There you enter 
the country of Laran, where is Jaim(ir." Istakhri 
inverts the position of Sindan and Sufara, but 
Saimdr is still fui-thest south." In a note he adds : 
" Ptolemy mentions that Simylla was called 
by the natives Timula (probably Tiamula) ; and 


putting together all these forms, Timula, Simylla, 
Saimur, Ohaimtb", the real name must have been 
something like Ohaimul or Ch&mul, which would 
modernize into Ghaul, as Chamari and Pr&mara 
into Ohauri and Paw&r." Ohaul or Ohenwal lies 
23 miles S. of Bombay. Pandit Bhagv&nlal In- 
draji, Ph.D., suggested as a better identification 
Ghimdla in Trombay Island, this being supported 
by one of the Kanhori inscriptions in which 
GhimtUa is mentioned, apparently as a large city, 
like Supara and Kalyana in the neighbourhood. 
Mr. Campbell thus discusses the merits of these 
competing identifications : — ** Simylla has a special 
interest, as Ptolemy states that he learned some of 
his Geography of Western India from people who 
traded to Simylla and had been familiar with it for 
many years, and had come from there to him — 
Ptolemy speaks of Simylla as a point and emporium, 
and the author of the PeriplUs speaks of it as 
one of the Kohkan local marts. Simylla till 
lately was identified with Ghaul. But the dis- 
covery of a village Ghembur on Trombay Island 
in Bombay Harbour, has made it doubtful whether 
the old ti*ade centre was there or ^t Ghaul. In 
spite ct the closer resemblance of the names, the 
following reasons seem to favour the view that 
* Chaul, not Ghimllla, was the Greek Simylla, 
First, it is somewhat unlikely that two places so 
close, and so completely on the same line of trafiic 
as Kalyan (the Kalliena of the PeripMa) and 
Chimiila should have flourished at the same time. 
Second, the expression in the Periplm * below 
(fi€Ta) Kalliena other local marts are SemuUa ' 
points to some place down the coast rather than 


to a town in the same Harbour as Kalliena, whicli 
according to the Author's order north to south 
should have been named before it. Third, 
Ptolemy's point (promontorium) of SimjUa 
has no meaning if the town was Chembur in 
Trombay. But it fits well with Chaul, as the 
headland would then be the south shore of Bom- 
bay Harbour, one of the chief capes in this part 
of the coast, the south head of the gulf or bay 
whose north head is at Bassein. This explana- 
tion of the SimyUa point is borne out by Fryer 
(1675) New Account (pp. 77-82), who talked of 
Bombay ' facing Chaul' and notices the gulf or 
hollow in the shore stretching from Bassein to 
Chaul Point. The old (1540) Portuguese name 
Chaul Island' for the isle of Kennery of the south 
point of Bombay, further supports this view." 
Ptolemy's map gives great prominence to the 
projection of land at SimyUa, which (through a 
strange misconception on his part, for which it is 
impossible to account) is therein represented as 
the great south-west point of India, whence the 
coast bends at once sharply to the east instead of 
pursuing its course continuously to the south. 

Hippokoura : — This word may be a Greek 
translation (in whole or in part) of the native 
name of the place. Hence Pandit Bhagvanl&l 
Indraji was led to identify it with Ghodabandar 
(Horse-poiii) a town on the Thana Strait, whose 
position however is not in accordance with 
Ptolemy's data. Mr. Campbell again has sug- 
gested an identification free from this objection. 
Ghoregaon (Horse-village) in Kolaba, a place at 
the head of a navigable river, which was once a 


seat of trade. Yule takes it, though doubtingly, 
as being now represented by Knda near R&japur. 
Hippokourios was one of the Greek epithets of 
Poseidon. Ptolemy mentions another Hippo- 
k o u r a, which also belonged to Ariake and was the 
Capital of Baleokoui'os. Its situation was inland. 
Baltipatna : — This place is mentioned in the 
PeripMs under the somewhat altered form P a 1 a i- viJ^a. • fe^jXJl* T^, 
patmai. Tule locates it, but doubtingly, at ^^'J^-^tL 

Daibal. Pra Paolino identified it with Balaer- 
patam (the Baleopatam of Bennell) where the 
king of Gananor resided, but it lies much too 
far south to make the identification probable. 
Mr. Campbell has suggested PaK, which he de- 
scribes as " a very old holy town at the top of 
the Nagotna river." Its position, however, being % 
too far north and too far from the sea, does not -^ 
seem to suit the requirements. 

7. (Ariake) of the Pirates. 

Mandagara 113° 14° 

Byzanteion :113° 40^ 14° 40' 

Khersonesos 114° 20' 14° 30' 

Armagara 114° 20' 14° 20" 

Mouth of the River Nanagounall4° 30' 13° 50' 

Kitra, amart 115° 30' 14° 40' 


Piracy, which from very early times seems to 
have infested, like a pernicious parasite, the 
commerce of the Eastern Seas, flourished nowhere 
so vigorously as on the Konkan Coast, along 
which richly freighted merchantmen were con- 
tinually plying. Here bands of pirates, formed 
into regularly organized communities like those 


of the ThsLgB in the interior of the country, had 
established themselres in strongholds contiguous 
to the creeks and bays, which were numerous on 
the coast, and which afforded secure harbourage 
to their cruisers. The part of the coast which 
was subject to their domination and which was 
in consequence called the Pirate Coast, extended 
from the neighbourhood of Simylla to an empo- 
rium called Nitra, the Mangaruth of Kosmas and 
the Mangaltir of the present day. Whether the 
native traders took any precautions to protect 
their ships from these highwaymen of the ocean 
is not known, but we learn from Pliny, that the 
merchantmen which left the Egyptian ports 
heading for India carried troops on board well- 
armed for their defence. Mr. Campbell has 
ingeniously suggested that by *AubpS>v UeipaT&v 
Ptolemy did not mean pirates, but the powerful 
dynasty of the Andhi-abhritya that ruled over 
the Konkan and some other parts of the Dekhan. 
He says (Bombay Gazetteer, Thana, vol. II., 
p. 415 n. 2nd), "Perhaps because of Pliny's 
account of the Konkan pirates, Ptolemy's phrase 
AridM Andron Peiraton has been taken to mean 
Pirate Aridke. But Ptolemy has no mention of 
pii*ates on the Konkan Coast, and, though this 
does not carry much weight in the case of 
Ptolemy, the phrase Andron Peiraton is not 
connect Greek for pirates. This and the close 
resemblance of the words suggest that Andron 
Peiraton may originally have been Andhra- 
bhrityon." On this it may be remarked, that 
though Ptolemy has no mention of pii'ates on 
the Konkan Coast this is not in the least sur- 


prising, since his work is almost exclusively geo- 
graphical, apd whatever information on points of 
history we obtain from it is more from inference 
than direct statement. Further, I do not see why 
the expression dv8pS)v n^ipar&v if taken to mean 
pirates should be called incorrect Greek, since 
in later Attic it was quite a common usage to 
join dvr}p with titles, professions and the like. 

Mandagara : — This may be a transliteration, 
somewhat inexact, of Madangarh (House of Love) 
the name of a fort about 12 miles inland from 
Banktlt. More likely the place is M^ndla on the 
north bank of the Sautri river, opposite Banket, 
and now known as Kolmandla, and Bd>g and 
Bagmandldi. MangaKlr, to which as far as the 
name goes it might be referred, is too far south 
for the identification. 

Byzanteion : — The close correspondence of 
this name with that of the famous capital on the 
Bosporos has led to the surmise that a colony of 
Greeks had established themselves on this coast 
for commercial purposes, notwithstanding the 
danger to be apprehended from attacks by the 
pirates in their neighbourhood. It appears how- 
ever quite unlikely that Greeks should have 
formed a settlement where few, if any, of the 
advantages could be enjoyed which generally de- 
termined their choice of a locality in which to plant 
a colony. The name may perhaps be a translitera- 
tion of Yijayanta, now Yijayadurga, the south 
entrance of the Yaghotan river in Ratnagiri, 
The word means the Fort of Yictory. 

Khersonesos : — ^This seems to be the penin- 
sula which is in the neighbourhood of Goa. It is 


mentioned in the PeripMs as one of the haunts 
of the pirates, and as being neai* the island of the 
Kaineitai, that is, St. George's Island. 

Armagara : — This is placed near the month 
of the Nanagouna river, which may be taken 
to mean here the river on which Sad&sivagarh 
stands. The Nanagouna however must be identi- 
fied with the T&pti, whose embouchure is about 6° 
farther north. Its name is Sanskrit, meaning 
' possessed of many virtues.* To account for this 
extraordinary dislocation. Yule supposes that 
Ptolemy, having got from his Indian lists a river 
N&n&guna rising in the Yindhyas, assigns to it 
three discharges into the sea by what he took for 
so many delta branches, which he calls respec- 
tively Goaris, Benda, and Nanaguna. This, he 
adds, looked possible to Ptolemy on his map, 
with its excessive distortion of the western coast, 
and his entire displacement of the Western Ghats. 
Mr. Campbell suggests that Ptolemy may have 
mistaken the Nan4 Pass for a river. 

Nitra is the most southern of the pirate 
ports, and is mentioned by Pliny in a passage 
where he remarks that ships frequenting the great 
emporium of Mouziris ran the risk of being 
attacked by pirates who infested the neighbour- 
hood, and possessed a place called Nitra. Yule 
refers it as has been already stated to Mangalur. 

8. Limyrike. 

Tyndis, acity 116° 14° 30' 

Bramagara 116° 45' 14° 2(/ 

Kalaikarias 116° 40' 14° 

Mouziris, an emporium 117° 14° 


Mouth of tlie River PbuucIos- ' 

tomos 117° 20' 14* 

Podoi)€roura 117^ 40' 14° 15^ 

Semne 118° 14° 20^ 

Koreoura 118° 40' 14° 20' 

Bakarei 119° 30' 14*^ 30' 

Mouth of the River Baris...l20° 14° 20' -7- 

Limyrike : — Lassen was unable to trace this Zh a > > : . ^ *^ ^ "^ * 

name to any Indian source, but Caldwell has satis- 
factorily explained its origin. In the introduction 
to his Dravidian Grammar he states (page 14), that 
in the Indian segment of the Roman maps called 
the Feutinger Tables the portion of India to 
which this name is applied is called Damirike, 
and that we can scarcely err in identifying this 
name with the Tamil country, since Damirike 
evidently means Damir-ike. In the map referred 
to there is moreover a disti-ict called Scytia 
Dymii-ice, and it appears to have been this word 
which by a mistake of A for A Ptolemy wrote 
Lymirike. The D, he adds, retains its place in 
the Cosmography of the Geogi-apher of Ravenna, 
who repeatedly mentions Dimirica as one of the 
3 divisions of India. Ptolemy and the author of 
the Periplus are at one in making Tyndis one of 
the first or most northern ports in Limyrike. 
The latter gives its distance from Bai*ygaza at 
7,000 stadia, or nearly 12 degrees of latitude, if we 
reckon 600 stadia to the degree. Notwithstand- 
ing this authoritative indication, which makes 
Limyrike begin somewhere near Kalikat (11° 15' 
N. lat.) its frontier has generally been placed 
nearly 3 degrees further north, Tyndis having 
7 G 


been located at Bai'celor. This error has been 
rectified by Yule, whose adherence to the data 
of the Peripliis has been completely justified 
by the satisfactory identification of Mouziris (the 
southern rival in commercial prosperity of Bary- 
gaza) with Kranganur, instead of with Mangalur 
as previously accepted. The capital of Limyiike 
was Karilr, on the K&veri, where resided Kero- 
bothros, i.e., Keralaputra, the Chera king. 

Tyndis is described in the PeripMs as a 
place of great note pertaining to the kingdom 
of Keprobotras, and situate near, the sea at 
a distance of 500 stadia from Mouziris. This 
distance north from Kranganur with which, as 
has been stated, Mouziris has been identified, 
brings us to Taniir. " Tantir itself, " says Yule, 
" may be Tyndis ; it was an ancient city, the seat 
of a principality, and in the beginning of the 16th 
century had still much shipping and trade. Perhaps, 
however, a more probable site is a few miles further 
north, Kadalundi, i. e. Kadal-tundi, * the raised 
ground by the sea,' standing on an inlet 3 or 4 
miles south of Bepur. It is not now a port, but 
persons on the spot seem to think that it must 
formerly have been one, and in communication 
with the Backwater." He adds in a note supplied 
by Dr. Bumell, " The composition of Kadal and 
Tundi makes Kadalundi by TamiJ rules." The 
pepper country called Kottonarike was imme- 
diately adjacent to Tyndis, which no doubt 
exported great quantities of that spice. 

Bramagara is placed in the table half a 
degree to the east of Tyndis, i.e., really to the 
south of it, since Ptolemy makes the Malabar 


Coast run east instead of south. The name may 
be a transliteration of the Sanskrit B rahnid(jdra, 
which means * t he abode of the Brahmans/ The 
Br&hmans of the south of India appear in those 
days to have consisted of a number of isolated 
communities that were settled in separate parts 
of the country, and that were independent each of 
the other. This, as Lessen remai'ks (Ind.Alt.f vol. 
Ill, p. 193) is in harmony with the tradition 
according to which the ^XI2— ^''"'^ ^ ^^^ wf>r <^ 
r epresented as hav ing been settled by Parasuraina I 
in 61 vil lages, a nd as liavirig at first lived under a I 
republican constitution. In section 74 Ptolemy i 
mentions a town called Bi^hlll^ belonging to the / 
Br^hmanoi Magoi, i.e., * sons of the Br&hmaiis.' ' 

Kalaikarias : — ^The last half of this word 
(Karias) is doubtless the TamiJ word for '* coast," 
harei, which appears also in another of Ptolemy's 
names, Peringkarei, mentioned as one of the 
inland towns Kandionoi (sec. 89). I find in 
An'owsmith's large Map of India a place called 
*Chalacoory' to the N. E. of Kranganur, and at 
about the same distance from it as our author 
makes Kalaikarias distant from Mouziris. 

Mouziris may unhesitatingly be taken to, 
represent the Muyiri of Muyiri-Kodu, which 
says Yule^ appears in one of the most ancient of 
Malabar inscriptions as the residence of the 
King of Kodangalur or Kranganur, and is 
admitted to be practically identical with that 
now extinct city. It is to Kranganur he adds 
that all the Malabar traditions point as their 
oldest seaport of renown ; to the Chiistians it 
was the landing-place of St. Thomas the Apostle. 


Mouth of the river P a c n d o s t o m o s, or 
* false-mouth.' According to the table the river 
enters the sea at the distance of i of a degree 
below Mouziris. It must have been one of the 
streams that discharge into the Backwater. . 

Podoperoura must be the Poudopatana of lAjh^^^'^M^ 
Indikopleustes — a word which means * new town,' "^^ 

and is a more con*eot form than Ptolemy's Podo- 

Semne: — The Sanskrit name for Buddhist 
Ascetics was Sramana, in Tamil Samana, and aa 
we find that this is rendered as Seinnoi by 
Clemens Alexandi'inus, we may infer that Sem- 
ne was a town inhabited by Buddhists, having 
perhaps a Buddhist temple of noted sanctity. 
For a different explanation see Lassen's Ind. Alt. 
vol III, p. 194. 

B a k a r e i is mentioned by Pliny as Recare, 
and as Bakare by the Author of the Periplus^ 
who places it at the mouth of the river on 
which, at a distance of 120 stadia from the sea 
was situated the great maiii called Nelkynda, or 
Melkynda as Ptolemy writes it. The river is 
described as difficult of navigation on account 
of shallows and sunken reefs, so that ships de- 
spatched from Nelkynda were obliged to sail down 
empty to Bakare and there take in their cargoes. 
The distance of Nelkynda from Mouziris is given 
at about 500 stadia, and this whether the journey 
was made by sea or by river or by land. Upon 
this Yule thus remarks : ** At this distance south 
from Kranganui* we are not able to point to a 
quite satisfactory Nelkynda. The site which has 
been selected as the most probable is nearly 800 


stadia south of Mouziris. This is Kallada. on a 
river of the same name entenng the Backwater, 
the only navigable i-iver on this south-west coast 
except the Perri-dr near Kranganm'. The Kallada 
river is believed to be the KanHti mentioned in 
the Keralotatti legendary history of Malabar, 
and the town of Kallada to be the town of 
Kanofcti. It is now a great entrepot of Travankor 
pepper, which is sent from this to ports on the 
coast for shipment. That Nelkynda cannot have 
been far from this is clear from the vicinity of the 
Ilvppov opos or Red-Hill of the Periplus (sec. 58). 
There can be little doubt that this is the bar of 
red laterite which, a short distance south of 
Quilon, cuts short the Backwater navigation, and 
is thence called the Warkallo barrier. It forms 
abinipt cliffs on the sea, without beach, and these 
cliffs are still known to seamen as the Red 
Cliffs. This is the only thing like a sea cliff 
from Mount d'Ely to Cape Comorin." The word 
Bakarei may represent the Sanskrit dvdraka, 
* a door.' 

Mouth of the river B a r i s : — The Bans must 
be a stream that enters the Backwater in the 
neighbourhood of Quilon. 

9. Country of the Aio i. 

Melkynda 120° 20' 14° 20' 

Elangkon (or Elangkor), a 

mart 120^40' 14"* 

Kotiiara, the metro jx)lis 121° 14° 

Bammala 121° 20' li"* 15' 

Komaria, a cape and town ...121° 45 13° 30' 


Limirike and country of the A'ioi. 
The A i o i : — This people occupied the southern 
parts of Travankor. Their name is perhaps a 
transliteration of the Saflgkr it ahi, * a snake/ and 
if so, this would indicate the prevalence among 
them of serpent worship. Cunningham, in his 
Geography of Ancient India (p. 552), states that 
in the Chino-Japanese Map of India the alter- 
native name of Malyakflfca is Hai-an-men, which 
suggests a connection with Ptolemy's A'ioi. I note 
that the entrance to the Backwater at Kalikoulan 
is called the Great Ayibi cca B ar, and an entrance 
farther south the Little Ayibicca Bar. The first part 
of this name may also be similarly connected. 

Melkynda, as already stated is the Nel- 
k y n d a of the PeripMSf which places it, however, 
in Limyrike. Pliny speaks of it as portus gentis 
Neacyndon (v. 11. Neacrindon, Neachjrndon, 
Nelcyndon.) The name, according to Caldwell, 
probably means West Kynda, that is Kannetri, 
the south boundary of Kerala Proper. When 
Mangalur was taken as the representative of 
Mouziris, Nelkynda was generally identified with 
Nelisuram, which besides the partial resemblance 
of its name, answered closely in other respects 
to the description of Nelkynda in the Periplus — 
Cff. C. Miiller, not. ad Peripl., Sec. 54. Lassen, 
Ind. Alt, vol. Ill, p. 190. Bunbury, Hist, of Anc. 
Geog. vol. I, pp. 467-8. 

Elangkon or Elangkor is now Quilon, 
otherwise written Kulam. 

**Kottiar a," says Caldwell, ** is the name of 
a place in the country of the Aioi of Ptolemy in 
the Paralia of the Author of the Periplus, identical 


in part with Sontli Travankor. Apparently it is 
the Cottara of Pliny, and I have no doubt it is the 
Cottara of the Peutinger Tables. It is called by 
Ptolemy the Metropolis, and must have been a 
place of considerable importance. The town re- 
ferred to is probably Kott&ra, or as it is ordinari- 
ly written by Europeans * Kotaur/ the principal 
town in South Travankor, and now as in the time 
of the Greeks distinguished for its commerce." 
Dravid. Gram., Introd. p. 98. The name is deriv- 
ed from k6(} * a foot,' and dr-ti * a river.' 

Bam mala: — Mannert would identify this 
with Bulita, a place a Kttle to the north of An- 
jenga, but this is too far north. It may perhaps 
be the Balita of the PeripMs. , 

Komaria, a cape and a town : — We have no 
difficulty in recognizing here Cape Oomorin, which 
is called in the PeriplH^ Komar and Komarei. 
The name is derived from the Sanskrit kumdri, * a 
virgin,' one of the names of the Goddess D<irg4 
who presided over the place, which was one of 
peculiar sanctity. The Author of the Periplus 
has made the mistake of extending the Peninsula 
southward beyond Comoiin. 

We may here compare Ptolemy's enumeration 
of places on the west coast with that of the 
Feriplus from Barygaza to Cape Oomorin. 

Ptolem/y. PeripMs, 

Barygaza Barygaza 

Nousaripa Akabarou 


Soupara Souppara 

Dounga Kalliena 






Island of Milizogyris 







Is. of Heptanesia 





3 separate groups of 






Is. of Lenke 

Is. of Peperine 





Trinesia Islands 







Is. Leuke 







Mons Pyrrhos 






There is a striking agreement between tlie two 

lists, especially with 

respect to the order in 


which the places enumerated succeed each other. 
There are but three exceptions to the coincidence 
and these are unimportant. They are, Milize- 
gyris, Mandagora and the Island Leuke, i.e. 
* white island,' if the name be Greek. The 
Melizeigara of the Periplus, Vincent identifies 
with Jayagadh or Sidi, perhaps the Sigerus of Pliny 
(lib. VI, c. XX vi, 100). Ptolemy makes Milizegyris 
to be an island about 20 miles south of Simylla. 
There is one important place which he has 
failed to notice, Kalliena now Kalyana, a weU- 
known town not far from Bombay. 

10. Country of the K a r e o i. 

In the Itolkhic Gulf, where there is the 
Pearl Fishery : — 

Sosikourai 122° 14° 30' 

Kolkhoi, an emporium 123° 15° 

Mouth of the river Solen 124° 14° 40' 

The country of the K a r e o i corresponds to 
South Tinneveli. The word hareif as already 
stated is TamiJ, and means ' coast.' • The Kolkhic 
Gulf is now known as the Gulf of Manar. The 
pearl fishery is noticed in the Periplus, 

Sosikourai : — By the change of S into T we 
find the modem representative of this place to be 
Tutikoiin (Tuttukudi) a harbour in Tinneveli, 
where there are peai'l banks, about 10 miles south 
of Kolkhoi. This mart lay on the Solen or 
Tamraparni river. Tutikorin in the Pcutinger 
Tables is called Colcis Indorufrt. The Tamil 
name is Kolkei, almost the same as the Greek. 
Yule in his work on Marco Polo (vol. II, 
pp. 360-fil) gives the followinpj accoimt of this 

8 G 


place, baeted on informatian supplied by Dr. 
Caldwell : — 

"Kolkhoi, described by Ptolemy and the 
Author of the Peripl^s as an emporium of the pearl 
trade, as situated on the sea-coast to the east of 
Cape Oomorin, and as giving its name to the 
Kolkhic Gulf or Gulf of Man&r has been iden- 
tified with Korkai, the mother-city of Kayal 
(the Coel of Marco Polo). Kcrkaii properly 
Kolkai (the I being changed into r by a modem 
refinement, it is still called Kolka in Malayalam), 
holds an important place in Tamil traditions, 
being regarded as the birth-place of the P&ndya 
dynasty, the place where the princes of that race 
ruled previously to their removal to Madura- 
One of the titles of the Pftn(Jya kings is • Ruler 
of Korkai.' Korkai is situated two or three miles 
inland from Kayal, higher up the river. It is 
not marked in the G. Trig. Surv. map, but a 
village in the immediate neighbourhood of it, 
called Mltramangalam 'the good fortune of the 
Pandyas ' will be found in the map. This place, 
together with several others in the neighbourhood, 
on both sides of the river, is proved by inscrip- 
tions and relics to have been formerly included in 
Korkai, and the whole intervening space between 
Korkai and Kayal exhibits traces of ancient 
dwellings. The people of Kayal maintain that 
their city was originally so large as to include 
Korkai, but there is much more probability in 
the tradition of the people of Korkai, which is to 
the effect that Korkai itself was originally a sea- 
port ; that as the sea retii*ed it became less and 
less suitable for trade, that Kayal rose as Korkai 



fell, and tliat at length, as the sea continued to 
retire, Kayal also was abandoned. They add that 
the trade for which the place was famous in 
ancient times was the trade in pearls." 

Mouth of the River S 6 1 en : — This river is iden- 
tified by Lassen with the Sylaur, which he says 
is the largest northern tributary of the T&mra- 
parni. On this identification Yule remarks: — 
" The * SyUar ' of the maps, which Lassen identifies 
with Solen, originates, as Dr. Caldwell tells me, 
in a mistake. The true name is *Sitt-ar,' 

* Little River,' and it is insignificant." The 
T&mraparni is the chief river of Tinneveli. It 
entered the sea south of Kolkhoi. Li Tamil poetry 
it is called Porunei. Its Pali form is Tambapanni. 
How it came to be called the Solen remains as yet 
unexplained, ^ola is an element in several South 
Indian geographical names, meaning Chola. The 
word Tamraparni itself means * red-leaved ' or 

* copper-coloured sand.' Taprobane, the classical 
name for Ceylon, is this word in an altered form. 

11. Land of P a n d i o n. 
In the Orgalic Gulf, Cape 
Kory, called also Kalligikon..l25° 40^ 12° 20' 

Argeirou, a town 125° 15' 14° 30' 

Salour,amart 125° 20' 15° 30' 

The land of Pandion included the greater 
portion of the Province of Tinneveli, and extended 
as far north as to the highlands in the neighbour- 
hood of the Koimbatur gap. Its western boundary 
was formed by the southern range of the Gh&ts, 
called by Ptolemy Mount Bettigo, and it had a 
sea-board on the east, which extended for some 



distance along the Sinus Oi'galious, or what is 
now called Palk*s Passage. 

The Author of the PeripMs however, assigns 
it wider limits, as he mentions that Nelkynda, 
which lay on the Malabar Coast, as well as the 
pearl-fishery at Kolkhoi, both belonged to the 
Kingdom of Pandion. The kingdom was so called 
from the heroic family of the Pandya, which 
obtained sovereign power in many different parts 
of India. The Capital, called Madura, both by 
Pliny and by our author, was situated in the 
\ interior. Madui*& is but the TamiJ manner of 
pronouncing the Sanskrit Mathurd, which also de- 
signated the sacred city on the Jamna famous as 
the birthplace and the scene 6f the exploits of 
Krishna, who assisted the Pantlus in their war 
with the Kurus. The city to this day retains its 
ancient name, and thus bears, so to speak, living 
testimony to the fact that the Aryans of Northern 
Y *. ' I India had in early times under Paridya leaders 

established their power in the most southern 
parts of the Peninsula. 

The Orgalic Gulf lay beyond the Kolkhic 
Gulf, from which it was separated by the Island 
of Ramesvaram and the string of shoals and small 
islands which almost connect Ceylon with the 
mainland. It derived its name from Argalou, 
a place mentioned in the Periplus as lying inland 
and celebrated for a manufacture of muslin 
adorned with small pearls. The northern tenni- 
nation of the gulf was formed by Cape Kalimir. 

CapeKory : — Ptolemy makes Kory and Kalli- 
gikon to be one and the same cape. They are 


however distinct, Kory being the headland which 
bounded the Orgalic Gulf on the south, and Kal- 
ligikon being Point Kalimir, which bounded it on 
the north. The curvature of this Gulf was called 
by the Hindfts Ramadhanuh, or ' Bdma's howy and 
each end of the bow Dhanuh-koti or simply Koti. 
The Sanskrit word hUi (which means * end, tip or 
coi^ner*) becomes in Tamil .hodi, and this natu- 
rally takes the form of Kori or Kory. The 
southern Koti, which was very famous in Indian 
story, was formed by the long spit of land in 
which the Island of Bamesvaram terminates. It 
is remarkable, as Caldwell remarks, that the 
Portuguese, without knowing anything of the KApu 
of the Greeks, called the same spit of land Cape 
Ramancoru. Ptolemy's identification of Cape 
Kory with Kalligikon or Point Kalimir is readily 
explained by the fact just stated that each of 
these projections was called Koti. 

This word Koti takes another form in Greek 
and Latin besides that of Kory, viz., Kolis, the 
name by which Pomponius Mela and Dionysios 
Periegetes (v. 1148) designate Southern India. 
The promontory is called Coliacum by Pliny, 
who describes it as the projection of India near- 
est Ceylon, from which it was separated by a 
narrow coral sea. Strabo (lib. XV, c. i, 14) quoting 
Onesikritos, speaks of Taprobane as distant from 
the most southern parts of India, which are 
opposite the Koniakoi, 7 days' sail towards the 
south. For Koniakoi the reading Koliakoi has 
been with reason suggested. 

Ptolemy, like the author of the PeripMs and 
other writers, regarded Cape Kory as the most 


important projection of India towards the south, 
and as a well-established point from which the 
distances of other places might conveniently be 
calculated. He placed it in 125 degrees of £. 
longitude from Ferro, and at 120 degrees east of 
the mouth of the Biver BsBtis in Spain from which, 
however, its distance is only 86i degrees. Its 
latitude is 9° 2(y N. and that of Cape Comorin 
S° h't but Ptolemy makes the difference in latitude 
to be only IC. 

The identity of Kalligikon with Point Kalimir 
has already been pointed out. Calimere is a 
corrupt form of the TamiJ compoimd Kallimedu, 
Euphorbia eminence, and so the first part of the 
Greek name exactly coincides with the Tamil 
Kalli, which means the Euphorbia plant, or 
perhaps a kind of cactus. Pliny mentions a 
projection on the side of India we are now con- 
sidering which he calls Calingon, and which the 
similarity of name has led some to identify with 
Kalligikon, and therefore with Point KaJimir. 
It seems better, however, taking into account 
other considerations which we need not here 
specify, to identify this projection with Point 

Before concluding this notice we may point 
out how Ptolemy has represented the general 
configuration of the eastern coast beyond the 
Orgalic Gulf. His views here are almost as 
erroneous as those he entertained concerning the 
west coast, which, it will be remembered, he did 
not carry southward to Cape Comorin, but made 
to terminate at the point of Simylla, thus effacing 
from the Map of India the whole of the Peninsula. 


The actual direction of the east coast from point 
Kalimir is first due north as far as the mouths 
of the Kfishna, and thereafter north-east up to 
the very head of the Bay of Bengal. Ptolemy, 
however, makes this coast run first towards the 
south-east, and this for a distance of upwards of 
600 miles as far as Paloura^ a place of which the 
site has been fixed with certainty as lying near 
the southern border of Katak, about 5 or 6 miles 
above Ganj&m. Ptolemy places it at the extrem- 
ity of a vast peninsula, having for one of its sides 
the long stretch of coast just mentioned, and he 
regards it also as marking the point from which 
the Gangetic Gulf begins. The coast of this gulf 
is made to run at first with an inclination to 
westward, so that it forms at its outlet the other 
side of the peninsula. Its curvatm*e is then to 
the north-east, as far as to the most eastern mouth 
of the Ganges, and thence its dii*ection is to the 
south-east till it terminates at the cape near 
Temala, now called Cape Negi-ais, the south-west 
projection of Pegu. 

12. Country of the B a t o i. 

Nikama, the Metropolia 126° 1 6*" 

Thelkheir 127° 16° 10' 

Kouroula, a town 128° 16° 

13. In P a r a 1 i a . specially so called : tho 
country of the Toringoi. 

Mouth of the River Khab^ros 129° 15° 15' 

Khaberis, an emporium 1 28° 30^ 1 5° 40' 

SabouraS) an emporium 130° 14° 30' 

The Batoi occupied the district extending 
from the neighbourhood of Point Kalimir to the 


southern mouth of the River Kaveri and coitos- 
ponding roughly with the Province of Tanjore. 

N i k a m a, the capital, has been identified with 
Nagapatam (Nagapattanam) by Yule, who also 
identifies (but doubtingly) Thelkyr with Nagor 
and Kouroula with Karikal. 

Paralia, asa Greek word, designated generally 
any maritime district, but as applied in India it 
designated exclusively (i5t«s) the seaboard of the 
Toringoi. Our author is here at variance with 
the PeripMs, which has a Paralia extending from 
the Red Cliffs near Quilon to the Pearl -Fishery 
at the Kolkhoi, and comprising therefrom the 
coast-lines of the Aioi and the Kareoi. " This 
Paralia," says Yule, " is no doubt Purali, an old 
name of Travankor, from which the Raja has 
a title Puralisany * Lord of Purali.' But the 
** instinctive striving after meaning " which so 
often modifies the form of words, converted 
this into the Greek JLapakia^ * the coast.' Dr. 
Caldwell however inclines rather to think that 
Paralia may possibly have corresponded to the 

iv native word meaning coast, viz. hareu 

^ - ' In sec. 91, where Ptolemy gives the list of the 

^ '^ inland towns of the Toringoi, he calls them the 

Sorotai, mentioning that their capital was Orthoura, 

t where the king, whose name was^Somagos, resid- 

f ■ ed. In sec. 68 again he mentions the Sorai as a 

race of nomads whose capital was Sora where 
theii' king, called Arkatos, resided. Caldwell 
has pointed out the identity of the different names 
^ "^ used to designate this people. Scopa, he says, 

" which we meet alone and in various combina- 
tions in these (Ptolemy's) notices represents the 



name of the northem portion of the Tamilian 

nation. This name is Chola in Sanskrit, Chola 

in Telugu, but in Tamijl Sora or Choya. The 

accuracy with regard to the name of the people 

is remarkable, for in TamiJ they appear not only 

as Soras, but also as Soragas and Soriyas, and 

even as Soringas. Their country also is called 

Soragam. The r of the Tamil word Sora is a 

peculiar sound not contained in Telugu, in which 

it is generally represented by ^ or Z. The trans- /"/ „ , • >» a^^ 

literation of this letter as r seems to show that 

then, as now, the use of this peculiar y was a 

dialectic peculiarity of TamiJ." 

The River K h a b 6 r o s is the OveH. Kdvh-a 
is the Sanskrit word for saffron. Kaveri, according 
to a legend in the HarivanSay was changed by 
her father's curse from one-half of the Ganga 
into the river which bears her name, and which 
was therefore also called Ardha-ganga, i.e., half- 
gahga. Karoura, the residence of the Chera 
king, was upon this river. 

Dr. Bumell identified Kh a b e r i s with Kave- 
ripattam {Ind. Ant., vol. VII, p. 40) which 
lies a little to the north of Tranquebar (Tal- 
langambadi) at the mouth of the Pudu-Kaveri 

(New Kaveri). 

Sabouras : — This mart Yule refers doubtingly 
to Gudalur (Cuddalore) near the mouth of the 
S. Penn-ar River. 

14. The Arouarnoi (Arvarnoi). 

Podouke, an emporium 130° 15' 14° 30^ 

Melang^, an emporium 131° 1 4° 20^ 

Mouth of the River Tyna 131° 40' 1 2° 45' 



Kottis 132'* 20' 12° 10' 

Manarpha (or Manaliarpha, 

a mart) 133° IV 12° 

15. Maisolia. 
Mouth of the River Mais61osl34° 11° 40' 

Kontakossyla, a mart 134° 30' 11° 40' 

Koddoura 135° 11° 30' 

Allosygne, a mart 135° 40^ 11^^ 20' 

The point of departure (aphe- 

terion) for ships bound for 

Khryse 136** 20'-ll° 

The territory of the Arouarnoi ( Arvamoi) 
was permeated by the River Tyna, and extended 
northward to Maisolia, the region watered by 
the River Maisolos in the lower parts of its course. 
Opinions differ with regard to the identification 
of these two rivers, and consequently also of 
the places mentioned in connection with them. 
Some of the older commentators, followed by 
Yule, take the Tyna to be the PinS,ka or Penn-ar 
River, and the Maisolos the KrishnS.. Lassen 
again, and recent writers generally, identify the 
Tyna with the Krishna and the Maisolos with the 
Godavari. To the former theory there is the 
objection that if the G6d4vai*i be not the Maisolos, 
that most important of all the rivers on this 
coast is left unnoticed, and Lassen accordingly 
asks why should the small Penn-ar appear and 
the great God&vari be omitted. To this Yule 
rejoins, "We cannot say why; but it is a 
curious fact that in many maps of the 16th and 
17th and even of the 18th century the Godavari 
continues to be omitted altogether. A beautiful 


map in Valentijn (vol. V), shows God&vari 
only as a river of small moment, nnder a local 
name." He argues further that the name Tynna 
if applied to the Krishri& is unaccounted for. As 
identified with the Penn-&r or Pin&ka, TYNNA is 
an easy error for TTYNNA. 

P 6 d o u k e : — This mart is mentioned in the 
PeriplUs along with Kamara and Sopatma as ports 
to which merbhants from Limyrike and the north 
were wont to resort. According to Bohlen, Ritter 
and Benfey, it is Puduchcheri (Pondicherry). 
Lassen and Yule agree, however, in placing it at 
Pulikat, which is nearly two degrees further 

In Yule's map Melange is placed at 
Krishiiapatam, a little to the south of the North 
Penn-ar River, which as we have seen, he identifies 
with the Tyna. Its name closely approximates 
to that of the capital Malanga, and hence Cun- 
ningham, who takes the Maisolos to be the God&vari, 
and who locates Malanga in the neighbourhood 
of EMr, identifies Melange with Bandar Malanka 
(near one of the Gddavari mouths) which he 
assumes to have been so called from its being 
the port (bandar) with which the capital that lay 
in the interior communicated with the sea. See 
Oeog. of Anc. Ind., pp. 539-40. 

Manarpha(or Manaliarpha) : — This mart lay . 
at the mouth of a river which still preserves \,\o^fiM*^ 
traces of its name, being called the Manara. ' 

Kottis lay not very far to the north of it. 

Maisoliais the name of the coast between the 
Krishn^ and the Godavari, and onward thence to 
the neighbourhood of Paloura. It is the Masalia 


of the PeripMs wliich describes it as the sea-board 
of a country extending far inland, and noted for 
the manufacture, in immense quantities, of the 
finer kinds of cotton fabrics. The name is pre- 
served in Masulipattam, which has been corrupted 
for the sake of a meaning into Machhlipatam, 
which means fish-town. The Metropolis called 
Pityndra was seated in the interior. 

Kontakossyla transliterates, though not 
quite correctly, the Sanskrit E^antakasthala, 'place 
of thorns' In Yule's map it is placed inland 
near the Krishnft, in the neighbourhood of Konda- 
palle, in which its name seems to be pai'tly 

Koddoura has been identified with Gtldru, 
a town near Masulipatam. 

Allosygne may perhaps be now represented 
by Koiinga (Koran ja) a port situated a little beyond 
Point God&vari. Its distance from the point 
next mentioned in the Tables may be roughly 
estimated at about 2S0 miles, but Ptolemy makes 
it to be only | of a degree, and thus leaves un- 
described an extensive section of the coast com- 
prising the greater part of the sea-board of the 
Kalingai. A clue to the explanation of this 
error and omission is supplied by a passage in 
the Periplus, which runs to the effect that ships 
proceeding beyond Maisolia stood out from the 
shore and sailing right- across a bay made a direct 
passage to the ports of Desarene, i.e. Orissa. 
It may hence be inferred that navigatora who 
came from a distance to trade in those seas would 
know little or nothing of a coast which they wei*e 


careful to avoid, and that Ptolemy in consequence 
was not even so mucli as aware of its existence. 

The point whence ships took their departure 
for Khryse Yule places at the mouth of a 
little river called the Baroua (the Puacotta of 
Lindschoten) lying under Mt. Mahendra in lat. 
18° 64' N. This aphetirion, he points out, was 
not a harbour as Lassen supposed, from which 
voyages to IChrys^ were made, but the point of de- 
parture from which vessels bound thither struck 
off from the coast of India, while those bound 
for the marts of the Ganges renewed their coast- 
ing. The course of navigation here described 
continued to be followed till modern times, as 
Yule shows by a quotation from Valentijn's book 
on the Dutch East Indies (1727) raider a notice 
of Bimlipatam : — ** In the beginning of February, 
there used to ply ... to Pegu, a little ship with 
such goods as were in demand, and which were 
taken on board at Masulipatam. . . . From that 
place it used to run along the coast up to 
18° N. Lat., and then crossed sea-wards, so as 
to hit the land on the other side about 16°, and 
then, on an offshore wind, sailed very easily to 
the Peguan River of Syriang." (Syriam below 

16, In the Gangetic Gulf. 

Paloura or Pakoura, a town. .136° 40' 11° 20' 

Nanigaina 136° 20' 12° 

Katikardama 136° 20' 12° 40' 

Kannagara 136° 30' 13° 30' 

Mouth of the River Manada. .137° 14° 

Kottobara 137° 15' 14° 40' 


Sippara 137° 4(y 15° 3(7 

Mouth of the River Tyndis...l38° 30' 16° 

17. Maponra 139° 16° 30^ 

Minagara UO"* 17° 15' 

Mouth of the Dosaron 141° 17^ 40^ 

Kokala 142° 18° 

Mouth of the River Adamasl42° 40' 18° 

Kosamba or Kosaba 143° 30' 18° 15' 

P a 1 o u r a : — Ptolemy, as we have seen, placed 
this town at the extremity of a great peninsula 
projecting to the south-east, which had no 
existence however, except in his own imagination. 
The following passage, quoted by Yule from 
Lindschoten, shows that the name of Paloura 
survived till modem times, and indicates at the 
same time where its site is to be looked for : — 
" From the river of Puacota to another called 
Paluor or Palura, a distance of 12 leagues, you 
run along the coast with a course from S. W. to E. 
Above this last river is a high mountain called 
Serra de Palura, the highest mountain on the 
coast. This river is in 19^°." The Palura River 
must be the river of Ganjam, the latitude of 
which is at its mouth 19° 23'. Ptolemy fixes at 
Paloura the beginning of the Gangetic GuK. 

Nanigaina may perhaps be placed at Puri, 
famous for the temple of JagannathaKatikardama. 

The first part of the name points to the identifi- 
cation of this place with Katak, the capital of 

Kannagara : — There can be little doubt that 
we have here the Kanarak of modem times, called 
also the Black Pagoda. 


Mouth of the M a n a d a : — Ptolemy enumerates 
four rivers which enter the Gulf between Kanna- 
gara and the western mouth of the Ganges, the 
Manada, the Tyndis, the Dosaron and the 
Adamas. These would seem to be identical 
respectively with the four great rivers belonging 
to this part of the coast which succeed each other 
in the following order: — The MahS^nadi, the 
Brahmani, the Vaitarani and the SuvarnarekhA, 
and this is the mode of identification which Lassen 
has adopted. With regard to the Manada there 
can be no doubt that it is the Mahdnadi, the great 
river of Orissa at the bifurcation of which 
Katak the capital is situated. The name is a 
Sanskrit compound, meaning * great river.' Yule 
differs from Lassen with regard to the other 
identifications, making the Tyndis one of the 
branches of the Mahdnadi, the Dosaron, — the 
Brahmani, the Adamas, — the Vaitarani, and the 
Kambyson (which is Ptolemy's western mouth of 
the Ganges) — the Suvarnarekha. 

The Dosaron is the river of the region in- 
habited by the Dasamas, a people mentioned in the 
Vishnu Purdna as belonging to the south-east of 
Madhya-desa in juxta-position to the Sabaras, 
or Suars. The word is supposed to be from 
damn * ten,' and fina * a fort,' and so to mean 
* the ten^orts.' 

Adaiiias is a Greek word meaning diamond. 
The true Adamas, Yule observes, was in all 
probability the Sank branch of the Brahmani, from 
which diamonds were got in the days of Mogul 

Sip para: — The name is taken by Yule as 


representing the Sanskrit Siirpdraka. Pdra in 
Sanskrit means * the further shore or opposite 
bank of a river.' 

Mi n agar a: — The same authority identifies 
this with JajhpQr. In Arrowsmith's map I find, 
however, a small place marked, having a name 
almost identical with the Greek, MungrapOr, 
situated at some distance from JajhpQr and nearer 
the sea. 

Kosambais placed by Yule at Balasor, but by 
Lassen at the mouth of the Subanrekh^ which, as 
we have seen, he identifies with the Adamas. 
There was a famous city of the same name, 
Kaus&mbt, in the north-west of India, on the River 
Jamna, which became the P4nclii capital after. 
Hastinapura had been swept away by the Ganges, 
and which was noted as the shiine of the most 
sacred of all the statues of Buddha. It is men- 
tioned in the Rdmdyahaf the Mahdvahm, and 
the Mi^ghad'Cbta of KMid^sa. It may thus be 
reasonably concluded that the Kosamba of 
Ptolemy was a seat of Buddhism established by 
propagandists of that faith who came from 

18. Mouths of the Ganges. 

The Kambyson mouth, the 

most western 144° 30' 18° 15'^ 

Poloura, a town 145° 18° 30 

The second mouth, called 

Mega 145° 45' 18° 30' 

The third called Kamberi- 

khon 146^30' 18° 40' 

Tilogrammon, a town 147° 20' 18° 


The fourth mouth, Pseudosto- 

mon 147° 40' 18° 30' 

The fifth mouth, Antibole ...148° 30' 18° 15' 

Ptolemy appears to hare been the first writer 
who gave to the western world any definite infor- 
mation concerning that part of the Bengal Coast 
which receives the waters of the Ganges. His 
predecessors had indeed excelled him in the ful- 
ness and accuracy with which they had described 
the general course of the river, but they did not 
know, except in the very vaguest way, either where 
or how it entered the sea. Strabo, for instance, was 
not even aware that it had more than a single 
mouth. Ptolemy, on the other hand, mentions by 
name five of its mouths, and his estimate of the 
distance between the most western and the most 
eastern of these (4 degrees of latitude) is not very 
wide of the mark. Some traces also of his no- 
menclature are still to be found. It is difficult, 
however, to identify the mouths he has named 
with those now existing, as the Ganges, like the 
Indus, has shifted some of its channels, and other- 
wise altered the hydrography of its delta. Opi- 
nions dijffer regarding the western mouth, called 
the Kambyson. One would naturally take it 
to be the Hughli river, on which Calcutta stands, 
and V. de Saint-Martin accordingly adopts this 
identification. It is impossible to doubt, he says, 
that the Kambysum is the Hughli river, which 
must have been at all times one of the principal 
outlets, as is proved historically by the mention of 
T&mraliptSi, 600 years before our sera, as one of 
the most frequented ports of Eastern India. It 
would be possible enough, he continues, that 
10 G 


below Diamond Point, the principal channel, in- 
stead of passing as now in front of Kalpi re- 
mounted to the west in front of Tamluk (the 
ancient T&mralipt4) bj the month of Tingorcally, 
and came thus to touch at a locality of which the 
actual name Nungabusan recalls that of Eambj- 
sum or Kambusum. Wilford and Yule, on the 
other hand, agree in identifying the Eambjson 
with the Subanrekh& river, whiqh was formerly 
but erroneously supposed to be a branch of the 
Granges, and they are thus free to take the Hughlt 
river as representing the second mouth called 
by Ptolemy the Mega, the Greek word for * great.* 
Saint-Martin identifies this estuary with the Biver 
Matl& to which in recent years an attempt was 
made to divert the commerce of Calcutta, in con- 
sequence of the dangers attending the navigation 
of the Hughlt. With regard to the E a m b e r i- 
khon, or third mouth, there is no difference 
of opinion. '* It answers," says Saint-Martin, 
"to the Barabang&, a still important estuary, 
which receives the river of Kobbadak (or rather 
Kobbarak), which traverses the whole extent of 
the delta. The KsMtra Samdaa, a modem treatise 
of Sanskrit Geography, which Wilford has often 
quoted in his Memoir on the Ancient Geography 
of the Gfiugetic basin, calls this river Koum&raka. 
Here the Eamberikhon of the Greek navigators 
is easily recognized." The fourth mouth was 
called Pseudostomon, that is, ' false mouth,* 
because it lay concealed behind numerous islands, 
and was often mistaken for the easternmost mouth 
of the Ganges. This Ptolemy calls AntibolS, 
a name which has not yet been explained. It 


IB the phakka or old Granges river, and seems to 
have been the limit of India and the point from 
which measurements and distances relating to 
countries in India were frequently made. 

In connexion with the river-mouths Ptolemy 
mentions two towns, Foloura and Tilogram- 
m o n. The former is placed in Yule's map at 
Jelasur, near the SubanrekhS, and the latter at 
Jesor. Its name seems to be compounded of the 
two Sanskrit words tUa, *^8e8anhy/mf,* and grdma, 
* a village or township.' 

Ptolemy having thtLS described the whole sea- 
coast of India, from the mouths of the Indus to 
those of the Ganges, gives next a list of its mountain 
ranges, together with figures of Latitude and Longi- 
tude, showing the limits of the length of each range 
as well as the direction, 

19. The mountains belonging to Intra- 
gangetic India are named as follows : — 

The Apokopa, called Poinai Theon, which ex- 
tend from long. 116° to 124° and from lat. 2a° 
at their western limit to 26° at the eastern. 

20. Mount Sardonyx, in which is found the 
precious stone of the same name, and whose 
middle point is in long. 117" and lat. 21°. 

21. Mount Ou'indion (Vindion) which ex- 
tends from 126° to 135°, and preserves from its 
western to its eastern limit a uniform latitude 
of 27°. 

Ptolemy enumerates seven of these, probably 

following some native list framed in accordance 

with the native idea that seven principal mountains 

existed in each division of a continent. A 


Faur&iiik list gives us the names of the seven which 
pertained to India, Mahendra, Mahija, Sahja, 
ouktimat, Riksha, Yindhja and P&ripfttra or 
P&rij&tra. This can hardly be the list which 
Ptolemy used, as only two of his names appeaa: in it, 
Ouxenton ( — ) Biksha, and Ouindion ( — ] Yindhya. 
As his views of the configuration of India were so 
wide of the mark, his mountain ranges are of 
course hopelessly out of position, and the latitudes 
and longitudes assigned to them in the tables 
afford no clue to their identification. Some help 
however towards this, as Yule points out, lies in 
the river-sources ascribed to each, which were 
almost certainly copied from native lists, in which 
notices of that particular are often to be found. 

The A p o k o p a, or ' punishment * of the 
* gods * : — There is a consensus of the authorities in 
referring the range thus named to the Aravali 
mountains. Mount Arbuda (Abu) which is by far 
the most conspicuous summit, is one of the sacred 
hills of India. It was mentioned by Megasthenes 
in a passage which has been preserved by Pliny 
(N.H.lib.YI,c. xii)who calls it Mons Capitalia,t.e. 
the ' Mount of Capital Punishment,' a name which 
has an obvious relation to the by-name which 
Ptolemy gives it, * the punishment of- the gods.' 
The word apohopa is of Greek origin, and means 
pidmarily * what has been cut off,' and is therefore 
used to denote * a cleft,' * a cliff,' * a steep hill.' It 
occurs in the Periplus (sec. 15) where it designates 
a range of precipitous hills running along the 
coast of Azania, i.e. of Ajan in Africa. Its 
Sanskrit equivalent may have been given as a 
name to Mount Arbuda because of its having 


been at some time rent by an earthquake. In 
point of fact the Mahdhhdrata has preserved a 
tradition to the effect that a cleft {chhidra) had 
here been made in the earth. Such an alarming 
phenomenon as the cleaving of a mountain by an 
earthquake would naturally in superstitious times 
be ascribed to the anger of the gods» bent on 
punishing thereby some heinous crime. (See 
Lassen's Ind. Alt. voL III, pp. 121-2). 

Mount Sardonyx is a short range, a branch 
of the Vindhya, now called S&tpura, lying be- 
tween the Narmada and the Tapti : it is mentioned 
by Ktesias (frag. 8) under the name of Mount 
Sardous. It has mines of the camelian stone, of 
which the sardian is a species. The Periplus 
(sec. 49) notices that onyx-stones were imported 
into Barygaza from the interior of the country, 
and that they were also among the articles which 
it exported. 

Mount Ouindion : — This is a correct transli- 
teration of Vindhya,ihQ native name of the exten* 
sive range which connects the northern extremities 
of the Western and Eastei<n Gh&ts, and which 
separates Hindtlst&n proper — the Madhya-desa or 
middle region, regarded as the sacred land of the 
Hindtls — ^from the Dekhan. Ptolemy, as Lassen 
remarks {^Ind. Alt. vol. Ill, p. 120), is the only 
geographer of classical antiquity in whose writings 
the indigenous name of this far-spread range is 
to be found. His Vindion however does not 
embrace the whole of the Vindhya system, but 
only the portion which lies to the west of the 
sources of the Son. Sanskrit writers speak of the 
Vindhyas as a family of mountains. They 


Extended from Baroda to Mirzapur, and were 
eontinned thence to Clmnar. 

22. B^ttig6, which extends from 123° to 
130**, and whose western limit is in lat. 21° 
and its eastern in 20°. 

23. Adeisathron, whose middle point is in 
long. 132° and in lat. 23°. 

24. Ouxenton, which extends from 136° to 
143°, and whose western limit is in lat. 22° 
and its eastern in 24^. 

25. The Oroudian Mountains, which ex- 
tend from 138*^ to 133°, and whose eastern 
limit is in 18° lat. and its western 16°. 

Mount B St tig 6: — ^As the rivers which have 
their sources in this range — the Pseudostomos, 
the Baris, and the Solen or T4mraparni, all belong 
to South. Malabar, there can be no doubt that 
Bettigo denotes the southern portion of the 
Western GhAts extending from the Koimbatur 
gap to Oape Gomorin — called Malaya in the 
Faurd^ik list already quoted. One of the sum- 
mits of this range, famous in Indian mythology 
as the abode of the Bishi Agastya, bears the 
name in Tamil of Fodigei, or as it is pronounc- 
ed Fothigei. It is visible from the mouth of 
the T&mraparnt, which has its sources in it, and 
from Kolkhoi, and the Greeks who visited those 
parts, and had the mountain pointed out to them 
would no doubt apply the name by which they 
heard it called to the whole range connected 
with it. (See Caldwell's Dravid. Gram, Introd. 
p. 101.) 


Adeisathron : — If we take Ptolemy's figures 
as our guide here, we must identify this range with 
the chain of hills which Lassen describes in the 
following passage : — " Of the mountain system of 
the Dekhan Ptolemy had formed an erroneous 
conception, since he represented the chain of the 
Western Gh&ts as protruded into the interior 
of the country, instead of lying near to the 
western coast with which it runs parallel, and he 
was misled thereby into shortening the courses of 
the rivers which rise in the Western Gh&ts. The 
chain which he calls Adeisathron begins in the 
neighbourhood of Ndgpur and stretches southward 
to the east of the rivers Wain + Gang4 and Pranit4, 
separates the G^davari from the Ejishn&, and 
comes to an end at the sources of the K&vSri. 
This view of his meaning is confirmed by the 
fact that he locates the two cities Baithana or 
Pratishth&na which lies to the east of the West- 
em GhSits, on the Godavart, and Tagara both to 
the west of Adeisathron. He was led into this mis- 
representation partly through the incompleteness 
and insufficiency of the accounts which he used, 
and partly through the circumstance that the 
Eastern Gh&t does not consist of a single chain, 
but of several parallel chains, and that to the 
south of the sources of the K&vert the Eastern 
Gh&t is connected with the Western Ghat through 
the Nilgiri Mountains. The name Adeisathron, 
one sees, can only refer to the West Gh&t in which 
the K&veri rises." {Ind. Alt vol. Ill, pp. 162-3). 
Yule explains the source of Ptolemy's error thus : 
" No doubt his Indian lists showed him K&vSrt 
rising in Sahy&dri (as does Wilford's list from the 


Brahmanda Pdrdna, As. Bes. vol. VIII, p. 335f.). 
He had no real clue to tlie locality of the Sahy&dri, 
but found what he took for the same name {Adi- 
sathra) applied to a city in the heart of India, 
and there he located the range." Adeisathron 
must therefore be taken to denote properly that 
section of the Western Gh&ts which is imme- 
diately to the north of the Koimbatur gap, as it 
is there the K&v^ri rises. The origin of the 
name Adeisathron will be afterwards pointed out. 

Ouxenton designates the Eastern continuation 
of the Vindhyas. All the authorities are at one 
in referring it to the mountainous regions south 
of the Son, included in Chhutia Nagpiir, Eamgarh, 
Sirgujfi, &c. Ptolemy places its western extre- 
mity at the distance of one degree from the 
eastern extremity of the Yindhyas. The rivers 
which have their sources in the range are the 
Tyndis, the Dosaron, the Adamas and an un- 
named tributary of the Ganges. The name 
itself represents the Sanskrit Eikshavant, which 
however did not designate the Eastern Yindhyas, 
but a large district of the central. This differ- 
ence in the application of the names need not 
invalidate the supposition of their identity. The 
authors whom Ptolemy consulted may have 
misled him by some inaccuracy in their state- 
ments, or the Hindtls themselves may have 
intended the name of Rikshavant to include locali- 
ties further eastward than those which it pri- 
marily denoted. Biksha means * a bear,' and 
is no doubt connected with the Greek word 
of the same meaning, arhtos. 

The Oroudian Mountains : — " This we take," 


says Yule, " to be the Vaidftrya just men- 
tioned, as the northern section of the Western 
Gh§.ts, though Ptolemy has entirely misconceived 
its position. We conceive that he found in the 
Indian lists that the great rivers of the eastern 
or Maesolian Coast rose in the Vaiddrya, and 
having no other clue he places the OrAdia (which 
seems to be a mere metathesis of Odtirya for 
Vaid(irya) near and parallel to that coast. Hence 
Lassen and others (all, as far as is known) identify 
these Oroudian Mountains with those that actually 
exist above Kalinga. This corresponds better, no 
doubt, with the position which Ptolemy has as- 
signed. But it is not our business to map Ptole- 
my's errors ; he has done that for himself ; we have 
to show the real meaning and application of the 
names which he used, whatever false views he 
may have had about them." 

26. The rivers which flow from Mount 
Imaos into the Indus are arranged as follows : — 
Sources of the River Koa ...120° 37° 

Sources of the River Souastos..l22° 30' 36«^ 
Sources of the River Indus ..125° 37° 

Sources of the River Bi- 

daspes 127° 30' 36° 40' 

Sources of the River Sandabal 129° 36° 

Sources of the River Adris 

or Rouadis 130° 37° 

Sources of the River Bidasis..l31° 35° 30^ 

Regarding the origin and meaning of the name 
Indus, Max Miiller {India^ what it can teach us) says: 
" In the V4da8 we have a number of names of the 
rivers of India as they were known to one single 

11 Q 


poet, say about 1000 B.C. We tlien bear notbing 
of India till we come to tbe days of Alexander, 
and wben we look at tbe names of tbe Tndian 
rivers represented by Alexander's companions in 
India, we recognize without mucb diflBiculty nearly 
all of tbe old Vedic names. In tbis respect tbe 
names of rivers bave a great advantage over tbe 
names of towns in India. I do not wonder so 
mucb at tbe names of tbe Indus and tbe Ganges 
being tbe same. Tbe Indus was known to early 
traders, whetber by sea or land. Skylax sailed 
from the country of tbe Paktys, i.e. tbe Pusbtus, 
as tbe Afghans still call themselves, down to tbe 
mouth of tbe Indus. That was xmder Darius Hy- 
staspes (B.C. 521-486). Even before that time India 
and tbe Indians were known by their name, which 
was derived from Siudhu, the name of their 
frontier river. Tbe neighbouring tribes who 
spoke Iranic languages all pronounced, like the 
Persian, the s as an /i (PHny, lib. VI, c.xx, 7) * Indus 
incolis 8 Indus appellatusj Thus Sindhu became 
Hindhu {Hidhu) and as h's were dropped, even 
at that early time, Hindhu became Indu. Thus 
the river was called Indus, tbe people Indoi by 
the Greeks, who first beard of India from tbe 
Persians. Sindhu probably meant originally the 
divider f keeper and defender , from sidh to Iceep 
off. No more telling name could have been given 
to a broad river, which guarded peaceful settlers 
both against the inroads of hostile tribes and the 
attacks of wild animals. . . . Though Sindhu 
was used as an appellative noun for river in 
general, it remained throughout the whole history 
of India, tbe name of its powerful guai'dian river. 


the Indus.** For a full discussion of the origin 
of the name I may refer the reader to Benfey's 
Indien, pp. 1 — 2, in the Encyclopcedia of Ersch 
and Griiber. 

The Indus being subject to periodic inundations, 
more or less violent, has from time to time under- 
gone considerable changes. As has been already 
indicated it not unf requently shifts the channels 
by which it enters the sea, and in the upper part 
of its course it would seem to be scarcely less 
capricious. Thus while at the time of the Make- 
donian invasion it bifurcated above Ar6r, the 
capital of the Sogdi, to run for about the distance 
of 2 degrees in two beds which enclosed between 
them the large island called by PUny (lib. VI, c xx, 
23) Prasiake, thePr&rjuna of the inscription on the 
AMhabdrd column, it now runs at that part in a 
single stream, having forsaken the eastern bed, 
and left thereby the once flourishing country 
through which it flowed a complete desert. 

In his description of the Indus, Ptolemy has 
fallen into error on some important points. In 
the first place, he represents it as rising among 
the mountains of the country of the Daradrae to 
the east of the Paropanisos, and as flowing from its 
sources in a southward direction. Its true birth- 
place is, however, in a much more southern latitude, 
viz., in Tibet, near the sources of the Satlaj, on 
the north side of Mount Kailasa, famous in Indian 
mythology as the dwelling-place of Kuvera and 
as the paradise of Siva, and its initial direction is 
towards the north-west, till it approaches the fron- 
tiers of Badakshan, where it turns sharply south- 
ward. Ptolemy does not stand alone in making 


this mistake, for Arrian plaoes the sources in the 
Jower spurs of the Paropanisos, and he is here at one 
withMela(Ub.III,c. vii, 6), Strabo (lib.XV,c.u,8), 
Curtius (lib. YIII, c. ix, 3) and other ancient writers.. 
In fact, it was not ascertained until modem times 
whence the Indus actually came. His next error 
has reference to the length of the Indus rallej aa; 
measured from the mouth of the Indus to its 
point of junction with the IC^bul river. This he 
makes to be II degrees, while in point of fact it is 
somewhat less than 10. This error is, however, 
trivial as compao'ed with the next hy which the 
junction of the Indus with the united atream of 
the Fanjab rivers is made to take place at the 
distance of only die degree below its junction 
with the K&bul river, instead of at the distance 
of six degrees or halfway between the upper junc- 
tion and the sea. This egregious error not only 
vitiates, the whole of his delineation of the river 
system of the Fanjab, but as it exaggerates by 
more than 300 miles the distance between the 
lower junction and the sea, it obscui'es and con- 
fuses all hia geography of the Indus valley, and 
so dislocates the positions named in his tables, 
that they can only in a few exceptional eases be 

*' " It is hard enough," says Major- (general Haig, " %f> 
have to contend with the vagueness, inconsistencies and 
eontradiotionsiof the old writers ; but these are as nothing 
compared with the obstacles which iihe physical charao^ 
teristics of the country itself oppose to. the enquirer. 
For ages the Indus has been pushing its bed across the 
valley from east to west, generally by the gradual 
process of erosion, which effectually wipes out every 
trace of town and village on its banks ; but at times also 
by a. more or less sudden shifting of its waters into 


All the large tributaries of the Indus, with the 
exception of the Kabul river, join it on its left or 
eastern side. Their number is stated by Strabo 
(lib. XV, c. i, 33) and by Arrian (lib. Y, c. vi) to 
be 15, but by Pliny (lib. VI, c. xz, 23) to be 19. 
The most of them are mentioned in one of the 
hymns .of the Big Veda (X, 75) of which the 
following passages are the most pertinent to our 
subject :— ' 

1. " Each set of seven {^streams] has followed 
a threefold course. The Sindhu sui-passes the 
other rivers in impetuosity. 

2. Varuna hoUowed out the channels of thy 
course, Sindhu, when thou didst rush to thy 
contests. Thou flowest from [the heights o/] the 
earth, over a downward slope, when thou leadest 
the van of those streams. 

4. To thee, O Sindhu, the [other streams] rush 
, . . Like a wairior king [in the centre of his 
army] thou leadest the two wings of thy host when 
thou strugglest forward to the van of these tor- 

5. Receive favourably this my hymn, Gangd, 
Yamuna, Sarasvati, Sutudri, Parashni; hear, O ^ 
Harudvridha, with the Asikni, and Vitastd, and , 
thou Arjikiy& with the Sushomd, 

entirely new channels, leaving large tracts of country 
to go to waste, and forcing the inhabitants of many a 
populous place to abandon their old homes, and follow 
the river in search of new settlements. . . . Perhaps 
the retiring stream will leave behind it vast quantities 
of drift-sand which is swept by the high winds over the 
surrounding country . . . where the explorer may search 
in Tain for any record of the past. T have had, as an 
enquirer, experience of the difficulties here described " 
(J. R. A. S, N. S. vol. XVI, p. 281). 


6. Unite fii'st in thy course with the Trishta- 
ma, the Sasart(!i, the Ba8& and the ^veti; thou 
meetest the Gomati, and the Knimu, with the 
Kubha, and the Mehatnd, and with them are 
borne onward as on the same car." (See Journ. 
B. A. 8., N. S., Vol. XV, pp. 359-60). 

As Ptolemy makes the Koa join the Indus, 
it must be identified with the Kabul river, 
the only large affluent which the Indus receives 
from the west. Other classical writers call it 
the KophSn or Kophes, in accordance with its 
Sanskrit name the Kubha. Ptolemy's name, it 
must however be noted, is not applicable to the 
K&bul river throughout its whole course, but only 
after it has been joined by the River Kamah, 
otherwise called the Kundr. This river, which is 
inferior neither in size nor in length to the arm 
which comes from Kabul, is regarded as the main 
stream by the natives of the country, who call the 
course of the united streams either the Kamah 
or the Kunar indijfferently, as far as the entrance 
into the plain of Peshawar. The Kamah has its 
Boui'ces high up in the north at the foot of the 
plateau of Pamir, not far from the sources of the 
Oxus, and this suits Ptolemy's description of the 
Koa as a river which has its sources in the 
eastern extremity of Paropanisos, and which joins 
the Indus after receiving the Souastos or the river 
of Swat. Koa is very probably a curtailed form of 
the name. The Persians appear to have called it 
the Khoaspes, that being the name of the river 
on which Susa, their capital city, stood. Under 
this name it is mentioned by Aristotle {Meteorolog. 
lib. I, c. xiii) who lived long enough to enter in his 


later writings some of the new knowledge which the 
expedition of his illustrious pupil had opened up 
regarding Eastern Countries. It is mentioned also 
by Strabo (lib. XV, c. i, 26) who followed here the 
authority of Aristoboulos, one of the companions 
and one of the historians of the expedition of 
Alexander, and by Ourtius (lib. VIII, c. x), Strabo 
I. c. states that it joins the Koph^s neai* Plemyrion, 
after passing by another city, Gorys, in its course 
through Bandobene and Gandaritis. The Koa of 
Ptolemy is not to be confounded with the Echoes of 
Arrian (lib. IV, c. xxiii, 2), whith must be identified 
with a river joining the K6phes higher up its 
course, viz. that which is formed by the junction 
of the Alishang and the Alingar. The Euaspla of 
the latter writer (lib. IV, c. xxiv, 1) is probably 
only an altered form of Khoaspes. 

The identification of the KophSs and its nu- 
merous affluents has been a subject that has 
much exercised the pens of the learned. They are 
now unanimous in taking the Kophes to be the 
Kabul river'* but there are still some important 
points on which they differ. In the foregoing 
notice I have ^ adopted as preferable the views of 
Saint-Martin (^^ude, pp. 26 — 34): Conf. Lassen, 
Ind. Alt. vol. Ill, pp. 127-8; Wilson, Ariana 
Antiqua, pp. 138 — 188. Benfey's Indien, pp. 4f4r— 
46, Cunningham, Geog. of Anc, India, pp. 37, 38. 

Souastos : — All the authorities are at one in 
identifying the Souastos with the Sw&t river — the 
principal tributary of the Landai or river of 
Panjkora (the Gauri of Sanskrit), which is the 

*^ Bennell identified it with the Gomul and D'Anville 
with the Argand^b. 


klidt of the great affluents that the K4bul river re- 
ceives from the east before it falls into the Indus. 
The Souastos, though a small stream, is jet of old 
renown, being the Sveti of the Vedic hymn al- 
ready quoted, and the Suv&stu of the Mahdbhd- 
rata (YI, ix, 333), where it is mentioned in con- 
junction with the Gaurf. Its name figures also 
in the list of Indian rivers which Arrian {Indika, 
sec. 4) has preserved from the lost work of Mega- 
sthenes. Here it is mentioned in conjunction with 
the Malamantos and the Garoia, which latter is 
of course the Galiri. Arrian thus makes the 
Souastos and the Gouraios to be different rivers, 
but in another passage of his works {Anah. lib. TV, 
c. xxv) he seems to have fallen into the mistake 
of making them identical. It is surprising, as 
Lassen has remarked, that Ptolemy should notice 
the Souastos, and yet say nothing about the 
Garoia, especially as he mentions the district of 
Goryaia, which is called after it, and as he must 
have known of its existence from the histoiians 
of Alexander. He has also, it may be noted, 
placed the sources of the Souastos too far north. 

The five great rivers which watered the region of 
the Panjab bear the following names in Ptolemy : 
Bidaspes, Sandabal, Adris or Rhonadis, Bibasis and 
Zaradros. This region in early times was called 
the country of the seven rivers — Sapta Sindhu, 
a name which, as Sir H. Rawlinson has pointed 
out, belonged primarily to the seven head streams 
of the Oxus. As there were only five large streams 
in the locality in India to which the name was 
applied, the number was made up to seven by add- 
ing smaller affluents or lower branches of combined 


streams, to which new names were given. The 
Vedic Aryans, however, as Mr. Thomas remarks, 
could never satisfactorily make up the sacred seven 
without the aid of the comparatively insignificant 
Sarasvati, a river which no longer exists. These 
rivers are notahly erratic, having more than once 
changed their bed since Yedic times. 

Bidaspes : — This is now the Jhelam or river of 
Behatjthe most western of the five rivers. It drains 
the whole of the valley of Kasmir, and empties 
into the Akesines or Chen^b. Ptolemy, however, 
calls their united stream the Bidaspes. By the 
natives of Kasmir it is called the Bedasta, which 
is but a slightly altered form of its Sanskrit name 
the VitastS., meaning * wide -spread.' The classical 
writers, with the sole exception of our author, 
call it the Hydaspes, which is not so close to the 
original as his Bidaspes. It was on the left bank 
of this river that Alexander defeated Poros and 
buUt (on the battle-field) the city of !N'ikaia in 
commemoration of his victory. 

Sandabal is an evident mistake of the 
copyist for Sandabaga. The word in this 
corrected form is a close transliteration of 

Ohandrabhag^ (Zwwae^or^io), one of the Sanskrit . '/ .fi 

names of the River Chenlb. In the Vedic hymn 
which has been quoted it is called the Asikni, 
* dark-coloured,' whence the name given to it 
by the Greeks in Alexander's time, the Akesines. 
It is said that the followers of the great con- 
queror discerned an evil omen in the name of 
ChandrabliagS. on account of its near similarity 
to their own word Androphagos or Alexan- 
drophagoSf * devourer of Alexander ' and hence 
12 G 


U ^) ' '^ 



preferred calling it by the more ancient of its 
two names. It is the largest of all the streams 
of the PaSchanada. Vigne says that Chandra- 
bh&g& is the name of a small lake from which the 
river issues. Pliny has distorted the form Chan- 
dabaga into Cantabra or Cantaba flib. YI, c. xx). 
According to the historians of Alexander the 
confluence of this river with the Hydaspes produc- 
ed dangerous rapids, with prodigious eddies and 
loud roaring waves, but according to Bumes 
their accounts are greatly exaggerated. In 
Alexander's time the Akesines joined the Indus 
near Uchh, but the point of junction is now much 
lower down. 

The Adris or Bhouadis is the Ravi, a 
confluent of the Akesines, but according to Ptolemy 
of the Bidaapes. The name Eavi is an abridged 
form of the Sanskrit Air&vati. It is called by 
Arrian {Anab. lib. YI, c. viii), the Hydraotes, and 
by Strabo (lib. XY, c. i, 21) the Hyarotis. Arrian 
(Indik. sec. 4) assigns to it three tributaries — the 
Hyphasis, the Saranges and Neudros. This is 
not quite correct, as the Hyphasis joins the 
Akesines below the junction of the Hydraotes. 

The Bibasis is the river now called the Beias, 
the Yipasa of Sanskrit. This word "YipasA" 
means * uncorded,' and the river is said to have 
been so called because it destroyed the cord with 
which the sage Yasishtha had intended to hang 
himself. It is called the Hyphasis by Arrian 
{Anah. lib. YI, c. viii), and Diodoros (lib. XYII, 
c. xciii), the Hypasis by Pliny (lib. YII, c. xvii, 
20) and Curtius (lib. IX, c. i), and the Hypanis by 
Strabo (lib. XY, c. i, 17) and some other writers. 


It falls into the Satadni. It was the river which 
marked the limit of Alexander's advance into India. 

27. Sources of the River 

Zaradros 132° 36° 

Confluence of the Koa and 

Indus 124° 31° 

Confluence of the Koa and 

Souastos 122° 30' 31° 40' 

Confluence of the Zaradros 

and Indus 124° 30° 

Confluence of the Zaradros 

and Bidaspes 125° 30° 

Confluence of the Zaradros 

andBibasis 131° 34° 

Confluence of the Bidaspes 

and Adris 126° 30' 31° 30' 

Confluence of the Bidaspes 

andSandabal 126° 40^ 32° 40' 

The Zaradros is the Satlaj^ the most 
easterly of the five rivers. It is called in Sanskrit 
the Satadru^ i.e., flowing, in a hundred {branches), 
Pliny (lib. VI, c. xm) calls it the Hesydrus, Zadrades 
is another reading of the name in Ptolemy. The 
Satlaj, before joining the Indus, receives thj& Che- 
n&b, and so all the waters of the Panchanada. 

With regard to the nomenclature and relative 
importance of the rivers of the Panj&b the 
following remarks of Y. de Saint-Martin may be 
cited : — 

" As regards the Hyphasis, or more correctly 
the Hypasis, the extended application of this 
name till the stream approaches the Indus, ia 


contrary to the notions which we draw from 
Sanskrit sources, according to which the Vip&8& 
loses its name in the Satadru (Satlaj), a river 
which is otherwise of greater importance than the 
Vipds4. Nevertheless the assertion of onr author 
by itself points to a local notion which is confirm- 
ed by a passage in the chronicles of Sindh, where 
the name of the Beiah which is the form of the 
Sanskrit Yipaea in Musalman authors and in 
actual use, is equally applied to the lower course 
of the Satlaj till it unites with the Chen&b not 
far from the Indus. Arrian, more exact here, or 
at least more circumstantial than Strabo and the 
other geographers, informs us that of all the group 
of the Indus affluents the Akesines was the most 
considerable. It was the Akesines which carried 
to the Indus the combined waters of the Hydas- 
pes of the Hydraotes and of the Hyphasis, and 
each of these streams lost its name in uniting 
with the Akesines (An*. Anah. lib. YI, c. v). This 
view of the general hydrography of the Panjfib 
is in entire agreement with facts, and with the 
actual nomenclature. It is correctly recognized 
that the Chen&b is in effect the most considerable 
stream of the Panjab, and its name successively 
absorbs the names of the Jhelam, the Ravi, and 
the Ghan-a or lower Satlaj, before its junction 
with the Indus opposite Mittankot. Ptolemy 
here differs from Airian and the current ideas on 
the subject. With him it is not the Akesines 
(or, as he calls it, the Sandabala for Sandabaga) 
which carries to the Indus the waters of the 
Pan jab. It is the Bidaspes (Yitasta). Ptolemy 
departs again in another point from the nomen- 


clature of the historians who preceded h\m m 
applying to the Gharra or lower Satlaj the name 
of Zaradros, and not, as did Arrian that of Hy- 
pasis. Zadadros is the Sutudri or Satadru of 
the Sanskrit nomenclature, a name which com- 
mon usage since the Musalman ascendancy has 
strangely disfigured into Satlaj. No mention is 
made of this river in the memoirs relating to the 
expedition of Alexander, and Megasthenes, it 
would appear, was the first who made its existence 
known. The application moreover of the two 
names of Zadadros and Bibasis to the united 
current of the ^atadru and the YipasS is justified 
by the usage equally variable of the natives along 
the banks, while in the ancient Sanskrit writings 
the Satadru goes, as in Ptolemy, to join the Indus. 
It may be added that certain particularities in the 
texts of Arrian and Ptolemy suggest the idea that 
formerly several arms of the Hyphasis existed 
which went to join, it may be, the Hydraotes, or, 
it may be, the lower Akesines above the principal 
confluent of the Hyphasis, an idea which the 
actual examination of th^ locality appears to con- 
firm. This point merits attention because the 
obscurities or apparent contradictions in the text 
of the two authors would here find an easy ex- 
planation" (pp. 129-131, also pp. 396-402). 

Junction of the K 6 a and Indus — Ptolemy 
fixes the poiut of junction in latitude 31°, but 
the real latitude is 33° 54/. Here the Indus is 
872 miles distant from its source, and 942 miles 
from the sea. The confluence takes place amidst 
numerous rocks and is therefore tm'bulent and 
attended with great noise. 


Junction of the Zaradros and I n d u s :^- 
Ptolemy fixes this great junction in latitude 30°, 
the real latitude being however 28° 55'. It takes 
place about 3 miles below Mitankot, at a distance 
of about 490 miles below the jimction with the 
K&bul River. 

Divarication of the Indus towards Mt. 
V i n d i o n : — ^The Indus belf)w its junction with 
the K&bul river frequently throws out branches 
{e.g. the Nara) which join it again before reaching 
the sea, and to such branchesPtolemy gives the name 
of €KTpo7raL " It is doubtful," Saint-Martin observes, 
" whether Ptolemy had formed quite a clear idea 
of this configuration of the valley, and had always 
distinguished properly the affluents from the 
branches. Thus one does not quite precisely see 
what he means by the expression which he 
frequently employs ^ Tri/y^ rrjs iKrpoTrrjs. What 
he designates thereby must be undoubtedly 
the streams or currents which descend from the 
lateral region, and which come to lose themselves 
in the branches of the river. But the expression, 
which is familiar to him, is not the less ambiguous 
and altogether improper " — (p. 235 n.) The branch 
here mentioned, Lassen {Ind. Alt vol. Ill, pp. 121, 
129) takes to be the Lavani river. ** Ptolemy," 
he says, " in contradiction to fact makes a tribu- 
tary flow to it from the Vindhya Mountains. 
His error is without doubt occasioned by this, 
that the Lavani river, which has its source in 
the Ar&vali chain falls into the salt lake, the 
Rin or Irina, into which also the eastern ann of 
the Indus discharges." 

Divarication of the Indus into Arakhosia:— 


Lassen (vol. Ill, p. 128), takes this to be the 
Gomal rather than the Korum river. These 
rivers are both mentioned in the Vedic hymn, 
where the former appears as the Gomati and the 
latter as the Kriimu. 

Branch of the K 6 a towards the Paropani- 
sadai: — This is probably the upper Kdphen, 
which joins the Koa (Knn^r river) from Kabnl. 

Divarication of the Indus towards the A r b i t a 
mountains : — Between the Lower Indus and the 
river called anciently the Arabis or Arbis, was 
located a tribe of Indian origin called variously 
the Arabii, the Arbies, the Arabitae, the Ambritae 
and the Arbiti. There can be no doubt therefore 
that by the Arbita Mountains Ptolemy designates 
the range of hills in the territory of that tribe, 
now called the H41a Mountains. Towards the 
northern extremity of this range the Indus 
receives a tributary called the Gandava, and this 
we may take to be what Ptolemy calls the di- 
varication of the Indus towards the range. It 
may perhaps, however, be the Western Nara that 
is indicated. 

Divarication of the Indus into the Paro- 
panisadai : — To judge from the figures in the 
table this would appear to be a tributary of the 
Indus joining it from the west a little above its 
junction with the Koa or £[S>bul river. There is, 
however, no stream, even of the least note, answer- 
ing to the description. 

28, Divarication (eVrpoTrij) from the Indus 
running towards Mt. Ouindionl23° 29° 30' 
The source of (tributary join- 
ing) the Divarication 127° 27* 


Divarication of the Indus 

towards Arakhosia 1 21° 30' 27° 30' 

Divarication of the Koa to- 
wards the Paropanisadai ... 121° 30' 33° 

The source of (tributary join- 
ing) the Divarication 115° 24° 30' 

Divarication of the Indus to- 
wards the Arbita Mountainsll7° 26° 10' 

Divarication of the Indus 

towards the Paropanisadai. 124° 30^ 31° 20' 

Divarication of the Indus into 

the Sagapa mouth 1 13° 40' 23° 15' 

From the Sagapa into the 

Indus 111° 21° 30' 

Divarication of the Indus into 
the Khrysoun (or Golden) 
mouth 112° 30' 22° 

Divarication of the Indus into 

the Khariphon mouth 113° 3^ 22° 20' 

From the Khariphon to the 

Sapai-a 112° 30' 21° 45' 

Divarication of the same 
River Khariphon into the 
Sabalaessa mouth 113° 21° 20' 

Divarication from the River 
Khariphon into the Loni* 

bare mouth 113° 20' 21° 40' 

29. Of the strea^ns which join the Ganges 
the order is this : — 
Sources of the River Dia- 
mouna 134^30' 36° 



Sources of the Ganges itself... 136° 37** 

Sources of the River Sarabosl40<^ 36° 

Junction of the Diamouna 

and Ganges 136° d4P 

Junction of the Sarabos and ^J 

Ganges 13G<> 30' 32° 30' 

Ptolemy's description of the Ganges is very 
meagre as compared with- his description of the 
Indas. He mentions by name only 3 of its 
affluents, although Arrian (quoting from Megas- 
thencs) enumerates no fewer than 17, and Pliny 
19. The latitude of its source, Gangotri, which 
is in the territory of Garhwal, is 30° 64', or more 
than 6 degrees f ui'ther south than its position as 
given in the table. The name of the river, the 
G a n g &, is supposed to be from a root gam, * to 
go,' reduplicated, and therefore to mean the 
* Go — ^go.' The tributaries mentioned by Arrian 
are these : the Kainas, Erannoboas, Kossoanos, 
Sonos, Sittokatis, Solomatis, Kondokhates Sambos, 
Magon, Agoranis, Omalis, Kommonases, Ka- 
kouthis, Andomatis, Amystis, Oxymagis and the 
Errhenysis. The two added by Pliny are the Pri- 
nas and Jomanes. Regarding these names the 
following remarks may be quoted from Yule : — 
" Among rivers, some of the most difficult names 
are in the list which Pliny and Arrian have taken 
from Megasthenes, of affluents of the Ganges. 
This list was got apparently at Palibothra (Patna), 
and if streams in the vicinity of that city occupy an 
undue space in the list, this is natural. Thus 
Magona and Errhenysis, — Mohana and Niranjana, 
join to form the river flowing past Gaya, famous 
13 6 


in Buddhist legend under the second name. The 
navigable Prinas or Pinnas is perhaps Puny&, 
now Piinptin, one of the same cluster. Sonus 
instead of being a duplicate of Erannoboas, may 
be a branch of the Gaya river, still called Sona. 
Andomatis flowing from the Madiandini, i.e., 
'* Meridionales" is perhaps the Andhela, one of 
the names of the Chandan river of BhagalpAr. 
Kainas, navigable, is not likely to be the Ken of 
Bundelkhand, the old form of which is Karziavati, 
but more probably the Kay&na or Koh&na of 
GorakhpAr. It is now a tributary of the lower 
Gh&gr&, but the lower course of that river has 
shifted much, and the map suggests that both the 
Rapti (Solomatis of Lassen) and Kayana may have 
entered the Ganges directly." For the identifica- 
tion of the other rivers in the list see my article 
in the Indian Antiquary, vol. V, p. 331. 

Diamouna ; — In this it is easy to recognize 
the Yamun&, the river which after passing 
Dehli, Mathura, Agra, and other places, joins the 
Ganges, of which it is the largest affluent at 
Allahabad. It rises from hot springs amid 
Himalayan snows, not far westward from the 
sources of the Ganges. Arrian singularly enough 
has omitted it from his list of the Ganges affluents, 
but it is no doubt the river which he subsequently 
mentions as the J o b a r e s and which flows, he says, 
through the country of the Sourasenoi, an Indian 
tribe possessing two large cities, Methora and 
Kleisobara (Krishnapura ?) Pliny (lib. yi, c. xix) 
calls it the Jomanes, and states that it flows into the 
Ganges through the Palibothri, between the towns 
of Methora and Chrysobara (Krishnapura ?) The 


Ganges at its junction with the JamnS, and a 
third but imaginary river called the Sarasvati, 
which is supposed to join it underground is called 
the T r i V e n i, i.e., * triple plait ' from the inter- 
mingling of the three streams. 

S a r a b o s : — This is the great river of Kosala, 
that is now called the Sarayu or Sai*ju, and also the 
Gharghara or Ghogra. It rises in the Himalayas, 
a little to the north-east of the sources of the 
Ganges, and joins that river on its left side in 
latitude 25° 46', a little above the junction of 
the Son with their united stream. Cunningham 
regards the Solomatis mentioned in Arrian's list 
of the tributaries of the Ganges as being the Sarayu 
under a different name, but Lassen takes it to be 
the Rapti, a large affluent of the same river from 
Goi'akhpur. The name, he thinks, is a translitera- 
tion or rather abbreviation of Saravati, the name 
of a city of Kosala mentioned by Kalid&sa. The 
river on which the city stood is nowhere mention- 
ed, but its name was in all probability the same as 
that of the city {Ind. AIL, vol. II, p. 671). 

Mouth of the River S 6 a : — This river can be no 
other than the Son (the S6no8 of Arrian's list) 
which falls into the Ganges about 16 miles above 
Patna in lat. 25° 37'. It rises in Gondwana in 
the territory of Nagpur, on the elevated table- 
land of Amarakantaka, about 4 or 5 miles east of 
the source of the Narmadd. It would appear that 
in former times it joined the Ganges in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Patna, the modem 
representative of the Palibothra or Palimbothra 
of the classical writers. The lat. of the source is 
22^1'; in Ptolemy 28°. 


30. Divarication from tlie Ganges towards 
the Ouindion itinge to the moutli of the River 

S5a 136° W 3P 30' 

The sources of the river ...131° 28° 

Divarication of the Ganges 

towards the Ouxenton range 142° 28° 

The sources of the divarication 137° 23° 

Divarication from the Ganges 

into the Kambyson Mouth 146° 22° 

Divarication from the Ganges 

into the Pseudostomos 146° 30' 20° 

Divarication from the Gan- 
ges into the Antibole Mouthl4C° 30' 21° 
Divarication from the Kamby- 
son River into the Mega 

Mouth 145° 20° 

Divarication from the Mega 
Mouth into the Kamberi- 

khon Mouth 145° 30' 19° 30' 

The divarication towards the Ouxenton 
range: — By this unnamed river, as Lassen has 
pointed out {Ind. Alt, vol. Ill, pp. 130, 131) 
Ptolemy must have meant the Dharmodaya of the 
Hindus, although he has assigned far too high a 
latitude for its junction with the Ganges, 28° 
instead of only 22° 13'. It is, however, the only 
considerable stream which flows to the Ganges 
from the Bear Mountains. It passes Ramgarh 
and Bardhwan, and joins the Bughli not far from 
the sea, a little to the cast of Tamluk. It is 
commonly called the Damuda River. 
The mouths of the Ganges : — In addition to 


the remarks already made regarding these mouths 
I may here quote a passage from Wilford on this 
topic : " Ptolemy's description," he says (Asiat. 
Researches, vol. XIV, pp. 464-6) " of the Delta of 
the Ganges is by no means a bad one, if we reject 
the latitudes and longitudes, which I always do, 
and adhere solely to his narrative, which is plain 
enough. He begins with the western branch of 
the Ganges or Bh^girathi, and says that it sends 
one branch to the right or towards the west, 
and another towards the east, or to the left. 
This takes place at Triveni, so called from three 
rivers parting, in three different directions, and it 
is a most sacred place. The branch which goes 
towards the right is the famous Sarasvati; and 
Ptolemy says that it flows into the Kambyson 
mouth, or the mouth of the Jelasor river, called 
in Sanskrit Saktimati, synonymous with Kambu 
or Kambuj, or the river of shells. This commu- 
nication does not exist, but it was believed to 
exist, tni the coimtry was surveyed. This branch 
sends another arm, says our author, which affords 
a passage into the great mouth, or that of the 
Bhagirathi or Ganges. This supposed branch is 
the Rtipanardyana, which, if the Sarasvati ever 
flowed into the Kambyson mouth, must of course 
have sprung from it, and it was then natural 
to suppose that it did so. M. D'Anville has 
brought the Sarasvati into the Jelasor river in 
his maps, and supposed that the communication 
took place a little above a village called Danton, 
and if we look into the Bengal Atlas, we shall 
perceive that during the rains, at least, it is 
possible to go by water, from Hughli, through 


the Sarasvati, and many other rivers, to within 
a few miles of Danton, and the Jelasor river. 
The river, which according to Ptolemy branches 
out towards the east, or to the left, and goes 
into the Kambaiikan mouth is the Jumn&, called 
in Bengal Jubuna. For the Ganges, the Jumn4 
and the Sarasvati unite at the Northern Triveiit 
or Allah&bad, and part afterwards at this Trivent 
near Hughli . . . called in the spoken dialects 
Terboni. Though the Jumnft falls into the Kam- 
barikan mouth, it does by no means form it ; for 
it obviously derives its name from the Kambadar& 
or Kambaraka river, as I observed before. 
Ptolemy says that the Ganges sends an arm 
towards the east or to the left, directly to the 
false mouth or HarinaghattS.. From this springs 
another branch to Antibol^, which of course 
is the Dh&kk^ branch called the Padm& or 
Puddagangft. This is a mistake, but of no great 
consequence, as the outlines remain the same. 
It is the Padd& or DhakkS. branch, which sends an 
arm into the HarinaghattA. The branching out is 
near Kasti and Komarkalli, and under various 
appellations it goes into the Harinaghatt& 

Besides the tributaries of the Ganges already 
mentioned, Ptolemy refers to two others which it 
receives from the range of Bepyrrhos. These are 
not named, but one is certainly the Kausiki and the 
other ought to be either the Gandaki or the Tista. 

31. And of the other rivers the positions 

are thus : 

The sources of the River Na- 

mados in the Ouindion rangel 27° 26° 30' 











The bend of the river at 

Seripala 116^ 30' 

Its confluence with the River 
Moghis 115° 

32. Sources of the River 
Nanagoune. from the Onindion 

range 132° 

Where it bifurcates into the 

Goaris and Binda 114° 

33. Sources of the Pseudos- 
tomos from the Bettigo range. 123° 
The point where it turns 118° 30^ 

34. Sources of the River 

Baris in the Bettigo range ...127° 26° 30' 

Sources of the River S61en 

in the Bettig6 range 127° 20° 30' 

The point where it turns 124° 18° 

35. Sources of the River 
Khaberos in the Adeisathros 

range 132° 22° 

36. Sources of the River 
Tyna in the Oroudian (or 
Arouedan) Mountains 133° 17° 

37. Sources of the River 
Maisolos in the same moun- 
tains 134° 30' 17° 3y 

38. Sources of the River 
Manda in the same moun- 

tp,ins 136° 30' 16° 30' 

39. Sources of the River 

Toundis in the Ouxenton range.137^ 22° 30' 


40. Sources of the River 

Dosaron in the same range ...140° 24^ 

41. Sources of the River 


Adamas in the same range ...142° 24^ 

These rivers have been all already noticed, 
with the exception of the Mo phis. This is 
now the Mahi, a considerable river which flows 
into the Gulf of Khambat at its northern extre- 
mity at a distance of about 35 miles north from 
the estuary of the Narmdda. Ptolemy is in error 
in making the two rivers join each other. The 
Mophis is mentioned in the Periplus as the Mais. 
In this list the spelling of the names of two of 
the rivers of Orissa has been slightly changed, the 
Manada into Manda and Tyndis into Toundis. 

Ptolemy proceeds now (following as tnuch as 
possible the order already observed) to give a list 
of the different territories and peoples of India 
elassified according to the river-basins, together 
with the towns belonging to each territory and 
each people {%%^2—^Z), and closes the chapter 
hy mentioning the small islands that lay adjacent 
to the coast. He begins with the basin of the 
KSphes, part of which he had already described 
in the 6th Book. 

42. The order of the territories in this divi- 
sion (India intra Gangem) and of their cities 
or villages is as follows : — 

Below the sources of the Koa are located the 
Lambatai, and their mountain region extends 
upwards to that of the Komedai. 


Below the sources of the Souastos is Souast6nS. 

Below those of the Indus are the Daradrai, 
in whose country the mountains are of surpass- 
ing height. 

Below the sources of the Bidasp^s and of the 
Sandabal and of the Adris is Kaspeiria. 

Below the sources of the Bibasis and of the 
Zaradros and of the Diamouna and of the 
Oanges is Kylindrine, and below the Lambatai 
and SouastenS is Goryaia. 

Ptolemy's description of the regions watered 
by the K 6 p h e n and its tributaries given here and 
in the preceding book may well strike us with 
surprise, whether we consider the great copious- 
ness of its details, or the way in which its parts 
have been connected and arranged. It is evident 
that he was indebted for his materials here chiefly 
to native sources of information and itineraries of 
merchants or caravans, and that he did not much 
consult the records, whether historical or geogra- 
phical, of Alexander's expedition, else he would not 
have failed to mention such places as Alexandria, 
under Kaukasos, Massaga, Nysa, Bazira, the rock 
Aomos, and other localities made memorable by 
that expedition. 

In describing the basin of the Kophen he 
divides it into two distinct regions — the high region 
and the lower, a distinction which had been made 
by the contemporaries of Alexander. The high 
region formed the country of the Paropani- 
8 a d a i, and this Ptolemy has described in the 18th 
chapter of the 6th Book, He now describes the 
14 G 


lower region wliich^he regards as a part of India. 
(V. Saint-Martin, Etude, pp. 62-3). 

The Lambatai were the inhabitants of the 
district now called Lamghan, a small territory 
lying along the northern bank of the EAbul river 
bounded on the west by the AHng&r and Knn&r 
rivers, and on the north by the snowy mountains. 
Lamgh&n was visited in the middle of the 7th 
century by Hiuen Tsiang, who calls it Lan-po, 
and notes that its distance eastward from Kapi- 
sene, to which before his time it had become 
subject, was 600 li (equal to 100 miles). The 
name of the people is met with in the Mahd- 
hhdrata and in the Paurdnik lists under the form 
Lamp&ka. Cunningham would therefore correct 
Ptolemy's Lambatai to Lambagai by the slight 
change of r for T. A minute account of this 
little district is given in the Memoirs of the Em- 
peror Baber, who states that it was called after 
Lamech, the father of Noah. The Dictionary of 
Hemachandra, which mentions the Lamp&ka, 
gives as another name of the people that of the 
Muranda. Their language is Pushtu in its basis. 
(See Cunningham's Geog, of Anc, India, pp. 42-3; 
Saint-Martin, Etude, pp. 74-5; also his L'Asie 
Central, p. 48 ; Lassen, Ind. Alt., vol. I, p. 422. 

Souastene designates the basin of the 
Souastos, which, as has already been noticed, is 
the river now called the river of Sw&t. The full 
form of the name is 6ubhavastu, which by the 
usual mode of contraction becomes Subhastu 
or Suvastu. SouastenS is not the indigenous 
name of the district, but one evidently formed for 
it by the Greeks. It is the country now inhabited 


by the warlike tribes of the Tuzofzai's which 
appears to have been called in ancient times with 
reference to the rich verdure and fertility of its 
valleys Udy&na, that is, * a garden' or * park.' It 
was visited by Hiuen Tsiang, who calls it the 
kingdom of U-chang-na. 

The Daradrai : — Ptolemy has somewhat dis- 
figured the name of these mountaineers, who are 
mentioned in the Mahdbhdrata and in the Chro- 
nicle ofKaimir as the Darada. They inhabited 
the mountain-region which lay to the east of the 
Lambatai and of Souastend, and to -the north 
of the uppermost part of the course of the Indus 
along the north-west frontier of Kalmir. This 
was the region made so famous by the story of 
the gold-digging ants first published to the west 
by Herodotos (lib. Ill, c. cii), and afterwards 
repeated by Megasthen^s, whose version of it is 
to be found in Strabo (lib. XV, c. i, 44) and 
in Arrian's Indika (sec. 15) and also in Pliny 
(lib. YI, c. xxi and lib. XI, c. xxxvi). The name 
of the people in Strabo is Derdai, in Pliny 
Dardae, and in Dionys. Peri^g. (v. 1138) Dardanoi. 
Their country still bears their name, being called 
Dardistdn. The Sanskrit word darad among other 
meanings has that of ' mountain.' As the regions 
along the banks of the Upper Indus produced gold 
of a good quality, which found its way to India 
and Persia, and other countries farther west, it has , 

been supposed that the Indus was one of the four u rk *^ 
rivers of Paradise mentioned in the book of Genesis, 
viz. , the Pishon, * * which compasseth the whole land 
of Havilah, where there is gold; and the gold of that 
land is good." This opinion has been advocated by 

r.*- ' 


flcliolars of high name and authority. Havilah 
they take to be in a much altered form, the Sans- 
krit sardvara, *a lake/ with reference perhaps 
^y^ to the lake in Tibet called Manasarovara. 

^ ^r\ Boscawen, however, has pointed out that there 

Kjf^ }^\^ was a river called the Pisanu, belonging to the 

J» ( ^ ^ I I *^ region between Nineveh and Babjlon, where he 

locates paradise. 
^^ ^ t' Kaspeiria: — The name and the position 

X concur in indicating this to be the valley of 

Kasmir, a name which, according to Bumouf , 
is a contraction of Kahjapamira, which is 
thought with good reason to be the original 
whence came the Kaspap3rros of the old Geographer 
Hekataios and the ILaspatyros of Herodotos (lib. 
Ill, c. cii), who tells us (lib. lY, c. xliv) that it was 
from the city of that name and from the Paktyikan 
land that Skylax the Karyandian started on his 
voyage of discovery down the Indus in order to 
ascertain for Darius where that river entered the 
sea. It cannot be determined with certainty 
where that city should be located, but there can 
be no good reason, as Wilson has shown (in opposi- 
tion to the views of Wilf ord, Heeren, Mannert, 
and Wahl) for fixing it on any other river than 
the Indus. " We have no traces," he says, " of 
any such place as Kaspatyrus west of the Ic^dus. 
Alexander and his generals met with no such city, 
nor is there any other notice of it in this direction. 
On the east of the river we have some vestige of 
it in oriental appellations, and Kaspatjrrus is con- 
nected apparently with Kasmir. The preferable 
reading of the name is Kaspa-pyrus. It was so 
styled by Hecataeus, and the alteration is probably 


an error. Now Kasjapa-pur, the city of Kasjapa, 
is, according to Sanskrit writers, the original 
designation of Kasmir; not of the province of 
the present day, but of the kingdom in its palmy 
state, when it comprehended great part of the 
Fanj&b, and extended no doubt as far as, if not 
beyond, the Indus." — Ar. Antiq., p. 137. 

In the time of Ptolemy the kingdom of Kasmtr 
was the most powerful state in all India. The 
dominions subject to its sceptre reached as far 
south as the range of the Yindhyas and embraced,, 
together with the extensive mountain region 
wherein the great rivers of the Panj&b had their 
sources, a great part of the Fanj&b itself, and the 
countries which lay along the courses of the 
Jamn& and the Upper Granges. So much we 
learn from Ptolemy's description which is quite 
in harmony with what is to be found recor- 
ded in the Rdjatarangini, regarding the period 
which a little preceded that in which Ptolemy 
wrote — that the throne of Kasmlr was then 
occupied by a warlike monarch called Megh4va- 
hana who carried his conquests to a great distance 
southward (Bdjatar. vol. Ill, pp. 27 sqq.) The valley 
proper of Kasmir was the region watered by the 
BidaspSs ( Jhelam) in the upper part of its course. 
Ptolemy assigns to it also the sources of the 
Sandabal (Chen§,b) and of the Ehouadis (R&vi) 
and thus includes within it the provinces of the 
lower Him&layan range that lay between Kasmir 
and the Satlaj. 

Kylindrine designated the region of lofty 
mountains wherein the Vip&sa, the ^atadru, the 
Jamn& and the Ganges had their sources. The 



inhabitantB called K n 1 i n d a are mentioned in 
the Mahdbhdrata in a long list there given of tribes 
dwelling between MSm and Mandara and upon 
the SaQodA river, nnder the shadow of the 
Bambu forests, whose kings presented lumps of 
ant-gold at the solemnity of the inauguration of 
Yudhishthira as universal emperor. Cunningham 
would identify KylindrinS with '* the ancient 
kingdom of J&landhara which since the occupa- 
tion of the plains by the Muhammadans has been 
confined almost entirely to its hill territories, 
which were generally known by the name of 
f ^ Kangra, after its most celebrated fortress." Saint- 

'•i*-^ i,^^ Martin, however, is unable to accept this identifica- 

Ition. A territory of the name of K u 1 u t a, which 
was formed by the upper part of the basin of the 
Vip&s&, and which may be included in the Kylin- 
'^ 4.** drin^ of Ptolemy, is mentioned in a list of the 

}r.»^ » \ ^ Vardha Samhitd. Kuluta was visited by the 

^ l^t*'' Chinese pilgrim, Hiuen Tsiang, who transcribes 

' ' ' N ^ " \ the name Klu-iu-to, a name which still exists 

t^*^ *^ under the slightly modified form of Koluta. (See 

^ : • Lassen, Ind. AU, vol. I, p. ^ 547 ; Wilson, Ar. Antiq, 

,, ^\^' " p. 135 n. ; Saint-Martin, Etude, 217; Cunningham, 

U' "^^ GeoflT. pp. 136—138. 

Goryaia designates the territory traversed 
by the Gouraios or river of Ghor, which, as 
has already been noticed, is the affluent of the 
K&bul liver now called the 'Landai', formed 
by the junction of the river of PaSjkora and 
the river of Sw&t. Alexander on his march to 
India passed through Goryaia, and having crossed 
the River Gouraios entered the territory of the 
Assakenoi. The passage of the river is thus de- 


t ♦ 


Bcribedby Arria2i(il»a&. lib. IV, c. xxv): "Alexander 
now advanced with a yiew to attack the Assake- 
noi, and led his army through the territory of the 
Gk>uraioi. He had great difficulty in crossing 
the Grouraios, the eponymous river of the country, 
on account of the depth and impetuosity of the 
stream, and also because the bottom was so strewn 
with pebbles that the men when wading through 
could hardly keep their feet." It can scarcely be 
doubted that the Gk)uraios is the Gauri mentioned 
in the 6th Book of the Makdhhdrata along with the 
Suv&stu and the Kampan&. Arrian's notion that 
it gave its name to the country by which it flowed 
has been assented to by Lassen but has been contro- 
verted by Saint-Martin, who says (p. 33), "the 
name of the Gouraioi did not come, as one would 
be inclined to believe, and as without doubt the 
Greeks thought, from the river of Gur which 
watered their territory ; the numerous and once 
powerful tribe of Ghori, of which a portion occu- 
pies still to this day the same district, to the west 
of the Landai', can advance a better claim to the 
attribution of the ancient classical name." In a 
note to this passage he says : " Kur, with thi& 
signification of 'river,' courant, is a primitive 
term common to most of the dialects of the Indo- 
Germanic family. Hence the name of Kur 
(Greek, Kvpos, Kvppos, Lat. Cyrus) common to 
different rivers of Asia. . . . This name (of 
Ghoris or Gl!b*s) ought to have originally the 
signification of ' mountaineers.' It is at least a 
remarkable fact that all the mountain region 
adjacent to the south of the Western Hindi!l-k6h 
and its prolongation in the direction of Her&t 


have borne or still bear the names of Gfir, Ghor, 
x)r Ghaor, Gurk&n, Gorjistfbi, &c. Let us add 
that garayo in Zend signifies ' mountains*' " 

43. And the cities are these : — 

Kaisana , 120^ 34° 20' 

Barborana '. 120° 15' 33° 40' 

Gorya 122° 34° 45' 

Nagara or Dionysopolis 121° 45' 33° 

Drastoka 120° 30^ 32° 30^ 

Kaisana, Barborana and Drastoka 
are places unknown, but as the same names occur 
in the list of the towns of the Faropanisadai (lib. 
YI, c. zviii, 4) it is not improbable, as Saint-Martin 
conjectures, that the repetition was not made by 
Ptolemy himself, but through a careless error on 
the part of some copyist of his works. Cunningham 
thinks that Drastoka may have designated a town, 
in one of the dards or ' valleys ' of the Koh-D&man, 
and that Baborana may be FarwS«n, a place of some 
consequence on the left bank of the Ghorband 
river in the neighbourhood of Opifin or Alexan- 
dria Opiane. Kaisana he takes to be the Cartana 
of Pliny (lib. VI, c. xxiii) according to whom it 
was situated at the foot of the Caucasus and not 
far from Alexandria, whilst according to Pto- 
lemy it was on the right bank of the P&njshir 
river. These data, he says, point to BSgr&m, which 
is situated on the right bank of the P&njshir and 
Ghorband rivers immediately at the foot of the 
Kohist&n hills, and within 6 miles of Opi&n. 
Begrfim also answers the description which Pliny 
gives of Cartana as TetragonU, or the ' square ;' 
for Masson, in his account of the ruins especially 


notices ** some moimds of great magnitude, and 
accurately describing a square of considerable 
dimensions." A coin of Eukratides has on it the 
legend Karisiye Nagara or city of Karisi (Geog, 
of Anc, Ind,, pp. 26 — 29). 

G 6 r y a : — Saint-Martin thinks that the position 
of this ancient city may be indicated by the situa- 
tion of Mola-gouri, a place on the right or western 
bank of the River Landa^i, as marked in one of 
Court's maps in the Jour. Beng. As. Soc, vol. VIII, 
p. 34). 

Nagara or Dionysopolis : — Lassen has 
identified this with Nanghenhar, the Nagara- 
hS.ra of Sanskrit, a place mentioned under this 
name in the Paurdnik Geography, and also in a 
Buddhistic inscription thought to belong to the 
9th century which was found in Behar. The city 
was visited by Hiuen Tsiang, who calls it Na- 
kie-lo-ho. It was the capital of a kingdom 
of the same name, which before the time of the 
pilgrim had become subject to Kapisa, a state 
which adjoined it on the west. Its territory 
consisted of a narrow strip of land which 
stretched along the southern bank of the K&bul 
river from about Jagdalak as far westward as the 
Khaibar Pass. The city was called also Udy&na- 
pura, that is, * the city of gardens,' and this name 
the Greeks, from some resemblance in the sound 
translated into Dionysopolis (a purely Greek 
compound, signifying * the city of Dionysos,' the 
god of wine), with some reference no doubt to 
legends which had been brought from the regions 
of Paropanisos by the companions of Alexander. 
This name in a mutilated form is found in- 
15 G 


Bcribed on a medal of Dionysios, one of the 
Greek kings, who possessed the province of what 
is now called Afghanistan in the 2nd century B.C. 
Some traces of the name of Udy&napura still 
exist, for, as we learn from Masson, "tradition 
affirms that the city on the plain of Jal&l&bad was 
called A j tl n a," and the Emperor Baber men- 
tions in his Memoirs a place called Adinapnr, 
which, as the same author has pointed out, is 
now Bala-b&gh, a village distant about 13 miles 
westward from Jalalabad near the banks of the 
Surkhrud, a small tributary of the K&bul river. 

As regards the site ofNagarah&ra, this was 
first indicated by Masson, and afterwards fixed 
with greater precision by Mr. Simpson, who having 
been quartered for four months at Jalal&bad 
during the late Af gh&n war took the opportunity of 
investigating the antiquities of the neighbourhood, 
which are chiefly of a Buddhist character. He 
has given an account of his researches in a paper 
read before the Royal Asiatic Society, and pub- 
lished in the Society's Journal (Vol. XIII, pp. 183 
— 207). He there states that he found at a 
distance of 4 or 5 miles west from JaJ&labad 
numerous remains of what must have been an 
ancient city, while there was no other place in 
all the vicinity where he could discover such 
marked evidences of a city having existed. The 
ruins in question lay along the right bank of a 
stream called the Surkh&b, that rushed down 
from the lofty heights of the Sufaid-koh, and 
reached to its point of junction with the Kabul 
river. The correctness of the identification he 
could not doubt, since the word 'Nagrak/ 


* Nagarat,' or * Nagara' was still applied to 
the ruins by the natives on the spot, and since 
the site also fulfilled all the conditions which 
were required to make it answer to the descrip- 
tion of the position of the old city as given by 
Hiuen Tsiang. (See Lassen, Ind. Alt., vol. II, p. 
335; Saint-Martin's -4sie0en^raZe, pp. 52 — 56; Cun- 
ningham, Geog. of Anc. Ind., pp. 44 — 46 ; Masson, 
Various Journeys, vol. Ill, p. 164). 

44. Between the Souastos and the Indus 
tlie Gandarai and these cities : — 

Proklais 123° 32° 

Naulibi 124° 20' 33° 20' 

The Gandarai : — Gandhara is a name of high 
antiqtiity, as it occurs in one of the 7edic hymns 
where a wife is represented as saying with re- 
ference to her husband, ** I shall always be for 
him a Grandhara ewe." It is mentioned frequently 
in the Mahdbhdrata and other post-Yedic works, 
and from these we learn that it contained the two 
royal cities of Takshasila (Taxila) and P u s h- 
kar^vati (Peukelaotis) the former situated to 
the east and the latter to the west of the Indus. 
It would therefore appear that in early times the 
Gandharic territory lay on both sides of that river, 
though in subsequent times it was confined to the 
western side. According to Strabo the country 
of the Gandarai, which he calls Gandaritis, lay 
between the Khoaspes and the Indus, and along 
the River Kophes. The name is not mentioned 
by any of the historians of Alexander, but it 
must nevertheless have been known to the Greeks 
as early as the times of Hekataios, who, as we 


learn from Stephanos of Byzantion, calls Kaspa- 
pyros a Gandaric city. Herodotos mentions the 
Gandarioi (Book III, c. xci) who includes them 
in the 7th Satrapy of Darius, along with the 
Sattagydai, the Dadikai and the Aparytai. In 
the days of As6ka and some of his immediate 
successors Gandhara was one of the most 
flourishing seats of Buddhism. It was accordingly 
visited both by Fa-hian and Hiuen Tsiang, wto 
found it to contain in a state of ruin many mo- 
numents of the past ascendancy of their faith. 
From data supplied by the narratives of these 
pilgrims Cunningham has deduced as the boun- 
daries of Gandhara, which they call Kien-to-lo, 
on the west Lamghan and Jalal&bad, on the north 
the hills of Sw&t and Bimir, on the east the 
Indus, and on the south the hills of K&labagh. 
" Within these limits," he observes, " stood 
several of the most renowned places of ancient 
India, some celebrated in the stirring history of 
Alexander's exploits, and others famous in the 
miraculous legends of Buddha, and in the sub- 
sequent history of Buddhism under the Indo- 
Scythian prince Kanishka." {Geog. of Ind., 
p. 48.) Opinions have varied much with regard 
to the position of the Gandarioi. Rennell placed 
them on the west of Baktria in the province after- 
wards called Margiana, while Wilson {Ar, Antiq., 
p. 131) took them to be the people south of the 
Hindtl-ki^sh, from about the modem Kandah&r 
. , V ' ■ * • to the Indus, and extending into the Panj&b and 
^ ' • , to Kasmir. There is, however, no connexion be- 

\' ^' ^ ' > I tween the names of Gandaria and Kandah&r. 
'' z-^'" P r ok la'is is the ancient capital of Gandhara^ 




situated to the west of the Indus, which was men- 
tioned in the preceding remarks under its Sanskrit 
name Pushkal&vati, which means ' abounding 
in the lotus.' Its name is given variously by the 
Greek writers asPeukelaotis, Peukolaitis, Peukelas, 
and Prokla'is, the last form being common to Pto- 
lemy with the author of the PeripMs. The first 
form is a transliteration of the P&li Pukhalaoti ; 
the form Peukelas which is used by Arrian is taken 
by Cunningham to be a close transcript of the 
P&li Pukkala, and the P r o k 1 a i s of Ptolemy to 
be perhaps an attempt to give the Hindi name of 
Pokhar instead of the Sanskrit Pushkara. Arrian 
describes Peukelas as a very large and populous 
city l3ring near the Indus, and the capital of a 
prince called Astes. Ptolemy defines its position 
with more accuracy, as being on the eastern bank 
of the river of Souasten^. The PeriplUa informs 
us that it traded in spikenard of various kinds, 
and in kostus and bdellium, which it received 
from different adjacent countries for transmis- 
sion to the coast of India. It has been identified 
with Hasht-nagar {i.e., eight cities) which lies at 
a distance of about 17 miles from Parash&war 
(Pesh&war). Perhaps, as Cunningham has suggest- 
ed, Hasht-nagar may mean not * eight cities ' but 
* the city of Ast^s,' 

Na u 1 i b i :— " It is probable," says Cunningham, 
" that Naulibi is Nil&b, an important town which 
gave its name to the Indus ; but if so it is wrongly 
placed by Ptolemy, as Nil&b is to the South of the 
Kophes" (Geog. of Anc. Ind., p. 48). 

45. Between the Indus and the Bidasp^ 


towards the Indus the A r s a territory and 
these cities : — 

Ithagouros 125° 40' 33° 20' 

Taxiala 125° 32° 15' 

A r s a represents the Sanskrit IT r a s a, the 
name of a district which, according to Cunning- 
ham, is to be identified with the modem district 
of Rash in Dhanfcawar to the west of Muzafara- 
bad, and which included all the hilly country 
between the Indus and Kasmir as far south as 
the boundary of Atak. It was visited by Hiuen 
Tsiang, who caUs it U-la-shi and places it between 
Taxila and Kasmir. Pliny, borrowing from Me- 
gasthen^s, mentions a people belonging to these 
parts called the Arsagalitae. The first part 
of the name answers letter for letter to the name 
in Ptolemy, and the latter part may point to the 
tribe Ghilet or Ghilghit, the Gahalata of Sanskrit. 

(V. Saint-Martin, Etude , pp. 59-60). Urasa is 
mentioned in the Mahdbhdrata and once and 
again in the Rdjatarangini. 

Ithagouros : — The Ithagouroi are mentioned 
by Ptolemy (lib. YI, c. xvi) as a people of Serika, 
neighbouring on the Issedones and Throanoi. 
Saint-Martin takes them to be the Dagors or 
Dangers, one of the tribes of the Daradas. 

Taxiala is generally written as Taxila by 
the classical authors. Its name in Sanskrit is 
Taksha-sila, a compound which means * hewn rock* 
or * hewn stone.' Wilson, thinks it may have been 
so called from its having been built of that ma- 
terial instead of brick or mud, like most other 
cities in India, but Cunningham prefers to ascribe 


to the name a legendary origin. The Pali form of 
the name as found in a copper -plate inscription 
is Takhasila, which sufficiently accounts for 
the Taxila of the Greeks. The city is described by 
Arrian {Anah. lib. V, c. viii) as great and wealthy, 
and as the most populous that lay between the 
Indus and the Hydaspes. Both Strabo and Hiuen 
Tsiang praise the fertility of its soil, and the 
latter specially notices the number of its springs 
and watercourses. Pliny calls it a famous city, 
and states that it was situated on a level where 
the hills sunk down into the plains. It was 
beyond doubt one of the most ancient cities in 
all India, and is mentioned in both of the great 
national Epics.* At the time of the Makedonian 
invasion it was ruled by a prince called Taxiles, 
who tendered a voluntary submission of himself 
and his kingdom to the great conqueror. About 
80 years afterwards it was taken by Asoka, the son 
of Yindusara, who subsequently succeeded his ■ ;f 

father on the throne of Magadha and established 
Buddhism as the state religion throughout his <1 ^ ' ' ^ . ^ 
wide dominions. In the early part of the 2nd 
. century B.C. it had become a province of the / w U » 

t < 

' Jl 

masters however, for in 126 B.C. the Indo-Sky- 


GrsBCO-Baktrian monarchy. It soon changed ^^.^v*, ^. v *' 
thian Sus or Abars acquired it by conquest, and 7^ » ^ ^ 

retained it in their hands till it was wrested from 
them by a different tribe of the same nationality, 
under the celebrated Kanishka. Near the middle 
of the first century A.D. ApoUonius of Tyana 
and his companion Damis are said to have 
visited it, and described it as being about the 
size of Nineveh, walled like a Greek city, and as 




the residence of a soYereign who ruled over what 
of old was the kingdom of Foros. Its streets 
were narrow, but well arranged, and such alto- 
gether as reminded the travellers of Athens. 
Outside the walls was a beautiful temple of 
porphyry, wherein was a shrine, round which were 
hung pictures on copper tablets representing the 
feats of Alexander and Poros. (Priaulx's ApoU 
Ion., pp. 13 sqq.) The next visitors we hear of 
were the Chinese pilgrims Ea-hian in 400 and 
Hiuen Tsiang, first in 630, and afterwards in 643. 
To them, as to all Buddhists, the place was especi- 
ally interesting, as it was the scene of one of 
Buddha's most meritorious acts of alms-giving, 
when he bestowed his very head in charity. After 
this we lose sight altogether of Taxila, and do 
not even know how or when its ruin was accom- 
plished. Its fate is one of the most striking 
instances of a peculiarity observable in Indian 
history, that of the rapidity with which some of 
its greatest capitals have perished, and the 
completeness with which even their very names 
have been obliterated from living memory. That 
it was destroyed long before the Muhammadan 
invasion may be inferred from the fact that its 
name has not been found to occur in any Muham- 
madan author who has written upon India, even 
though his account of it begins from the middle 
of the tenth century. Even Albiriini, who was 
bom in the valley of the Indus, and wrote so 
early as the time of MahmM of Ghazni, makes 
no mention of the place, though his work abounds 
with valuable information on points of geogra- 
phy. The site of Taxila has been identified by 


Gnimingliam, who has ^ven an account of his 
explorations in his Ancient Geography of India 
(pp. 104 — 124). The ruins, he says, cover an area 
of six square miles, and are more extensive, more 
interesting, and in much better preservation than 
those of any other ancient place in the Panj^b. 
These ruins are at a place called SMh-dheri, 
which is just one mile from Kala-ka-serai, a town 
lying to the eastward of the Indus, from whicAi it 
is distant a three days' journey. Pliny says only a 
two days' journey, but he under-estimated the 
distance between Peukelaotis and Taxila, whence 
his error. 

46. Around the BidaspSs, the country of 
the Pandoouoi, in which are these cities : — 

Labaka 127^30' 34^15' 

Sagala, otherwise called Euthy- 

media 126^20' 32° 

Boukephala 125° 3(y 30° 20' 

lomousa 124° 15' 30° 

The Country of the Pandoouoi: — The 
Pandya country here indicated is that which 
formed the original seat of the P&ndavas or 
Lunar race, whose war with the Kauravas or 
Solar race is the subject of the Mahdbhdrata, 
The P^ndavas figure not only in the heroic 
legends of India, but' also in its real history, — 
princes of their line having obtained for them- 
selves sovereignties in various parts of the coun- 
try, in R&jputana, in the Panjab, on the banks of 
the Ganges, and the very south of the Peninsula. 
From a passage in the Lalitavistara we learn that 
at the time of the birth of ^akyamuni a Pandava 
16 G 


dynasty reigned at Hastinapura, a city on the 
Upper Ganges, about sixty miles to the north-east 
of Dehli. Megasthenes, as cited by Pliny, men- 
tions a great PS.ndaya kingdom in the region of 
the Jamn&, of which Mathnr& was probably the 
capital. According to Bajput tradition the cele- 
brated Vikram&ditya, who reigned at Ujjain (the 
O z e n e of theOreeks) about half a century B. C, 
and" whose name designates an epoch in use 
among the EUnd^s, was a P&ndava prince. From 
the 8th to the 12th century of our gera P&ndavas 
iniled in Indraprastha, a city which stood on 
or near the site of Dehli. When all this is con- 
sidered it certainly seems surprising, as Saint- 
Martin has observed (^Etvde, 206 n.) that the 
name of the Pandus is not met with up to the 
present time on any historic monument of the 
north of India except in two votive inscriptions of 
Buddhist stiijpas at Bhilsa. See also Mude, 
pp. 205, 206. 

L a b ak a : — ** This is, perhaps," says the same 
author (p. 222), "the same place as a town of 
Lohkot (Lavakota in Sanskrit) which makes a 
great figure in the R&jput annals among the cities 
^ of th fi_PaDJ^ b, but its position is not known for 
* certain. Wilford, we know not on what authority, 
identified it with Labor, and Tod admits his 
opinion without examining it." 

S a g a 1 a, called also Euthymedia : — Sagala 
or Sangala (as Arrian less correctly gives the 
name) is the Sanskrit Sakala or Sakala, which in 
its Prakiit form corresponds exactly to the name in 
Ptolemy. This city is mentioned frequently in the 
Mahdbhdraia, from which we learn that it was the 


capital of the M a d r a nation, and lay to tlie west 
of the Ravi. Arrian {Anah. lib. V, cc. xxi, xxii) 
placed it to the east of the river, and this error 
on his part has led to a variety of erroneous identi- 
fications. Alexander, he tells us, after crossing 
the Hydraotes (R&vi) at once pressed forward to 
Sangala on learning that the K athaia ns and other 
warlike tribes had occupied that stronghold for the 
purpose of opposing his advance to the Ganges. 
In reality, however, Alexander on this occasion 
had to deal with an enemy that threatened his rear, 
and not with an enemy in front. He was in con- 
sequence compelled, instead of advancing eastward, 
to retrace his steps and recross the Hydraotes. 
The error here made by Anian was detected by 
General Cunningham, who, with the help of data 
supplied by Hiuen Tsiang discovered the exact 
site which Sagala had occupied. This is as nearly 
as possible where Sangla-wala-tiha or * Sanglala 
hill' now stands. This Sangala is a hill with 
traces of buildings and with a sheet of water 
on one side of it. It thus answers closely to the 
description of the ancient Sangala in Arrian and 
Curtius, both of whom represent it as built on a 
hill and as protected on one side from attacks by 
a lake or marsh of considerable depth. The hill- 
is about 60 miles distant from Labor, where 
Alexander probably was when the news about the 
Kathaians reached him. This distance is such as 
an army by rapid marching could accomplish in 
• 3 days, and, as we learn that Alexander reached 
Sangala on the evening of the third after he had 
left the Hydraotes, we have here a strongly con- 
firmative proof of the correctness of the identi- 

," ' 




fication. The Makedanians destroyed SagaJa, bat 
it was rebuilt by Demetrios, one of the Grseco* 
Baktrian kings, who in hononr of his father 
EuthydSmos called it Euthydemia. From 
this it would appear that the reading Euth/ymidia 
as given in Nobbe's and other texts, is erroneous—* 
(see Cunningham's Oeog, of Anc. Ind., pp. ISO- 
IS?) cf. Saint-Martin, pp. 103—108). 

47. The regions extending thence towards 
the east are possessed by the Kaspeiraioi, 
and to them belong these cities : — 

48. Salagissa 129° SO^ 34^ 3V 

Astrassos 131° 15' 34^15' 

Labokla 128° 33° 20^ 

Batanagra 130° 33° 30^ 

Arispara 130° 32° 50^ 

Amakatis 128^15' 32° 20' 

Ostobalasara 129° 32° 

49. Kaspeira 127° 31° 15' 

Pasikana 1?8° 30' 31° 15' 

Daidala 128° 30° 30^ 

Ardon^ -.126° 15' 30° 10' 

Indabara 127° 15' 30° 

Liganeira 125° 30' 29° 

Khonnamagara 128° 29° 20' 

50. Modonra, the city of 

the gods 125° 27° 30' 

Gagasmira 126° 40' 27° 30' 

iferarasa, a Metropolis 123° 26* 

Kognandaua 124° 26' 

Boukephala : — ^Alexander, after the battle 





on the western bank of the HydaspSs in which 
he defeated Foros, ordered two cities to be built, 
one N i k a i a, so called in honour of his victoiy 
{niMj, and the other Boukephala, so called in 
honour of his favourite horse, Boukephalos, that 
died here either of old age and fatigue, or from 
wounds received in the battle. From the conflict- 
ing accounts given by the Greek writers it is 
difficult to determine where the latter city stood. 
If we follow Plutarch we must place it on the 
eastern bank of the HydaspSs, for he states 
(Vita Alexandre) that Boukephalos was killed in 
the battle, and that the city was built on the place 
where he fell and was buried. If again we follow 
Strabo (lib. XY, c. i, 29) we must place it on the 
west bank at the point where Alexander crossed 
the river which in all probability was at Dil&war. 
If finally we follow Arrian we must place it on 
the same bank, but some miles farther down the 
river at Jal&lptir, where Alexander had pitched 
his camp, and this was probably the real site. 
Boukephala seems to have retained its historical 
importance much longer than its sister city, for 
besides being mentioned here by Ptolemy it is 
noticed also in Pliny (lib. YI, c. xx) who says that it 
was the chief of three cities that belonged to the 
Asini, and in the PeriplUs (sec. 47) and elsewhere. 
N ik a i a, on the other hand, is not mentioned by 
any author of the Roman period except Strabo, 
and that only when he is referring to the times of 
Alexander. The name is variously written 
Boukephala, Boukephalos, Boukephalia, and 
Boukephaleia. Some authors added to it the 
surname of Alexandria, and in the Peutinger 


Tables it appears as Alexandria Bucefalos. The 
horse Boukephalos was so named from his * broV 
being very broad, like that of an * ox.' For a dis- 
cussion on the site of Boukephala see Ounmng- 
ham's Geog. of Anc. Ind., pp. 159 sqq. 

lomousa is probably Jamma, a place of 
great antiquity, whose chiefs were reckoned at 
one time among the five great rajas of the north. 
It doubtless lay on the great highway that led 
from the Indus to Palibothra. 

List of cities of the Kaspeiraioi : — This long 
list contains but very few names that can be 
recognized with certainty. It was perhaps care- 
lessly transcribed by the copyists, or Ptolemy 
himself may have taken it from some work the 
text of which had been already corrupted. Be 
that as it may, we may safely infer from the 
constancy with which the figures of latitude in 
the list decrease, that the towns enumerated were 
so many successive stages on some line of road 
that traversed the country from the Indus to 
Mathura on the Jamna. Salagissa, Aris- 
para, Fasikana, Liganeira, Khonna- 
m a gar a and Kognandaua are past all 
recognition; no plausible conjecture has been 
made as to how they are to be identified. 

Astrassos : — This name resembles the Atrasa 
of Idrisi, who mentions it as a great city of the 

Kanauj Empire {Etude, p. 226). 

L ab o k 1 a : — Lassen identified this with Labor, 
the capital of the Pan jab {Ind. Alt., vol. Ill, p. 152). 
Thornton and Cunningham confirm this identi- 
fication. The city is said to have been founded 
by Lava or Lo, the son of Rama, after whom it was 


named LoMwar. The Laho in Labo-kla must be 
taken to represent the name of Lava. As for the 
terminal hla, Cunningham (Geog. of Anc. Ind.y 
p. 198) would alter it to laka thus, making the 
whole name Labolaka for Lav&laka or ' the abode 
of Lava.' 

Batanagra : — Ptolemy places this 2 degrees 
to the east of Labokla, but Saint-Martin (p. 226) 
does not hesitate to identify it with Bhatnair (for 
Bhattanagara) * the town of the Bhatis' though 
it lies nearly three degrees south of Labor. Yule 
accepts this identification. A different reading 

Amakatis(v. 1. Amakastis). — According to 
the table this place lay to the S.E. of Labokla 
but its place in the map is to the S.W. of it 
. Cunningham (pp. 195 — 197) locates it near She- 
kohpur to the south of which are two ruined 
mounds which are apparently the remains of 
ancient cities. These are called Amba and Kapi 
respectively, and are said to have been called 
after a brother and a sister, whose names are 
combined in the following couplet : — 
Amba-Kapa pai larai 
Kalpi bahin chhurawan ai. 

When strife arose 'tween Amb and Kap 
Their sister Kalpi made it up. 
** The junction of the two names," Cunningham 
remarks, "is probably as old as the time of 
Ptolemy, who places a town named Amakatis or 
Amakapis to the west of the Ravi, and in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of Labokla or Labor." 
The distance of the mounds refeiTcd to from 
Labor is about 25 miles. 



08tobala8ara(v.l. Siobolasara) Saint-Martin 
has identified this with Thanesar (Sth&nesYara in 
Sanskrit) a very ancient city, celebrated in the 
heroic legends of the P&ndayas. Cunningham 
however thinks that Thanesar is Ptolemy's B a- 
tangkaisara and suggests that we should read 
Satan-aisara to make the name approach nearer 
to the Sanskrit Sth^^vara — ^the Sa-ta-ni-shi- 
fa-lo of Hiuen Tsiang (p. 331). 

Kaspeira : — '' If this name," says Saint-Martin 
(p. 226) *' is to be applied, as seems natural, to the 
capital of Kasmtr, it has been badly placed in 
the series, having been inserted probably by the 
ancient Latin copyists." 

Daidala: — ^An Indian city of this name is 
mentioned by Stephanos of Byzantion, but he 
locates it in the west. Curtius also has a Daedala 
(lib. VIII, c. x), a region which according to his 
account was traversed by Alexander before he 
crossed the Khoaspes and laid siege to Mazaga. 
Yule in his map places it doubtfully at Dudhal on 
the yhf<ghn.r river to the east of Bhatneer, near 
the edge of the great desert. 

A r d o n e : — ^Ahroni, according to Yule, a place 
destroyed by Timttr on his march, situated be- 
tween the Khaghar and Chitang rivers, both of 
which lose themselves in the great desert. 

Indabara is undoubtedly the ancient In- 
dra prastha, a name which in the common 
dialects is changed into Indabatta (Indopat), and 
which becomes almost Indabara in the cerebral 
pronunciation of the last syllable. The site of 
this city was in the neighbourhood of Dehli. It 
was the capital city of the Pandavas. The Prakfit 


form of the name is Indrabattba. (Lassen, vol. 
Ill, p. 151). 

M o d o u r^, the city of tbe gods : — ^Tbere is no 
difficulty in identifying tbis witb Mathur^ (Muttra) 
one of tbe most sacred cities in all India, and re- 
nowned as tbe birtbplace of Krisbna. Its temples 
struck MabmAd of Gbazni witb sucb admiration 
tbat be resolved to adorn bis own capital in a 
similar style. Tbe name is written by tbe Greeks 
Methora as well as Modoura. It is situated on 
tbe banks of tbe Jamna, bigber up tban Agra, 
from wbicb it is 35 miles distant. It is said to 
have been founded by S'atrugbna, tbe younger 
brotber of Rama. As already mentioned it was 
a city of tbe Pandavas wbose power extended far 
to westward. 

Gagasmira: —Lassen and Saint-Martin agi-ee 
in recognizing tbis as Ajmir. Yule, bowever, ob- 
jects to tbis identification on tbe ground tbat tbe 
first syllable is left unaccounted for, and proposes 
Jajbar as a substitute. Gegasius, be argues, I'epre- 
sents in Plutarcb YayS.ti, tbe great ancestor of 
tbe Lunar race, wbile Jajbpfir in Orissa was 
properly Tayatiptira. Hence probably in Jajbar, 
wbicb is near Debli, we bave tbe representative 
of Gagasmira. 

E r a r a s a : — Ptolemy calls tbis a metropolis. It 
appears, says Yule, to be Giriraja, ' royal bill/ and 
may be Goverdban wbicb was so called, and was 
a capital in legendary times [Ind. Antlq., vol. I, 
p. 23). Saint-Martin suggests Varanasi, now 
Banaras, wbicb was also a capital. He tbinks 
tbat tbis name and tbe next, wbicb onds tbe list, 
were additions of tbe Roman copyists. 

17 G 


61. Still further to the east than the Kas- 
peiraioi are the Gjmnosophistai, and 
after these around the Gtrnges further north 
are the Daitikhai with these towns : — 

Konta 133° 30^ 34° 40' 

Margara 135° 34° 

Batangkaissara and east of 

the river 132° 40' 33° 20' 

Passala 137° 34° 15' 

Orza 136° 33° 20' 

Gymnosophistai : — This Greek word means 
' Naked philosophers, ' and did not designate any 
ethnic or political section of the population, but 
a community of religious ascetics or hermits 
located along the Ganges probably, as Yule thinks 
in the neighbourhood of Hardw&r and also accord- 
ing to Benfey, of Dehli, Indien, p. 95. For an 
account of the Gymnosophists see Ind, Aniiq., 
vol. VI, pp. 242—244. 

Daitikhai : — This name is supposed to repre- 
sent the Sanskrit jatika, which means ' wearing 
twisted or plaited hair.' The name does not occur 
in the lists in this form but Kern, as Yule states, 
has among tribes in the north-east " Demons 
with elf locks " which is represented in Wilford 
by Jati'dhara. 

Konta, says Saint-Maitin (Etude, p. 321) is 
probably Kunda on the left bank of the Jamna 
to the south-east of Saharanpflr. 

Margara : — Perhaps, according to the same 
authority, Marhara near the Kalindi River to the 
north-east of Agra. 


Batangkaissara : — Yule objecting to 
Saint-Martin's identification of this place with 
Bhatkashanr in Saharanpur pargana, on the 
ground of its being a modem combination, locates 
it, but doubtingly, at Kesarwa east of the Jamn&, 
where the position suits fairly. 

Pas sal a: — PHny mentions a people called 
Fassalae, who may be recognized as the inhabi- 
tants of Panch&la or the region that lay between 
the Ganges and the JamnI;, and whose power, ac- 
cording to the Mahdbhdratay extended from the 
Him&layas to the Ghambal Biver. Passala we 
may assume was the capital of this important 
state, and may now, as Saint-Martin thinks, be 
represented by Bisauli. This was formerly a 
considerable town of Bohilkhand, 30 miles from 
Sambhal towards the south-east, and at a like 
distance from the eastern bank of the Ganges. 

Orza is perhaps Sarsi situated on the Bftm- 
gar^ river in the lower part of its course. 

52. Below these are the Anikhai with 
these towns : — 

Persakra 134° 32° 40' 

Sannaba 135° 32° 30' 

Toana to the east of the river . . .136° 30' 32° 

53. Below these Prasiak^ with these 
towns : — 

Sambalaka ..; 132° 15' 31° 50' 

Adisdara 136° 31° 30' 

Kanagora 135° 30° 40' 

Kindia ...' 137° 30° 20' 

Sagala, and east of the river. . .139° 30° 20' 


Aninakha 137° 20' 31° 40' 

Koangka 138° 20' 31° 30' 

Aiiikliai(v. 11. Nanikhai, Manikhai): — 
This name cannot be traced to its source. The 
people it designated must have been a petty tribe, 
as they had only 3 towns, and their territory 
must have lain principally on the south bank of 
the Jamn&. Their towns cannot be identified. 
The correct reading of their name is probably 
Manikhai, as there is a town on the Ganges in the 
district which they must have occupied called 
Manikpur. There is further a tribe belonging 
to the Central Himalaya region having a name 
slightly similar. Manga or Hangars, and the Ain-i- 
Akhari mentions a tribe of Manneyeh which had 
once been powerful in the neighbourhood of Dehli 
{Etude, p. 322). The form Nanikha would suggest 
a people named in the Mahdbhdrata and the 
Purdnas, the Naimishas who Eved in the 
region of the Jamna. 

P r a s i a k e. — This word , transliterates the 
Sanskrit Frdchyaka which means ' eastern ' and 
denoted generally the country along the Ganges. 
It was the country of the Prasii, whose capital 
was Palibothra, now Patn^, and who in the 
times immediately subsequent to the Makedonian 
invasion had spread their empire from the mouths, 
of the Ganges to the regions beyond tiie Indus. 
The Prasiake of Ptolemy however was a territory 
of very limited dimensions, and of uncertain boun- 
daries. Though seven of its towns are enumerated 
Palibothra is not among them, but is mentioned 
afterwards as the capital of the Mandalai and 
placed more than 3 degrees farther south than 


the most southern of them all. Yule remarks upon 
this : " Where the tables detail cities that are in 
Prasiake, cities among the Poruari, &c., we n^ust 
not assume that the cities ndmed were reallj in 
the territories named ; whilst we see as a sure 
fact in various instances that they were riot. 
Thus the Mandalae, displaced as we have men- 
tioned, embrace Palibothra, which was notoriously 
the city of the Prasii ; while Prasiake is shoved 
up stream to make room for them. Lassen has 
so much faith in the uncorrected Ptolemy that 
he accepts this, and finds some reason why 
Prasiake is not the land of the Prasii but some- 
thing else." 

Sambalaka is Sambhal, already mentioned 
as a town of Rohilkhand. Sambalaka or Sam- 
bhala is the name of several countries in India, 
but there is-only this one town of the name that 
is met with in the Eastern parts. It ia. a very 
ancient town and on the same parallel as Dehli. 

Adisdara : — This has been satisfactorily iden- 
tified with Ahichhatra, a city of great anti- 7 
quity, which figures in history s o early a s the 14tli 
century B.C. At this timelt wss the capital of 
Northern PanchSla. The form of the name in 
Ptolemy by a slight alteration becomes Adisadra, 
and this approximates closely to the original form. 
Another city so called belonged to Central India, 
and this appears in Ptolemy as Adeisathra, 
which he places in the country of the Bettigoi. 
The meaning of the name Ahi-chhattra is ' ser- 
pent umbrella ' and is explained by a local legend 
concerning Adi-Raja and the serpent demon, 
that while the Baja was asleep a serpent formed 



a canopy over him with its expanded hood. The 
fort is sometimes called Adikot, though the com- 
moner name is Ahi-chhatar, sometimes written 
Ahikshetra. The place was visited by Hiuen 
Tsiang. In modem times it was first visited by 
Captain Hodgson, who describes it as the ruins of 
an ancient fortress several miles in circumference, 
which appears to have had 34 bastions, and is 
known in the neighbourhood by the name of the 
P&adu's Port. It was visited afterwards by Cun- 
ningham {Anc. Geog. of Ind., pp. 359 — 363). 

Kan agora: — This, as Saint-Martin points 
out, may be a corruption for Kanagoza, a form of 
Kanydikubja or Kanauj. This city of old re- 
nown was situated on the banks of the K^linadi, 
a bi*anch of the Ganges, in the modem district of 
Farrukh&b&d. The name applies not only to the 
city itself but also to its dependencies and to the 
surrounding district. The etymology {kanyd, ' a 
girl,' and huhja, 'round-shouldered' or 'crooked') 
refers to a legend concerning the hundred daughters 
of Kusan&bha, the king of the city, who were all 
rendered crooked by Y&yu for non-compliance 
with his licentious desires (see also Beal, Bud- 
dhist Records, vol. I, p. 209). The ruins of the 
ancient city are said to occupy a site larger than 
that of London. The name recurs in another list 
of towns under the form Kanogiza, and is there 
far displaced. 

Kindia may be identified with Kant, an 
ancient city of Rohilkhand, the Sh&hjahanpur of 
the present day. Yule hesitates whether to identify 
it thus or with Mirzapur on the Ganges. 

S a g a 1 a : — *' Sagala/' says Saint-Martin {Etude, 


p. 326) " would carry us to a town of Sakula or 
Saghela, of which mention is made in the Bud- 
dhist Chronicles of Ceylon among the royal cities 
of the North of India, and which Tumour be- 
lieves to be the same town as Kusinagara, 
celebrated as the place where Buddha S&kyamuni 
obtained Nirvdna, Such an identification would 
carry us to the eastern extremity of K6sala, not 
far from the River Gandaki. 

K o a n g k a ought to represent the Sanskrit 
handka, * gold.' Mention is made of a town 
called in the Buddhistic legends Eanaka- 
vatt (abounding in gold), but no indication is 
given as to where its locality was (Etvde, p. 326). 

54. South of this Saurabatis with these 
towns : — 

EmpMathra 130° 30° 

Nadoubandagar 138° 40' 29° 

Tamasis 133° 29° 

Kouraporeina 130° 29° 

Saurabatis : — ^This division is placed below 
Prasiakd. The ordinary reading is Sandra- 
bat i s, which is a transliteration of the Sanskrit 
Chandravati. The original, Saint-Martin suggests, 
may have been Chhattravatt, which is used as a 
synonym of AhikshStra, and applies to that part 
of the territory of PaSch&la, which lies to the 
east of the Ganges. He thinks it more than 
probable that Sandrabatis, placed as it is just 
after a group of towns, two of which belong to 
Ahikshetra, does not differ from this Chhattravati, 
the only country of the name known to Sanskrit 
Geography in the Gangetic region. None of the 


four towns can be identified. (See Lassen, Ind. 
Alt. vol. I, p. 602 ; Etude J p. 326). Yule, however, 
points out that this territory is one of those 
which the endeavour to make Ptolemy's names 
cover the whole of India has greatly dislocated, 
transporting it from the S. W. of B^jputana to 
the vicinity of Bah&r. His map locates Sandra- 
bitis (Chandrabati) between the River Mahi and 
the Ar&vali mountains. 

55. And further, all the country along the 
rest of the course of the Indus is called by the 
general name of I n d o-S k y t h i a. Of this the 
insular portion formed by the bifurcation of the 
river towards its mouth is Patalen^, and the 
region above this is A b i r i a, and the region 
about the mouths of the Indus and Gulf of 
Kanthi is Syrastr^n^. The towns 'of 
Indo-Skythia are these : to the west of the river 
at some distance therefrom : — 

56. Artoarta 121° 30' 31° 15' 

Andrapana 121° 15' 30° 40' 

Sabana 122° 20' 32° 

Banagara 122° 16' 30° 40' 

Kodrana 121° 15' 29° 20' 

Ptolemy from his excursion to the Upper Ganges 
now reverts to the Indus and completes its geogra- 
phy by describing Indo-Skythia, a region 
which comprised all the countries traversed by the 
Indus, from where it is joined by the river of K&bul 
onward to the ocean. We haye already pointed 
out how Ptolemy's description is here vitiated 
by his making the combined stream of the Paujab 


riverB join the Indus only one degree below 
its junction with the £[li.bul, instead of six 
degrees, or half way between that point and 
the ocean. The egregious error he has here 
committed seems altogether inexcusable, for what- 
ever may have been the sources from which he 
drew his information, he evidently neglected the 
most accurate and the most valuable of all — the 
records, namely, of the Makedonian invasion as 
transmitted in writings of unimpeachable credit. 
At best, however, it must be allowed the determi- 
nation of sites in the Indus vaUey is beset with pecu- 
liar uncertainty. The towns being but very slightly 
built are sejdom of more than ephemeral duration, 
and if, as often happens they are destroyed by 
inundations, every trace is lost of their ever 
having existed. The river besides frequently 
changes its course and leaves the towns which it 
abandons to sink into decay and utter oblivion.** 
Such places again as still exist after escaping 
these and other casualties, are now known under 
names either altogether different from the an- 
cient, or so much changed as to be hardly recog- 
nizable. This instability of the nomenclature is 
due to the frequency with which the valley has 
been conquered by foreigners. The period at 

** Ariatoboulos as we learn from Strabo (lib. XV, c. i. 19) 
when sent into this part of India saw a tract of land 
deserted which contained 1,000 cities with their depen- 
dent villages, the Indus having left its proper channel, 
was diverted into another, on the left hand much deeper, 
and precipitated itseK into it like a cataract so that it 
no longer watered the country by the usual inundation 
on the right hand, from which it had receded, and this 
was elevated above the level, not only of the new chan- 
nel of the river, but above that of the (new) inun- 

18 G 


which the Skythians first appeared in the valley 
which was destined to bear their name for several 
centuries has been ascertained with precision 
from Chinese sources. We thence gather that 
a wandering horde of Tibetan extraction called 
Yuei-chi or Ye-tha in the 2nd century B. 0. 
left Tangut, their native country, and, advancing 
westward found for themselves' a new home amid 
the pasture-lands of Zungaria. Here they had 
been settled for about thirty years when the in- 
vasion of a new horde compelled them to migrate 
to the Steppes which lay to the north of the 
Jazartes. In these new seats they halted for only 
two years, and in the year 128 B. C. they crossed 
over to the southern bank of the Jaxartes where 
they made themselves masters of the rich pro- 
vinces between that river and the Orus, which had 
lately before belonged to the Grecian kings of 
Baktriana. This new conquest did not long 
satisfy their ambition, and they continued to 
advance southwards till they had overrun in suc- 
cession Eastern Baktriana, the basin of the 
Kophes, the basin of the Etymander with Ara- 
khosia, and finally the valley of the Indus and 
Syrastrene. This great horde of the Yetha was 
divided into several tribes, whereof the most 
powerful was that called in the Chinese annals 
Kwei-shwang. It acquired the supremacy over 
the other tribes, and gave its name to the king- 
dom of the Yetha. They are identical with the 
K u s h a n s. The great King Kanishka, who 
was converted to Buddhism and protected that faith 
was a Kushan. He reigned in the first century of 
the Christian sera and ruled from Baktriana to 


Kaimir, and from the Oxus to Sur&shtra. These 
Kushans of the Pan jab and the Indas are no 
others than the Indo-Skythians of the Greeks. 
In the Bdjatarangini they are called S&ka and 
Turushka (Turks). Their prosperity could not 
have been of very long duration, for the 
author of the PeriplUs, who wrote about half a 
century after Kanishka's time mentions that 
•* Minnagar, the metropolis of Skythia, was gov- 
erned by Parthian princes " and this statement 
is confirmed by Parthian coins being found 
everywhere in this part of the country. Max 
Miiller, in noticing that the presence of Turanian 
tribes in India as recorded by Chinese historians 
is fully confirmed by coins and inscriptions and 
the traditional .history of the country such as it 
is, adds that nothing attests the presence of 
these tribes more clearly than the blank in the 
Brahmanical literature of India from the first 
century before to the 3rd after our sera. He 
proposes therefore to divide Sanskrit literature 
into two — the one (which he would call the 
ancient and natural) before, and the other (which 
he would call the modem and artificial) after the 
Turanian invasion. In his Indo- Skythia Ptolemy 
includes Patalene, Abiria and Syras- 
trene. The name does not occur in Roman 

Patalene, so called from its capital Patala, 
was the delta at the mouth of the Indus. It was 
not quite so large as the Egyptian delta with which 
th e classical writers frequently compare it. Before 
its conquest by the Skythians it had been subject 
to the GrsBco-Baktrian kings. Its reduction to 


their authority is attributed by Strabo (lib. XI, c. 
xii, 1) to Menander or to Demetrios, the son of 
Euthy demos. 

Ab i r ia : — The country of the Ab h i r a s (the 
Ahirs of common speech) lay to the east of the 
Indus, above where it bifurcates to form the delta. 
In Sanskrit works their name is employed to de- 
signate generally the pastoral tribes that inhabit 
the lower districts of the North -West as far as 
Sindh. That Abiria is the O p h i r of Scripture 
is an opinion that has been maintained by scho- 
lars of eminence. 

Syrastrene represents the Sanskrit Surashtra 
(the modem Sorath) which is the name in the 
Mahdbhdrata and the Pur anas for the Peninsula 
of Gujarat. In after times it was called Valabhi. 
Pliny (lib. YI, c. xx) in his enumeration of 
the tribes of this part of India mentions the 
Horatae, who have, he says, a fine city, defend- 
ed by marshes, wherein are kept man-eating 
crocodiles that prevent all entrance except by 
a single bridge. The name of this people is 
no doubt a corruption of Sorath. They have an 
inveterate propensity to sound the letter 8 as 
an H. 

Ptolemy distributes into six groups the names 
of the 41 places which he specifies as belonging to 
the Indus valley and its neighbourhood. The 
towns of the second group indicate by their relative 
positions that they were successive stages on the 
great caravan route which ran parallel with the 
western bank of the river all the way from the 
Kophes junction downward to the coast. The 
towns of the fourth group were in like manner 


successive stages on another caravan route, that 

which on the eastern side of the river traversed 

the country from the great confluence with the 

combined rivers of the Panjab downward to the 

Delta. The towns of the first group (5 in number) 

belonged to the upper part of the valley, and were 

situated near the Kophes junction. They are 

mentioned in a list by themselves, as they did not 

lie on the great line of communication above 

mentioned. The third group consists of the two 

towns which were the chief marts of commerce 

in the Delta. The towns of the fifth group (7 in 

number) lay at distances more or less considerable 

from the eastern side of the Delta. The towns 

of the sixth group were included in the territory of 

the Khatriaioi, which extended on both sides /> , • ' 

of the river from its confluence with the Panj&b 

rivers as far as the Delta. None of them can 

now be identified (See Etude j pp. 234 sqq.) 

and of the first group — Artoarta, Sabana, 

K o d r a n a cannot be identified. 

Andrapana : — Cunningham (p. 86) thinks 
this is probably Draband, or Deraband, near Dera- 

Banagara (for Bana-nagara) : — Banna or 
Banu is often cited as the name of a town and 
a district that lay on the line of communica- 
tion between Kabul and the Indus. It was visited 
both by Fa-hian and Hiuen Tsiang. The former 
calls the country Po-na, i.e., Bana. , The latter 
calls it Fa-la-na, whence Cunningham conjec- 
tures that the original name was Yaranit or Bama. 
It consisted of the lower haK of the valley of the 
Kuram river, and was distant from Lamghan a 


-> /K 


15 days' journey southward. It is one of the 
largest, richest and most populous districts to the 
west of the Indus. — (See Geog. of Anc. Ind.^ pp. 

57. And along the river : — 

Embolima 124° 31° 

Pentagramma * 124° 30° 20^ 

Asigramma 123° 29° 30^ 

Tiausa 121° 30' 28° 60' 

Aristobathra 120° 27° 30' 

Azika 119° 20' 27° 

58. Pardabathra 117° 23° 30" 

Piska 116° 30' 25° 

Pasipeda 114° 30" 24° 

Sousikana 112° 22° 20' 

Bonis 111° 21° 30' 

Kdlaka 110^30' 20° 40' 

Embolima was situated on the Indus at a 
point about 60 miles above Attak, where the river 
escapes with great impetuosity from a long and 
narrow gorge, which the ancients mistook for its 
source. Here, on the western bank, rises the fort 
of Amb, now in ruins, crowning a position of 
remarkable strength, and facing the smaU town 
of Derbend, which lies on the opposite side of 
the river. The name of Amb suggested that 
it might represent the first part of the name of 
Emb-olima, and this supposition was raised to 
certitude when it was discovered that another 
ruin- not far off, crowning a pinnacle of the same 
hill on which Amb is seated, preserves to this 
day in the tradition of the inhabitants the 


name of Balimah. Embolima is mentioned by 
Arrian (lib. IV, c. xxvii) who represents it as 
situated at no great distance from the rock of 
A o r no s — which as Abbott has shown, was Mount 
Mah&ban, a hill abutting on the western bank of 
the Indus, about eight miles west from Embolima. 
It is called by Ourtius Ecbolima {Anab. lib. 
YIII, 0. xii) but he gives its position wrongly — at 
sixteen days' march from the Indus. Ptolemy 
assigns to it the same latitude and longitude 
which he assigns to the point where the KS.bul 
river and Indus unite. It was erroneously sup- 
posed that Embolima was a word of Greek origin 
from eK^okrj, *the mouth of a river' conf. Cun- 
ningham, Oeog. of Anc, Ind., pp. 52 fp.)* 

Pentagramma : — ^To the north of the K6- 
phes at a distance of about forty miles S.W. from 
Embolima is a place called Panjptllr, which agrees 
closely both in its position and the signification 
of its name (5 towns) with the Pentagramma of 

Asigrammaand the five towns that come 
after it cannot be identified. 

Pasipeda : — Saint-Martin thinks this may be 
the Besmeid of the Arab Geographers, which, as 
they tell us was a town of considerable importance, 
lying east of the Indus on the route from Man- 
sCora, to Multan. Its name is not to be found 
in any existing map ; bat as the Arab itineraries 
all concur in placing it between Rond (now Koda) 
and Multan, at a three days' journey from the 
former, and a two days' journey from the latter, 
we may determine its situation to have been as far 
down the river as Mithankot, where the great con- 


fluence now takes place. If the fact that Bes- 
meid was on the eastern side of the river staggers 
our faith in this identification, Saint-Martin would 
remind us that this pai't of the tables is far from 
presenting us with a complete or systematic treat- 
ment of the subject, and that the only way open 
to us of restoring some part at least of these lists 
is to have recourse to synonyms. He contends 
that when we find in the Arab itineraries (which 
are documents of the same nature precisely as those 
which Ptolemy made use of) names resembling 
each other placed in corresponding directions, we 
ought to attach more weight to such coincidences 
than to the contradictions real, or apparent, which 
present themselves in the text of our author. 
Analogous transpositions occur in other lists, as, 
for instance, in the list of places in the NarmadA 
basin. Cunningham, thinking it strange that a 
notable place of great antiquity like Sehw&n, 
which he identifies with Sindomana, should not 
be mentioned by Ptolemy under any recognizable 
name, hazards the conjecture that it may be either 
his Piska or Pasipeda. " If we take," he says, 
**Haidar&bad as the most probable head of the 
Delta in ancient times, then Ptolemy's S y d r o s, 
which is on the eastern bank of the Indus, may 
perhaps be identified with the old site of Mattali, 
12 miles above Haidarabad and his Pasipeda 
with Sehwan. The identification of Ptolemy's 
Oskana with the Oxykanus or Portikanus of 
Alexander and with the great mound of Mahorta 
of the present day is I think almost certain. If 
so, either Piska or Pasipeda must be Sehwan." 
Sousikana : — It is generally agreed that this 


18 a coi^i^pt i^eading for Mnsikana) the ro^al 
city of Musikanos, who figures so conspicuously in 
the records of the Makedonian Invasion, and whose 
kingdom was described to Alexander as being 
the richest and most populous in all India. Cun- 
ningham (p. 257) identifies this place with 
Alor, which was for many ages the capital of the 
powerful kingdom of Upper Sindh. Its ruins, ad 
he informs Us, are situated to the south of a gap in 
the low range of limestone hills which stretches 
southwards from Bakhar for about 20 miles until 
it "is lost in the broad belt of sand-hills which 
bound the NAra or old bed of the Indus on the 
west. Through this gap a branch of the Indus 
once flowed which protected the city on the north- 
west. To the north-east it was covered by a 
second branch of the river which flowed nearly 
at right angles to the other at a distance of three 
miles.. When Alor wa3 deserted by the river, 
it was supplanted by the strong fort of Bakhar 
(p. 258). The same author thinks it probable that 
.^lor may be the Binagara of Ptolemy, as it is 
placed on the Indus to the eastward of Oskana^ 
which appears to be the OxykanUs of Arrian and 

Bonis :— The table places this at the point of 
bifurcation of the western mouth of the river 
and an interior arm of it. Arab geographers 
mention a town called Bania in Lower Sindh, 
situated at the distance of a single journey below 
Mansur^. This double indication would ap- 
pear to suit very well with Banna, which stands 
at the point where the Piniari separates from the 
principal arm about 25 miles above Thatfcha. Its 
19 G 


position is however on the eastern bank of ther 
river. {Etude, pp. 238, 239.) 

Kolaka or Kolala is probably identical 
with the Krokala of Arrian's Indika (sec. 21 )y 
which mentions it as a small sandy island where 
the fleet of Nearkhos remained at anchor for 
one day. It lay in the bay of Karachi, which i» 
situated in a district called Karkalla even now. 

59. And in the islands formed by the river 
are these towns :— 

Patala 112^30' 2P , 

Barbarei 113° 15^ 22° 30' 

60. And east of the river at some distance 
therefrom are these towns : — 

Xodrake 116° 24° 

Sarbana 116° 22° 50' 

Auxoamis 115° 30' 22° 20' 

Asinda 114° 15' 22° 

Orbadarou or Ordabari 115° 22° 

Theophila 114° 15' 21° 10^ 

Astakapra 114° 40' 20° 15' 

Patala as we learn from Arrian was the 
greatest city in the parts of the country about 
the mouths of the Indus. It was situated, he 
expressly states, at the head of the Delta wherd 
the two great arms of the Indus dispart. This 
indication would of itself have sufficed for its 
identification, had the river continued to flow in 
its ancient channels. It has, however, frequently 
changed its course, and from time to time shifted 
the point of bifurcation. Hence the question 
regarding the site of Patala has occasioned much 


controversy. Rennell and Vincent, followed by 
Burnes and Ritter, placed it at That t ha ; Droysen, 
Benfey, Saint-Martinand Cunningham, at Haidarfir- 
b&d (the Nii'ankot of Arab writers), and McMurdo, 
followed by Wilson and Lassen, at a place about 90 
miles to the north-east of HaidarabS.d. The last 
supposition is quite untenable, while the arguments 
in favour of Haidarabad, which at one time was 
called Patalapur" appear to be quite conclusive. (See 
Saint-Martin, pp. 180 ff., Cunningham, pp. 279 — 
287). Fatala figures conspicuously in the history 
of the Makedonian invasion. In its spacious 
docks Alexander found suitable accommodation 
for his fleet which had descended the Indus, and 
here he remained with it for a considerable time. 
Seeing how advantageously it was situated for 
strategy as well as commerce, he strengthened it 
with a citadel, and made it a military centre for 
controlling the warlike tribes in its neighbour- 
hood. Before finally leaving India he made two 
excursions from it to the ocean, sailing first down 
the western and then down the eastern arm of 
the river. Patala in Sanskrit mythology was 
the name of the lowest of the seven regions in 
the interior of the earth, and hence may have 
been applied to denote generally the parts where 
the sun descends into the under world, the land 
of the west, as in contrast to Pr&chayaka, the 
land of the east. Pdtala in Sanskrit means * the 

•* ** The Brahmans of SehvSn have stated to us that 
aooording to local legends recorded in their Sanskrit 
books Kaboul is the ancient Chichapolapoura ; Mult&n, 
Prahl^dpnr; Tattah, D§val, Haidarfibftd, N#ran, and 
more anciently P&talpuri." Dr. J. Wilson, Joum. 
Bombay Asiat, /8<?c,, vol. Ill, 1850, p. 77- 


trumpet-flower/ and Cunttii^ham thinks that 
the Delta may have been so called from some 
resemblance in its shape to that of this flower. 
The classic writers generally spell the name as 

Barbarei : — The position of Barbarei, like that 
of Patala, has been the subject of much discussion. 
The table of Ptolemy places it to the north of that 
city, but erroneously, since Barbarei was a mari- 
time port. It is mentioned in the Periplus under 
Jihe name ofBarbarikon, as situated on the 
middle mouth of the Indus. D'Anville in opposi- 
tion to all the data placed it at Debal Sindhi, the 
great emporium of the Indus during the middle 
ages, or at Kar&chi, while EUiot, followed by 
Cunningham,, placed it at an ancient city,, of 
which some ruins are still to be found, called 
Bambhara, and situated almost midway between 
Kai*achi and Thattha on the old western branch of 
the river which Alexander reconnoitred. Bumes 
again, followed by Bitter, placed it at RicheU 
and Saint-Martin a little further still to the 
east at Bandar Vikkar on the Hajamari mouth, 
which has at several periods been the main 
channel of the river. 

Xodrak^andSarbana orSardana: — As 
the towns in this list are given in their order from 
north to south, and as Astakapra, the most south- 
em^ was situated on the coast of the peninsula of 
Gujarat, right opposite the mouth of the river 
Narmada, the position of Xodrake and the other 
places in the list must be sought for in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Ean of ICachh. Xodrake and 
Sarbana have not been identified, but Yule doubtc- 


ingly places the latter on the Sambhar Lake. 
Lassen takes Xodrake to be the capital of the 
Xudraka, and locates it in the comer of land 
between the Yitasta and Chandrabh^g& (Ind, Alt. y 
vol. in, p. 145). 

A si n d a, according to Saint-Martin, may per- 
haps be Sidhpur (Siddhapura), a town on the 
river Sarasvati, which rising in the Aravalia 
empties into the Gulf of Kachh (pp. 246-247). 

Auxoamisco'Axamis : — The same authority 
would identify this with Stlmi, a place of import- 
ance and seat of a Muhammadan chief, lying a 
little to the east of the Sarasvati and distant 
about twenty-five miles from the sea. Tule how- 
ever suggests that Ajmir may be its modem 

Orbadarou orOrdabari : — Yule doubtful- 
ly identifies this with Arbuda or Mount Ab(i, the 
principal summit of the Ara valis . Pliny mentions 
alongside of the Horatae (in Gujarat) the O d- 
omboerae whieh may perhaps be a different 
form of the same word. The name Udumbara is. 
one well-known in Sanskrit antiquity, and desig- 
nated a royal race mentioned in the HarivanSa. 

Theophila : — ^This is a Greek compound mean- 
ing * dear to God,' and is no doubt a translation 
of some indigenous name. Lassen has suggested 
that of Sardhur, in its Sanskiit form Suradara> 
which means * adoration of ihe gods.* Sardhur is. 
situated in a valley of the R^vata mountains 
so celebrated in the legends of Krishna. Yule 
suggests Dewaliya, a place on the isthmus, 
which connects the peninsula with the mainland. 
Dr. Burgess, Than, the chief town of a district 


traditionally known as Deva-Pa&cli&l, lying a 
little further west than Dewaliya. Col. Watson 
writes : — " The only places I can think of for 
Theophila are — 1. GCbidi, the ancient Gundigadh, 
one and a half or two miles further up the Hathap 
river, of which city Hastakavapra was the port. 
This city was one of the halting-places of the 
Bhaunagar Br&hmans ere they came to Gogha. It 
was no doubt by them considered dear to the gods. 
It was connected with Hastakavapra and was a 
city of renown and ancient. 2. Pardwa or Priya- 
deva, an old village, about four or five miles west 
of Hathap. It is said to have been contemporary 
with Yalabhi, and there is an ancient Jain temple 
there, and it is said that the Jains of Gundigadh 
had their chief temple there. 3. Devagana, an 
ancient village at the foot of the west slopes of 
the Khokras about 18 miles from Hdthap to the 

Astakapra : — This is mentioned in the Peri- 
pZ^« (sec. 41), as being near a promontory on the 
eastern side of the peninsula which directly 
confronted the mouth of the Narmada on the 
opposite side of the giilf . It has been satisfactorily 
identified with Hastakavapra, a name which occurs 
in a copper-plate grant of Dhruvasena I, of 
Valabhi, and which is now represented by Hathab 
near Bhavnagar. Biihler thinks that the Greek 
form is not derived immediately from the Sans- 
krit, but from an intermediate old Prakrit word 
Hastakampra. {Seelnd. Ant.t vol. V, pp. 204, 314. 

61. Along the river are these towns : — 

Panasa 122^30' 29° 

Boudaia 121° 15' 28° 15' 



Naagramina 120** 2T 

Kamigara 119° 26° 20' 

Binagara 118° 25° 20' 

Parabali 116° 30' 24° 30' 

Sydros 114° 21° 20' 

Epitausa 113* 45' 22° 30' 

Xoana 113° 30' 21° 30' 

F a n a 8 a : — The table places Panasa one degree 
farther south than the confluence of the Zara- 
dros and the Indus. Ptolemy, as we have seen, 
egregiously misplaced this confluence, and we 
cannot therefore from this indication learn more 
than that Panasa must have been situated lower 
down the Indus than Pasipeda (Besmaid) and 
Alexandria of the Malli which lay near the con- 
fluence. A trace of its name Saint-Martin thinks 
is preserved in that of Osanpur, a town on the 
left of the river, 21 miles below Mittank6t. 

B o u d a i a : — According to Saint- Martin this is 
Very probably the same place as a fort of Budhya 
Or Bodhpur, mentioned in the Arab chronicles of 
the conquest of Upper Sindh and situated proba- 
bly between Alor and Mittankot. Yule identifies 
it with Budhia, a place to the west of the Indus 
and south from the Bolan Pass. 

Naagramma : — This Yule identifies with 
Naoshera, a place about 20 miles to the south of 
Besmaid. Both words mean the same, *new 

Kamigara : — The ruins of Aror which are 
visible at a distance of four miles to the south-east 
of Kori, are still known in the neighbourhood under 
the name of Kaman. If to this word we add 


ike comiAoii Indian affix nagar — ' city,' we have a 
Hear approaoh to the Kamigara of Ptolemy. 

Binagara: — This some take to be a less 
tJorrect form than Minnagar given in the Peri- 
pMsf where it is mentioned as the metropolis of 
Skythia, but under the government of Parthian 
prince6> who were constantly at feud with each 
other for the supremacy. Its position is very 
uncertain. Cunninghajn would identify it with 
AloF. Yule, following McMurdo, places it much 
fni^her south near Bi^hmand.b&d> which is some 
distance north from Haidardbad. The PeripMs 
states that it lay in the interior above Bai^barikon 
(sec. 38). 

X o a n a :— *Yule suggests that this may be 
Sewana^aplace in the country of the Bhauliogas, 
between the desert, and the Ardvalis. 

62. The parts east of Indo- Skythia along 
the coast belong to the country of L a r i k e, and 
here in the interior to the West of the river 
Namados is a mart of commerce, the city of 
Barygaza 113° 15' 17° 20' 

63. To the east of the river : — 

Agrinagara 118^15' 22° 30' 

Siripalla 118° 30' 21° 30' 

Bammogoura 116° 20° 45' 

Sazantion 115° 30' 20° 30' 

Z^rogerei 116° 20' 19° 50' 

Oz^n^, the capital of Tias- 

tanes 117^ 20° 

Minagara 115° 10' 19° 30' 

Tiatoura 115° 50' 18° 50' 

Nasika 114° 17° 



L&rikS: — lArddsawas an early name for the 
territory of Gujar&t and the Northern Konkan. 
The name long survived, for the sea to the west 
of that coast was in the early Muhammadan 
time called the sea of lAr, and the language spoken ^ ^« 

on its shores was called by Mas'ddi, L&ri (Yide's 
Marco Polo, vol. II, p. 353, n.). Ptolemy's Larike was 
a political rather than a geographical division and 
as such comprehended in addition to the part of 
the sea-board to which the name was strictly 
applicable, an extensive inland territory, rich in 
agricultural and commercial products, and possess- 
ing large and flourishing towns, acquired no doubt 
by military conquest. 

Barygaza, now Bharoch, which is still a 
large city, situated about 30 miles from the sea 
on the north side of the river Naimad^, and on an 
elevated mound supposed to be artificial, raised 
about 80 feet above the level of the sea. The 
place is repeatedly mentioned in the PeriplUs, 
At the time when that work was written, it 
was the greatest seat of commerce in Western 
India, and the capital of a powerful and flourish- 
ing state. The etymology of the name is thus 
explained by Dr. John Wilson {Indian Castes, 
vol. II, p. 113): "The Bhirgavas derive their 
designation from Bh&rgava, the adjective form of 
Bhrigu, the name of one of the ancient Rishis. 
Their chief habitat is the district of Bharoch, 
which must have got its name from a colony of 
the school of Bhrigu having been early established 
in this Kshetra, probably granted to them by 
some conqueror of the district. In the name 
Barugaza given to it by Ptolemy, we have a 
20 G 


Greek comiption of Bhrigukslietra (the territory 
of Bhrigu) or Bhrigukachha, * the tongue-land' of 
Bhrigu." The illiterate Gujar&tia pronotmce 
Bhrigukehetra as Bargacha, and hence the Greek 
form of the name. 

Agrinagara : — ^This means * the town of the 
Agri.' Ynle places it at Agar, about 30 miles to 
the N. E. of Uj jain. 

Si rip alia: — ^A place of this name (spelt 
Seripala) has already been mentioned as sitnatecE 
where the Namados (Narmada;) changes the direc- 
tion of its course. Lassen therefore locates it in 
the neighbourhood of Haump, where the river 
turns to southward. 

B a m m o g on r a : — In Yule's map this is iden- 
tified with Pavai^arh, a hill to the north of the 

Sazantion : — This may perhaps be identical 
with Sajintra, a small place some distance north 
from the upper extremity of the Bay of Khambat. 

Zerogerei : — ^This is referred by Tide to 
Dh&r, a place S^ W. of Ozene, about one degree. 

O z e n e : — This is a transliteration of U j j a- 
y i n i, the Sanskrit name of the old and famous 
eity of Avanti, still called Ujjain. It was the 
capital of the celebrated Yikramaditya, who 
having expelled the Skythians and thereafter 
established his power over the greater part of 
India, restored the HindA monarchy to its ancient 
aplendouip. It was one of the seven sacred cities 
€>f the HindASy and the first meridian of their 
astronomers. We learn from the Mahdvahsa 
■(fliat As&ka, the grandson of Chandragupta (Sand* 
rakottos) was sent by his father the- king o£ 


Pataliputra (Patna) to be the viceroy of Ujjain, 
and also that about two centuries later (B.C. 95) 
a certain Buddhist high priest took with him 
40,000 disciples from the Dakkhinagiri temple 
at Ujjain to Ceylon to assist there in laying 
the foundation stone of the great D&gaba at 
Anuradhapura. Half a century later than this is 
the date of the expulsion of the Skythians by 
Vikramdditya, which forms the sera in Indian 
Chronology called Samvat (57 B.C.) The next 
notice of Ujjain is to be found in the PeripMa 
where we read {Sec. 48) " Eastward from Barygaza 
is a city called Ozene, formerly the capital where 
the king resided . From this place is brought down 
to Barygaza every commodity for local consump- 
tion or export to other parts of India, onyx-sfeones, 
porcelain, fine muslins, mallow-tinted cottons and 
the ordinary kinds in great quantities. It imports 
from the upper country through Proklais for trans- 
port to the coast, spikenard, kostos and bdellium." 
From this we see that about a century and a 
half after Vikramaditya's sera ♦Ujjain was still a 
flourishing city, though it had lost something of 
its former importance and dignity from being no 
longer the residence of the sovereign. The ancient 
city no longer exists, but its ruins can be traced 
at the distance of a mile from its modem successor. 
Ptolemy tells us that in his time Ozene was the 
capital of Tiastanes. This name transliterates 
Chashtana, one which is found on coins and the 
cave temple inscriptions of Western India. This 
j)idnce appears probably to have been the founder 
of the Ksliatrapa dynasty of Western India 
(see Ind. Alt, vol. III,p^ 174). 


Minagara is mentioned in the PeripUU, 
where its name is more correctly given as M i n- 
n ag a r, i.e., ' the city of the M i n' or Skythians. 
This Minagara appears to have been the residence 
of the sovereign of Barygaza. Ptolemy places 
it about 2 degrees to the S. W. of Oz^nd. Yule 
remarks that it is probably the Manekir of Mas'A- 
di, who describes it as a city lying far inland 
and among mountains. Benfey doubts whether 
there were in reality two cities of this name, and 
thinks that the double mention of Minnagar in the 
PeriplUs is quite compatible with the supposition 
that there was but one city so called. {Indien, p. 91). 

Tiatoura: — This would transliterate with 
Chittur, which, however, lies too far north for the 
position assigned to Tiatoura. Tule suggests, 
but doubtingly,it8 identity with Chandur. This 
however lies much too far south. 

N a 6 i k a has preserved its name unaltered to 
the present day, distant 116 miles N. E. from 
Bombay. Its latitude is 20° N., but in Ptolemy 
only 17°. It was one of the most sacred seats 
of Br&hmanism. It has alsoimpoi'tant Buddhistic 
remains, being noted for a group of rock-temples. 
The word nd$ikd means in Sanskrit * nose.' 

64. Tb^ parts farther inland are possessed 
by the Poulindai Agriophagoi, and 
beyond them are the K h a t r i a i o i, to whom 
belong these cities, lying some east and some 
west of the Indus : — 

Nigranigramma 124° 28° 15' 

Antakhara 122° 27° 20' 

Soudaflanna 123° 26° 50' 


Sjmisika 12r 26^30' 

Patistama 12P 25** 

Tisapatinga 123° 24^20' 

The 'Poulindai' Agriophagoi are 
described as occupying the parts northward of 
those just mentioned. Pulindais a name 
applied in Hindft works to a variety of aboriginal 
races. Agriophagoi is a Greek epithet, and indi- 
cates that the Pnlinda was a tribe that subsisted on 
raw flesh and roots or wild fruits. In Yule's map 
they are located to the N. E. of the Ran of Kachh 
lying between the Khatriaioi in the north and 
Larike in the south. Another tribe of this name 
lived about the central parts of the Vindhyas. 

Khatriaioi: — According to Greek writers /, 
the people that held the territory comprised 
between the Hydraotes (R&vi) and the Hyphasis 
(Biyas) were the Kathaioi, whose capital was 
Sangala. The Mahdbhdrata, and the Pali Bud- 
dhist works speak of Sangala as the capital of 
the Madras, a powerful people often called also 
the B&hlkas. Lassen, in order to explain the 
substitution of name, supposes that the mixture 
of the Madras with the inferior castes had led 
them to assume the name of Khattrias (Ksha- 
triya, the warrior caste), in token of their 
degradation, but this is by no means probable. 
The name is still found spread over un 
immense area in the N. W. of India, from 
the HindA-koh as far as Bengal, and from 
Nepfil to Gujarat, under forms slightly variant, 
Kathis, Kattis, Kathias, Kattris, Khatris, Khe- 
"taws, Kattaour, Kattair, Kattaks, and others. ' 


fVjT , , ^ I One of these tribes, the K&this, issuing from the 

. *^ ** , I lower parts of the Panjab, established themselves 

•^ ' |v^" in Surashtra, and gave the name of KSithiS,vad to 

, ^P the great peninsula of Gujarat. (Etude, p. 104). 

The six towns mentioned in section 64 can 
none of them be identified. 

65. But again, the country between Mount 
Sardonyx and Mount Bettigo belongs to the 
Tabasoi, a great race, while the country 
beyond them as far as the Vindhya range, along 
the eastern bank of the Namados, belongs to 
the Prapiotai, who include the R h a m n a i, 
and whose towns are these : — 

Kognabanda 120° 15' 23° 

Ozoabis 120° 30' 23° 40' 

Ostha 122° 30' 23° 30' 

Kosa, where are diamonds . ..121° 20' 22° 30' 

Tabasoi is not an ethnic name, biit desig- 
nates a community of religious ascetics, and 
represents the Sanskrit Tdpasds, from tapas 
' heat' or * religious austerity.' The haunts of 
these devotees may be assigned to the valley of 
the Tapti or Tapi (the Nanagouna of Ptolemy) 
to the south of the more western portion of the 
Vindhyas that produced the sardonyx. 

Prapiotai : — Lassen locates this people, in- 
cluding the subject race called the Bhamnai, in 
the upper half of the NarmadS. valley. From the 
circumstance that diamonds were found near 
Kosa, one of their towns, he infers that their 
territory extended as far as the Upper Varada, 
where diamond mines were known to have 
existed. Kosa was probably situated in the 


neighbourliood of Baital, north of the sources of 
the T&pti and the Yarad&. 

• B h a m n a i : — The name of this people is one 
of the oldest in Indian ethnography. Their 
early seat was in the land of the Oreltai and 
Arabitai beyond the Indus, where they had a 
capital called Rhambakia. As they were con- 
nected by race with the Brahui, whose speech 
must be considered as belonging to the Dekhan 
group of languages, we have here, says Lassen 
{Ind, Alt, vol. Ill, p. 174), a fresh proof confirm- 
ing the view that before the arrival of the Aryans 
all India, together with Gedrosia, was inhabited by 
the tribes of the same widely dilEused aboriginal 
race, and that the Bhamnai, who had at one time 
been settled in Gedrosia, had wandered thence 
as far as the Yindhya mountains. Yule conjec- 
tures that the Bhamnai may perhaps be associated 
with Rdmagiri, now EAmtek, a famous holy place 
near N&gpftr. The towns of the Prapidtai, four 
in number, cannot with certainty be identified. 

66. About the Nanagouna are the P h y 1- 
1 i t a i and the Bettigoi, including the 
Kandaloi along the country of the Phyl- 
litai and the river, and the Ambastai along 
the country of the Bettigoi and the , mountain 
range, and the following towns : — 

6?. Agara 129^20^ 25^ 

Adeisathra 128^30' 24^30' 

Soara 124^20' 24° 

Nygdosora 125° 23° 

Anara 122° 30' 22° 20' 


The Phyllitai occupied the banks of 
the T&pti lower down than the Rhamnai, and 
extended northward to the Sfttpnra range. 
Lassen considers their name as a transliteration 
of B hi 1 1 a, with an appended Greek termination. 
The Bhtlls are a well-known wild tribe spread to 
this daj not only on the Upper Narmadll and 
the parts of the Yindhya chain adjoining, but 
wider still towards the south and west. In 
Ptolemy's time their seats appear to haye been 
further to the east than at present. Yule thinks it 
not impossible that the Phyllitai and the Dnlo- 
phyllitai may represent thePulinda, a name 
which, as has already been stated, is given in 
HindiH works to a variety of aboriginal races. 
According to Caldwell {Drav, Gram., p. 464) the 
name Bhilla (vil, hil) means * a bow.' 

Bettigoi is the correct reading, and if the 
name denotes, as it is natural to suppose, the 
people living near Mount Bettigo, then Ptolemy 
has altogether displaced them, for their real 
seats were in the country between the Koim- 
batur Gap and the southern extremity of the 

Kandaloi : — Lassen suspects that the reading 
here should be Gondaloi, as the Gonds (who are 
nearly identical with the IQiands) are an ancient 
race that belonged to the parts here indicated. 
Yule, however, points out that Kuntaladesa and 
the Eantalas appear frequently in lists and in 
inscriptions. The country was that, he adds, of 
which Kaly&n- was in after days the capital 
(Elliot, Jovr. B. As. 8. vol. IV, p. 3). 

Ambastai : — These represent the Ambashtha 


of Sanskrit, a people mentioned in the Epios, 
where it is said that they fought with the club for 
a weapon. In the Laws of Manu the name is 
appKed to one of the mixed castes which practised 
the healing art. A people called Ambautai are 
mentioned by our author as settled in the east of 
the country of the Faropanisadai. Lassen thinks 
these may have been connected in some way with 
theAmbastai. Their locality is quite uncertain. 
In Yule's map they are placed doubtfully to the 
south of the sources of the Mah&nadi of Orissa. 

Of the four towns, Agara, Soara, Nygdosora 
and Anara, in section 67, nothing is known. 

Adeisathra: — It would appear that there 
were two places in Ancient India which bore the 
name of Ahichhattra, the one called by Ptolemy 
Adisdara (for Adisadra), and the other as here, 
Adeisathra. Adisdara, as has been already shown, 
was a city of Bohilkhand. Adeisathra, on the 
other hand, lay near to the centre of India. Yule 
quotes authorities which seem to place it, he says, 
near the Yindhyas or the Narmad&. He refers 
also to an inscription which mentions it as on 
the Sindhu River, which he takes to be either 
the KaU-sindh of M&lw&, or the Little Kali- 
sindh further west, which seems to be the Sindhu 
of the M^ghadHta. Ptolemy, singularly enough, 
disjoins Adeisathra from the temtory of the 
Adeisathroi, where we would naturally expect him 
to place it. Probably, as Yule remarks, he took 
the name of the people from some Pauranik 
ethnic list and the name of the city from a 
—traveller's route, and thus failed to make them fall 
into proper relation to each other. 

21 G 


68. Between Mount B S 1 1 i g 6 and A d e i- 
s a t h r o s are the S 6 r a i nomads, with these 
towns : — 

Sangamarta 133** 21° 

S6ra, the capital of Arkatos 130° 21° 

69. Again to the east of the Vindhya 
range is the territory of the (Biolingai or) 
Bolingai, with these towns : — 

Stagabaza or Bastagaz^ 133° 28° 30' 

Barda6tis 137° 30' 28° 30' 

S 6 r a designates the northern portion of 
the Tamil country. The name in Sanskrit is 
Chola, in Telugu Ohola, but ia Tamil Sora 
or Chora. Sora is called the capital of Ar- 
katos. This must be an error, for there can be 
little doubt that Arkatos was not the name of a 
prince, but of a city, the Ark&d of the present day. 
This is so suitably situated, Caldwell remarks, as 
to suggest at once this identification, apart even 
from the close agreement as far as the sound is 
concerned. The name is properly Ar-k4d, and 
means ' the six forests.' The Hindtis of the place 
regard it as an ancient city, although it is not 
mentioned by name in the Purdnaa (Drav. Gram,, 
Introd. pp.*95, 96). There is a tradition that the 
inhabitants of that part of the country between 
Madras and the Ghats including Arkdd as its 
centre were Kurumbars, or wandering shepherds, 
for several centuries after the Christian SBra* 
Cunningham takes Arkatos to be the name of 
a prince, and inclines to identify Sora with 
Zora or Jora (the Jorampur of the maps) an 
old town lying immediately under the walls of 


Kamul. The S6rai he takes to be the Stiari 
(Geog. p. 647). 

Biolingai or Bolingai : — Ptolemy has 
transplanted this people from their proper seats, 
which lay where the Ar&vali range slopes west- 
ward towards the Indus, and placed them to the 
east of the Yindhyas. He has left us however 
the means of correcting his error, for he makes 
them next neighbours to the Porvaroi, whose 
position can be fixed with some certainty. Pliny 
(lib. VI, c. ix) mentions the Bolingae and locates 
them properly. According to P&nini, Bhaulingi 
was the seat of one of the branches of the great 
tribe of the 6alvas or 6&lvas. 

Stag^abaza : — Yule conjectures this may be 
.Bh63apAr, which he says was a site of extreme 
antiquity, on the upper stream of the Betwd, where 
are remains of vast hydraulic works ascribed to 
a king Bhoja (/. A. 8. Bang, vol. XVI, p. 740). 
To account for the first part of the name staga he 
suggests the query : Tataka-Bhoja, the ' tank ' or 
' lake ' of Bhoja ? 

Bardaotis : — This may be taken to represent 
the Sanskrit Bhadrftvati^ a name, says Tule, famed 
in the Epic legends, and claimed by many cities. 
Cunningham, he adds, is disposed to identify it 
with the remarkable remains (pre-Ptolemaic) 
discovered at Bhar&od, west of R^wA. 

70. Beyond these is the country of the 
Porouaroi with these towns : — 

Bridama 134° 30' 27^30' 

Tholoubana 136° 20' 27° 

Malaita 136° 30' 25° 50' 


71. Beyond these as far a& the Onxentos 
range are the Adeisathroi with these 
towns : — 

Maleiba 140^ 27^ 20^ 

Aspathis 138° 30' 25° 20' 

Panassa 137° 40' "24° 30' 

Sag^da, the Metropolis 133° 23° 30' 

Balantipyrgon 136° 30' 23° 30' 

Porouaroi (Porvaroi): — This is the fa- 
mous race of the Pauravas, which after the 
time of Alexander was all predominant in R&jas- 
th&na nnder the name of the Pramaras. The 
race figures conspicuously both in the legendary 
and real history of the North of India. It is 
mentioned in the hymns of the Veda, and fre- 
quently in the Mahdbhdrata, where the first kings 
of the Lunar race are represented as being 
Pauravas that reigned over the realms included 
bebween the Upper Ganges and the Yamun&. The 
later legends are silent concerning them, but 
they appear again in real history and with fresh 
distinction, for the gallant Poros, who so intre- 
pidly contended against Alexander on the banks 
of the HydaspSs, was the chief of a branch of 
the Paurava whose dominions lay to the west 
of that river, and that other Poros who went on 
an embassy to Augustus and boasted himself to 
be the lord paramount of 600 vassal kings was also 
of the same exalted lineage. Jjven at the present 
day some of the noblest houses reigning in 
different parts of B&jasthan claim to be descended 
from the Pauravas, while the songs of the national 
bards still extol the vanished grandeur and the 


power and glory of this ancient race . Saint- Martin 
locates the Porouaroi of the text in the west of 
Upper India,, in the very heart of the B&jp(lt 
country, though the table would lead us to place 
them much farther to the east. In. the position 
indicated the name even of the P6rouaroi is 
found almost without alteration in the Furvar 
of the inscriptions, in the Poravars of the Jain 
clans, as much as in the designation spread every- 
where of Povars and of Pouars, forms variously 
altered, but still closely approaching the classic 
Paurava {Etude, pp. 357 sqq.) 

The names of the three towns assigned to 
the Porvaroi, — B ridama, Tholoubana and 
M a 1 a i t a designate obscure localities, and their 
position can but be conjectured. Saint-Martin 
suggests that the first may be Dildana, the second 
Doblana, and the third Plaita, all being places in 
Ei&jput&na. Yule, however, for Bridama proposes 
BardAwad, a place in a straight line from Indor 
to Nimach, and for Mai ait a, — Maltaun; this 
place is in the British territory of Sag&r and 
Narmada, on the south declivity of the Naral Pass. 

Adeisathroi : — It has already been pointed 
out that as Ptolemy has assigned the sources of 
the Khaberis (the Kaveri) to his Mount Adeisa- 
thros, we must identify that range with the section 
of the Western Gh&ts which extends immediately 
northward from the Koimbatur Gap. He places 
Adeisathros however in the central parts of India, 
and here accordingly we must look for the cities 
of the eponymous people. Five are mentioned, 
but S a g e d a only, which was the metropolis, 
can be identified with some certainty. The name 


represents the S&kSta of Sansknt. S&keta was 
another name for AyodhyA on the Sarayti, a 
city of vast extent and famous as the capital of 
the kings of the Solar race and as the residence 
for some years of S^kyamuni, the founder of 
Buddhism. The Sageda of our text was however 
a different city, identified by Dr. F. Hall with 
Tewar, near Jabalptir, the capital of the Chedi, 
a people of Bandelakhand renowned in Epic 
poetry. Cunningham thinks it highly probable 
that the old form of the name of this people was 
ChangMi and may be preserved in the Sageda of 
Ptolemy and in the Ohi-ki-tho of Hiuen Tsiang in 
Central India, near the NarmadA. He says: — 
** The identification which I have proposed 
of Ptolemy's Sageda Metropolis with Chedi 
appears to me to be almost certain. In the 
first place, Sageda is the capital of the Adeisa- 
throi which I take to be a Greek rendering 
of Hayakshetra or the country of the Hayas or 
Haihayas. It adjoins the country of the Bettigoi, 
whom I would identify with the people of Vak&- 
taka, whose capital was Bhandak. One of the 
towns in their country, situated near the upper 
course of the Son, is named Balantipjrrgon, or 
Balampyrgon. This I take to be the famous Fort 
of Bandogarh, which we know formed part of the 
Chldi dominions. To the north-east was Panassa, 
which most probably preserves the name of some 
town on the Parnasfi. or Banas River, a tributary 
which joins the Son to the north-east of B&ndo- 
garh. To the north of the Adeisathroi, Ptolemy 
places the Porouaroi or Parihars, in their towns 
named Tholoubana, Bridama, and Malaita. The 


first I would identify with Boriban (Bahuriband) 
by reading Oolonbana or Voloubana. The second 
must be BilhS^ri ; and the last may be Lameta, 
which gives its name to the Gh&t on the Narmad&, 
opposite Tewar, and may thus stand for Tripura 
itself. All these identifications hold so well to- 
gether, and mutually support each other, that I 
have little doubt of their correctness." ArchcBolog, 
8urv. of Ind, vol. IX, pp. 55^57. 

Panassa: — This in Yule's map is doubtfully 
placed at Fanna, a decaying town in Bandelakhand 
with diamond mines in the neighbourhood. In 
the same map Baland is suggested as the re- 
presentative of Balantipyrgon. 

72. Farther east than the Adeisathroi towards • 
the Ganges are the Mandalai withthiscity : — 
Asthagoura 142° 25° 

73. And on the river itself these towns : — 

Sambalaka 141° 29° 30' 

Sigalla 142° 28° 

Palimbothra, the Royal resi- 
dence 143° 27° 

Tamalit^s 144° 30' 26° 30' 

Oreophanta 146° 30' 24° 30' 

74. In like manner the parts under Mount . 
Be fctig6 are occupied by the Brakhmanai j 
M a g o i as far as the Batai with this city : — * 
Brakhme 128° 19° 

76. The partfl under the range of Adeisa- 
thros as far as the Arouraioi are occupied by 
the Badiamaioi with this city : — 
Tathilba 134° 18° 50' 


76. The parts under the Ouxentos range 
are occupied by the Drilophyllitai, with 
these cities : — 

Sibrion 139° 22'' 20' 

Opotoura 137° 30' 21° 40' 

Ozoana 138° 16' 20° 30' 

Mandalai: — The territory of the Mandalai 
lay in that upland region where the Son and 
the NarmadA have their sources. Here a town 
situated on the latter river still bears the name 
Mandal&. It is about 50 miles distant from 
Jabalptir to the south-east, and is of some historic 
note. Ptolemy has, however, assigned to the 
Mandalai dominions far beyond their proper 
limits, for to judge from the towns which 
he gives them they must have occupied all the 
right bank of the Ganges from its confluence 
with the Jamn& downwards to the Bay of Bengal. 
But that this is improbable may be inferred from 
the fact that Palimbothra (F&tna) which the 
table makes to be one of their cities, did not 
belong to them, but was the capital of Prasiake, 
which, as has already been remarked, is pushed 
far too high up the river. Tamalites, moreover, 
which has been satisfactorily identified with 
Tamluk, a river port about 35 miles S. W. 
from Calcutta possessed, according to Wilford, 
a large territory of its own. The table also 
places it only hajf a degree more to the south- 
ward than Palimbothra, while in reality it is more 
than 3 or 4 deg. Cunningham inclines to identify 
with the Mandalai the Mundas of Chutia Nfigpur, 
whose language and country, he says, are called 


Mttndala, and also with the MalH of Plinj (lib. 
VI. c. xxi.)— -inc. Qeog, of Ind., pp. 608, 609. 

Sambalaka: — ^A city of the same name 
attributed to Prasia.k6 (sec. 63) has been ahready 
identified trith iSambhal in Bohilkhand. The 
Sambalaka of the Mandalai may perhaps be 
Sambhalpnr on the Upper Mah&nadi, the capital 
of a district which produces the finest diamonds 
in the world. 

Sigalla: — This name has a suspicions like- 
ness to Sagala, the name of the city to the west 
of L&hor, which was besieged and taken by 
Alexander, and which Ptolemy has erroneously 
placed in PrasiakS (sec. 68). 

Palimbothra: — ^The more usual form of 
the name is Palibothra, a transcription of 
P&liputra, the spoken form of P&(aliputra, the 
ancient capital of Hagadha, and a name still 
frequently applied to the city of P&tn& which 
is its modem representative. In the tunes of 
Ohandragupta (the Sandrokottos of the Greeks) 
and the kings of his dynasty, Palibothra was the ^ 
capital of a great empire which extended from ./«^t^ / < > '^ ^ 
the mouths of the Ganges to the regions beyond ^ ^ ^ ' , ^ /\^'% 
the Indus. Remains of the wooden wall by ^ ' 

which the city, as we leani from Strabo, was ^w<r>^*^ .^ f. 
defended, were discovered a few years ago in k/,\( c\ \* 
P&tn& (by workmen engaged in digging a tank) 
at a depth of from 12 to 16 feet beJow the sur- ^ ' ^ ' ' 
face of the ground. Palimbothra, as we have } t ' e« » . . 

noticed, did not belong to the Mandalai but to / < 

the Prasioi. 

Tamalites represents the Sanskrit T&mra- ^ • ' ' ^ 

liptt, the modem Tamluk, a town lying in a low 
22 o 



and damp sitnation on a broad reach or bay of the 
Btipn&r&yan River, 12 miles above its junction 
with the Hughli mouth of the Ganges. The Pali 
form of the name was T&malitti, and this accounts 
for the form in Greek. Pliny mentions a people 
called Taluctae belonging to this part of India, and 
the similarity of the name leaves little doubt of 
their identity with the people whose capital wa» 
Tamluk. This place, in ancient times, was the great 
emporium of the trade between the Ganges and 
Ceylon. We have already pointed out how wide 
Ptolemy was of the mark in fixing its situation 
r^tively to Palimbothra. 

Brakhmanai Magoi: — ^Mr. J. Campbell has 
suggested to me that by Brakhmanai Magoi 
may be meant * sons of the Br&hmans,' that is, 
Canarese BrS.hmans, whose forefathers married 
women of the country, the word mcbgoi represent- 
ing the Canarese maga, 'a son.' The term, he 
says, is still in common use, added to the name of 
castes, as Haiga-Makala {mahalu — ^plural of maga) 
i.e. Haiga Br&hmans. Lassen supposed that 
Ptolemy, by adding Magoi to the name of these 
Br&hmans, meant to imply either that they were 
a colony of Persian priests settled in Ijodia, or that 
they were Br&hmans who had adopted the tenets 
of the Magi, and expresses his surprise that 
I^olemy should have been led into making such 
an unwarrantable supposition. The country oc- 
cupied by these Brahmans was about the upper 
K&veri, and extended from Mount Bettigo east- 
ward as far as the Batai. 

Brakhme:— "Can this," asks Caldwell, "be 
Brahmadesam, an ancient town on the T&mra- 


parai, not far from the foot of the Podigei Mount 
(Mt. Bettigo) which I have found referred to in 
several ancient inscriptions P" 

Badiamaioi: — There is in the district of 
Belgaum a town and hill-fort on the route from 
Kal&dgi to BalSri, not fai* from the MalprabhS, 
a tributary of the Krishn^, called Bad&mi, and 
here we may locate the B&diamaioi. Tathilba, 
their capital, cannot be recognized. 

Drilophyllitai: — ^These are placed by 
Ptolemy at the foot of the Onxentos, and probably 
had their seats to the south-west of that range- 
Their name indicates them to have been a branch 
of the Phyllitai, the Bhills, or perhaps Pulindas. 
Lassen would explain the first part of their name 
from the Sanskrit dridha (strong) by the change 
of the dh into the liquid. O z o an a, one of their 
three towns is, perhaps, Seoni, a place about 60 
miles N. E. from Nagpur. 

'77. Further east than these towards the 
Ganges are the Kokkonagai with this 
city :— 
Dosara 142° 30' 22° 30' 

78. And on the river farther west : — 

Kartinaga 146° 23° 

Kartasina 146° 21° 40' 

79. Under the Maisoloi the Salakenoi 
towards the Oroudian (or Arouraian) Moun- 
tains with these cities : — 

Benagouron 140° 20° 15' 

Kastra 138° 19° 30' 

Ma^aris 137° 30' 18° 20' 


80. Towards the Ganges Biver the Saba- 
ra4, in whose country the diamond is found in 
great abundance, their towns are : — 

Tasopion 140^30' 22^ 

Karikardama 141^ 20^ 15' 

81. All the country about the mouths of 
^e Ganges is occupied by the G angari d ai 
with this city : — 

Gangfi, the Royal residence... 146° 19° 15' 

Kokkonagai: — ^Lassen locates this tribe in 
Ghutia N&gpur, identifying Dosara with BoesA in 
the hill country, between the upper courses of the 
Yaitarant and Suvarnarekha. He explains their 
name to mean the people of the mountains where 
the h6ha grows, — h6ha being the name of a kind 
of palm-tree. Yule suggests that the name may 
represent the Sanskrit K&kamukha, which means 
'crow-faced,' and was the name of a mythical 
race. He places them on the Upper Mah&nadi 
and farther west than Lassen. The table gives 
them two towns near the Ganges. 

Kartinaga andKartasina: — The former. 
Yule thinks, may be Karnagarh near BhAgal- 
pur, perhaps an ancient site, regarding which he 
i^ers to the Jour. B, As, 8oe. vol. XYIII, 
p. 395 ; Kartasina he takes to be E^arnasonagarh, 
another ancient site near Berhampur (/. R, A. 8. 
N. S., vol. YI, p. 248 and /. As. 8. Beng,, 
vol. XXII, p. 281). 

SalakSnoi : — ^This people may be located to 
the west of the Godavari, inland on the north- 
western borders of Maisolia. Their name, Lassen 


tlionght {Ind, Alt., vol. Ill, p. 176) might be 
connected with the Sanskrit word Sdla, the S&l 
tree. Yule suggcBts that it may represent the 
Sanskrit Saurikirna. None of their towns can 
be recognized. 

Sabarai: — The Sabarai of Ptolemy Cun- 
ningham takes to be the Suari of Pliny, and he 
would identify both with the aboriginal ^avaras 
or Suars, a wild race who live in the woods 
and Jungles without any fixed habitations, and 
whose country extended as far southward as 
the Penn&r River. These Savaras or Suars are 
only a single branch of a widely spread race 
found in large numbers to the S. W. of Gwalior 
and Narwar and S. Bajputana, where they are 
known as Surrius. Yule places them farther 
north in DosarSnd, towards the tenitory of 
Sambhalpur, which, as we have already remarked, 
produced the finest diamonds in the world Their 
towns have not been identified. 

Gangaridai: — This great people occupied 
all the country about the mouths of the Ganges. 
Xheir capital was Gauge, described in the PertpZ4« 
as an important seat of commerce on the Ganges. 
They are mentioned by Yirgil (Oeorg, III, 1. 27), 
by Valerius Flaccus {Argon, lib. VI, 1. 66), and by 
Curtius (lib. IX, c. ii) who places them along with 
the Pharrasii (Frasii) on the eastern bank of the 
Ganges. They are called by Pliny (lib. VI, c. Ixv) 
the Gangaridae Galingae, and placed by him at the 
furthest extremity of the Ganges region, as is 
indicated by the expression gen8 novissima, which 
he applies to them. They must have been a 
powerful people J to judge from the military force 


vrHch Pliny reports them to have maintamed, 
and their territory coiild scarcely have been 
restricted to the marshy jungles at the mouth of 
the river now known as the Sundarbans, but 
must have comprised a considerable portion of 
the province of Bengal. This is the view taken 
by Saint-Martin. Bengal, he says, represents^ at 
least in a general way, the country of the Ganga- 
ridae, and the city which Pliny speaks of as their 
capital, Parthalis can only be Yardhana, a place 
which flourished in ancient times, and is now 
known as BardhwAn. The name of the Gangaii- 
dai has nothing in Sanskrit to correspond with it, 
nor can it be a word, as Lassen supposed, of purely 
Greek formation, for the people were mentioned 
under this name to Alexander by one of the prin- 
ces in the North-west of India. The synonymous 
term which Sanskrit fails to supply is found among 
the aboriginal tribes belonging to the region 
occupied by the Gangaridai, the name being pre- 
served almost identically in that of the Gonghns 
of S. Bah&r, with whom were connected the 
Gangayis of North-western, and the Gtingrar of 
Eastern Bengal, these designations being but 
variations of the name which was originally 
common to them all. 

Gauge : — Various sites have been proposed for 
Gauge. Heeren placed it near DuHapur, a village 
about 40 miles S. E. of Calcutta on a branch 
of the Isamati River ; WiH ord at the confluence 
of the Ganges and Brahmaputra, where, he says, 
there was a town called in Sanskrit Hastimalla, 
and [in the spoken dialect Hathimalla, from 
elephants being picquetted there; Murray at 


Chittagong; Taylor on tlie site of the ancient 
Hindu Capital of Banga (Bengal) which lies in 
the neighbourhood of Sonarg&on (SuvarnagrlUna), 
a place 12 miles to the S. E. of Dhakka; 
Cunningham at Jesor ; and others further west, 
near Calcutta, or about 30 miles higher up 
the Hughli, somewhere near Chinsura. Another 
G a n g e is mentioned by Artemidoros above or 
to the N. W. of Palibothra, and this Wilford 
identifies with Prayag, i.e., AllahAb&d, but Gros- 
kurd with Anupshahr. 

Ptolemy now leaves the Gangetic regions and 
describes the inland parts of the territories along 
the Western Coast of the Peninsula. 

82. In the parts of A r i a k d which still re- 
main to be described are the following inland 
cities and villages : to the west of the Benda 
these cities : — 

MaUppala 119° 30' 20^15' 

Sarisabis 119° 30' 20° 

Tagara 118° 19° 20' 

Baithana (the royal seat of [Siro] 

Ptolemaios or Polemaios)...117° 18° 30' 

Deopali or Deopala 115° 40' 17° 50' 

Gamaliba 115° 15' 17° 20' 

Omenogara 114° 16° 20' 

83. Between the Benda and Pseudostomos : 

Nagaronris (or Nagarouraris)120° 20° 15' 

Tabas6 121° 30' 20° 40' 

Inde 123° 20° 45' 

Tiripangalida 121° 15' 19° 40' 


Hippokoara, the royal seat of 

Baleokouros 119*^45^ 19' 10' 

Soubouttou 120^ 15' 19° 1(/ 

Sirimalaga 119° 20' 18° 30' 

KaUigeris 118° 18^ 

ModogorQla 119° 18°' 

Petirgala 117° 46' 17° 15' 

Banaouasei 116° 16° 45' 

Seven cities are enumerated inAriakS, as lying 
to the west of the B S n d a, and regarding f onr of 
these, Malippala, Sarisabis, Gamaliba 
and OmSnogara, nothing is known. The 
FerijpMs (sec. 51) notices T a g a r a and B a i t h a« 
n a in a passage which may be quoted : " In 
Dakhinabades itself there are two very im- 
portant seats of commerce, Paithana towards 
the south of Barygaza, from which it is distant a 
twenty days' journey, and eastward from this about 
a ten days' journey is another very large city, 
T a g a r a. From these marts goods are transporteclr 
on waggons to Barygaza through difficult regions 
that have no road worth calling such. Erom Pai- 
thana great quantities of onyx- stones and from^ 
Tagara large supplies of common cotton-cloth, 
muslins of all kinds, mallow-tinted cottons and 
various other articles of local production im- 
ported into it from the maritime districts." 

Baithana is the Paithana of the above 
extract, and the Paith&n of the present day, a town 
of Haidar&bftd, or the territory of the Nizam, on 
the left bank of the river G6d&var!, in latitude 
19^ 29' or about a degree further north than it i» 
placed by Ptolemy. Paithana is the Prftkrit fona 


of the Sanskrit Pratishth&na, the name of 
the capital of ^ftlivaliana. Ptolemy calls it the 
eapital of Siroptolemaios or Siropolemaios, a name 
which represents the Sanskrit Sri-Pnlom&vit, 
the Pulum&yi of the Nasik Cave and AmarAvati 
St(!ipa Inscriptions, a king of the great Andhra 

T agar a: — The name is found in inscriptions 
under the form Tagarapura (/. B. A. 8. vol. IV, p. 
34). Ptolemy places it to the north-east of Baithana 
and the PeripluSy as we see from the extract, to the 
east of it at the distance of a ten days' journey. 
Wilford, Vincent, Mannert, Ritter and others take 
it to be Devagadh, now DanlataMd, which was the 
«eat of a sovereign even in 1293, and is situated not 
far from Elura, so famous for its excavated temples. 
But if Baithana be Paifehan, Tagara cannot be 
Devagadh, unless the distance is wrongly given. 
There is, moreover, nothing to show that Deva- 
gadh was connected with the Tagarapura of the 
inscriptions. Pandit BhagvanUl identified Tagara 
with Junnar, a place of considerable importance, 
situated to the north of PAna. He pointed out 
that the Sanskrit name of Tagara was Trigiri 
.a compound meaning * three hills,' and that as 
Junnar stood on a high site between three hills 
this identification was probably correct. Junnar 
however lies to the westward of Paifchan. Yule 
places Tagara at Kulburga, which lies to the south- 
east of Paithan, at a distance of about 150 miles, 
which would fairly represent a ten days' journey, 
the distance given in the Periplus. Grant Duff 
would identify it with a place near Bhir on the 
God&vari, and Fleet mth Kolhapur. Tlie SilahAra 
23 Q 


pidnces or chiefs who formed three distinct 
branches of a dynasty that ruled over two parts - 
of the Konkan and the country about Kolh&pur 
style themselves, * The Lords of the excellent city 
of Tagara.' If, says Prof. Bhandd>rkar, the name of 
Tagarahas undergone corruption, it would take the 
form, according to the laws of Prakrit speech, of 
Tarur or Terur, and he therefore asks * can it be 
the modem Darur or Dharur in the Nizam's 
dominions, 25 miles east of Grant Duff's Bhir, and 
70 miles S.E. of Paithan ?' (see Muller's Geog. Grcec. 
Minor, vol. I, p. 294, n. ; Elphinstone's History 
of India, p. 223; EurgeES, Arch. Suiv. W. Ind, 
vol. Ill, p. 54; and Bcmhay Gazetteer, vol. XIII, 
pt ii, p. 423, n.). Mr. Campbell is of opinion that 
the maritime districts from which local products 
were brought to Tagara and thence exported to 
Bai'ygaza, lay on the coast of Bengal, and not on 
the Konkan coast, from which there was easy 
transit by sea to the great northern emporium in 
the Gulf of Khambat, while the transit by land 
through Tagara could not be accomplished 

without encountering the most formidable 


D e o p a 1 i : — This name means * the city of 

God,' and Deopali may therefore perhaps be 

Devagadh, the two names having the same 


T a b a s 6 : — This would seem to be a city of the 

Tabasoi, already mentioned as a large community, 

of Brahman ascetics. 

Hippokoura : — A town of this name . has 

already been mentioned as a seaport to the south 

of Simylla. This Hippokoura lay inland, and was 


the capital of the southern parts of AriakSs^ 
as Paithana was the capital of the northern, It& 
position is uncertain. Yule places it doubtfully 
at Kalyan, a place about half a degree to the 
west of Bidar, and at some distance south from 
the river Maiijirfi. Ptolemy calls it the capital 
of Baleokouros. Bh&nd&rkar conjectures this to 
have been the Viliv^ayakura, a name found upon 
two other Andhra coins discovered at Kolh&pur. 
There is no other clue to its identification, but 
see Lassen, Ind, Alt. vol. Ill, pp. 179, 185. 

Sirimalaga may perhaps be M&lkhed, » 
town in Haidarabad, situated on a tributary of 
the Bhima, in lat. 17° 8' and long. 77° 12'. The 
first part of the word Siri probably represents the 
Sanskrit honorific prefix 6ri. 

Kalligeris : — Perhaps Kanhagiri, a place 
about J a degree to the south of MOdgal. 

Modogoulla: — There can be little doubt 
that this is MAdgal, a town in the Haidai-fibAd 
districts,--lat. 16° 2', long. 76° 26',— N. W. 
from Bal&ri. Petirgala cannot be identified. 

Banaouasei : — This place is mentioned in 
the MahdvansOy in the Pali foi-m Wanawasi, 
by which a city or district is designated. Bana- 
ouasei must beyond doubt have been the capital 
of this country, and is identical with the modern 
Banavasi, situated on the upper Varada, a tributary 
of the Tungabhadra. Saint-Martin thinks that it 
was the city visited by Hiuen Tsiang, and called 
by him Kon-kin-na-pu-lo, i.e., Konkaiapura^ 
Cimningham is of opinion that both the bearing 
and the distance point to Anagundi, but Dr. 
Burgess suggests Kokanth* for K6n-kin-na-pu-lo. 


r 84. The inland cities of tLe Pirates are 
tliese : — 

Olokhoira 114*^ 15® 

Mousopalle, the metropolis . . .115^ 30' 15*^ 45' 

85. Inland cities of L i m y r i k e, to the 
west of the Pseudostomos are these : — 

Naroulla 117^45' 15*^ 5(K 

Kouba..... 117° 15° 

Paloura 117° '51 14° 40' 

8^, Between the Pseudostomos and the 
Baris, these cities ; — 

Pasag^..... 124° 50' 19° 50' 

Mastanour 121° 30' 18° 40^ 

Kourellour 119° 17° 30' 

Pounnata, where is beryl ... 121° 20' 17° 30^ 

Aloe 120° 20' 17° 

Karoura, the royal seat of 

Kerobothros 119° 16° 20^ 

Arembour 121° 16° 20^ 

Bideris 119° 15° 50' 

Pantipolis.. 118° 15° 20^ 

Adarima 119° 30' 15° 40' 

Koreour 120° 15° 

87. Inland town of the A i o i r — 
Morounda 121° 20' 14° 20' 

The dominion of the sea appears to have sa- 
tisfied the ambition of the pirates, as they possessed 
on shore only a narrow strip of territory enclosed 
between the line of coast and the western decliyi- 
ties of the Gh&ts. Their capital, Mousopalle^ 
Yule places at Miraj, a town near the KrishnS, 
but doubtfully. Their other town, Olokhoira^ 


is probably Khedft, a town in the district of 
Ratnagiri in lat. 17° 4A' loHg. 73° 30". As 
Elh^dd is the name of several other places in this 
part of the country, Olo, whatever it may mean, 
may have been in old times prefixed to this 
particolar Kh^a for the sake of distinction. 

Kouba: — This is generally taken to be 
Groa or Gov&, the capital of the Portuguese 
possessions in India, and there can be little doubt 
of the correctness of the identification. . The two 
towns Naroullaand P a loura, which Ptolemy 
places with Elouba to the west of the Pseudos- 
tomos, cannot be identified. To judge from his 
figures of longitude, Paloura lay 15' farther east 
than Kouba, but as he makes the coast run east- 
ward instead of southward, it must be considered 
to have lain south of Kouba. The najue is Tamil, 
and means, according to Caldwell {Introd, p. 104) 
* Milk town.' It is remarkable, he observes, how 
many names of places in Southern India mention- 
ed by Ptolemy end in ovp or ovpa = *a town.' There 
are 23 such places in all. 

P a 8 a g e : — According to Yule's map this repre- 
sents Palsagi, the old name of a place now 
called Halsi, south-east of Goa, from which it is 
distant somewhat under a degree. 

Mastanour and Kourellour cannot be 

Pounnata has not yet been identified, 
though Ptolemy gives a sort of clue in stating that 
it produced the beryl. Yule places it in his map 
near Seringapatam. (See Ind. Ant. vol. XII, p. 13). 

Aloe : — This may be Yellapur, a small town in 
North Oanara, in lat. 14° 56' long. 74° 43'. 


K a r o u r a : — " Karoura," says Caldwell, ** is 
mentioned in Tamil traditions as the ancient 
capital of the Ch^ra, Kera, or Kerala kings, and is 
generally identified with Kartb:, an important town 
in the Koimbatar district, originally included in 
the Chera kingdom. It is situated on the left 
bank of the river Amaravati, a tributary of 
the Kaveri, near a large fort now in ruinff. 
Ptolemy notes that Karoura was the capital of 
Kerobothros,i.e., Keralaputra(Cherapati?) KarCira 
means * the l;>lack town,' and I consider it identi- 
cal with KSragam, and Kadaram, names of places 
which I have frequently found in the Tamil 
country, and which are evidently the poetical 
equivalents of Kartir. The meaning of each of 
the names is the same. Ptolemy's word Karoura 
represents the Tamil name of the place vrith 
perfect accuracy " {Introd. pp. 96, 97). 

Arembour : — Lassen compares this name 
with Oorumparum, but the situation of the place so 
caUed (lat. 11° 12' long. 76° 16') does not suit well 
the position of Arembour as given by Ptolemy. 

B i d e r i s : — Perhaps Erod or Yirodu in the 
district of Koimbatur (lat. 11° 20' long. 77° 46') 
near the K&veri. 

Pantipolis, according to Yulfe, represents 
the obsolete name Pantiyapura, which he places 
at Hangal, in the Dharwad district. 

Morounda : — This is the only inland city of 
the A'ioi named by Ptolemy. It has not been 

The concluding tables enumerate the inland 
towns belonging to the districts lying along the 
Eastern Goast of the Peninsula, 


88. Inland cities of the K a r e o i : — 

Mend^a 123° 17° 40' 

S^lour 121° 45' 16° 30' 

Tittoua 122° 16° 20^ 

Maatittoar 123° 15° 10' 

89. Inland cities of the Pandionoi : — 

Tainour , 124° 45' 18° 40' 

Peringkarei 123° 20' 18° 

Korindiour 125° 17° 40' 

Tangala or Taga 123° 30' 16° 50' 

Modoura, the royal city of 

Pandion ..125^ 16° 20' 

Akour 124° 45' 15° 2 C 

90. Inland cities of the B a t o i : — 

Kalindoia 127° 40' 17° 30 

Bata 126° 30' 17° 

Talara 128° . 16° 45' 

Inland cities of the K a r e o i : — none of the four 
named in the table can be identified. 

Peringkarei : — This town has preserved its 
name almost without change, being now known as 
Peiningari, on the river Vaigai, about 40 miles 
lower down its course than MadurS.. With regard 
to this name, Caldwell remarks that if it had been 
wiitten Perungkarei it would have been perfectly 
accurate Tamil, letter for letter. The meaning is 
* great shore,' and perum * great ' becomes perung 
before fc, by rule. Ptolemy places a town called 
Tainour at the distance of less than a degree to 
the north-east of Peringkarei. The direction would 
suit Tan j or, but the distance is more than a 


degree. Ptolemy has howerer placed his Pering* 
karei quite in a wrong position with regard to 

TangalaorTaga : — ^There can be little doubt 
that this is now represented by Dindugal, an im- 
portant and flourishing town lying at a distance 
of 32 miles north by west from Madura. 

M o d o u r a : — This is now called Madur& or 
Madurai — on the banks of the River Vaigai. It 
was the second capital of the Southern Pandyas ; 
we have already noticed it in the description of 
the territory of this people. 

Bata: — This may perhaps be Pattukotta, a 
small town, not very far inland from the northern 
end of the Argolic Gulf (Palk's Passage). The 
other two towns of the Batoi cannot be recog- 
nized. As Pudukotta is the capital of the 
Tondiman R&ja, Lassen has suggested its identity 
with Bata. It is upwards of 20 miles farther 
inland than Pattukotta. 

• • • • 

91. Inland cities of the Paralia of the 
Soretai: — 

Kaliour 129'' * 17° 20' 

Tennaofora 132° 17 



Eikour 129° 16° 40' 

Orthoura, the royal city of 

S6rnagos 130° 16° 20' 

Bere 130° 20' 16° 15' 

Abour 129° 16° 

Karmara 130° 20' 15° 40' 

Magour 130° 15° 15' 


52. The inland cities of the Arvarnoi 
iftre these : — 

Kerauge 133° 16^15' 

Phrourion 132° 15° 

Karige 132° 40' 15° 

Poleour.......^ ,. 131° 30' 14° 40' 

Pikendaka !...; 331° 30^ 14° 

latcur 132° 30' 14° 

Skopoloura 134° 15' 14° 35' 

Ikarta 133° 30' 13° 40' 

Malanga, the royal city of 

Basaronagos 133° 13° 

Kandipatna 133° 30° 12° 20' 

93. The inland cities of the Maisoloi: — 

Kalliga 138° 17° 

Bardamana 136° 15' 15° 15' 

Koroiingkala , •. 135° 15° 

Pharytra or Pharetra 134° 20' 13° 20' 

Pityndra, the metropolis ... 135° 20' 12° 30' 

Orthoura : — Of the eight inland cities named 
as belonging to the maritime territory of the 
S 6 r e t a i, only two — Abour and the capital, have 
been identified. Abour is AmbOrdurg in N. Arkat, 
lat. 32° 47', long. 78° 42'. Regarding Orthoura 
Cunningham says : " Chola is noticed by Ptolemy, 
whose Orthura regia Sornati must be Uriiir, the 
capital of Soiranatha, or the king of the Soringae, 
that is the Soi^as, Choras or Cholas. Uraiyiir is a 
few miles south-south-east of Tinichhin&palli. The 
Soringae ai'e most probably the Syrieni of Pliny, 
with their 300 cities, as they occupied the coast 

24 o 


betureeli the Pandae and the Derangae or Dta- 
vidians." — Anc, Geog. of Ind., p. 551. 

PL r our ion : — This is a Greek word signify* 
ing * a ganisoned fort,' and may perhaps be 
meant as a translation of an indigenous name 
having that signification, as Duiga, ' a hill -fort/ 
a common affix to names of places in the Penin- 

K a r i g ^ : — This should no doubt be read 
Karipe under which form it can be at once iden- 
tified with Kadapd, a place lying 5 miles from the 
light bank of the Noi*them Pennar on a small 
tributary of that river. 

Pikendaka : — Konda is a. frequent termina- 
tion in the names of towns in this part of India. 
The letters of Pikendaka may have been trans- 
posed in copying, and its proper form may have 
been Pennakonda, the name of a town in the 
district of Bal&ri (lat. 14^5' long. 77° 39'). 

I at our: — Fi'om Yule's map it would appear 
there is a place lying a degree westward from 
Kadapa which still bears this name, YetQr. 

M ala n g a : — In our notice of Melange it was 
pointed out that Cunningham had fixed the 
locality of Malanga near Elur, a place some 
distance inland about half way between the Krish- 
na and the God&vari towards their embouchures, 
and in the neighbourhood of which are the re- 
mains of an old capital named Vengi. With regard 
to the king's name Bassaronaga, he thinks that 
this may be identified with the Pali Majcrika-naga 
of the Mahdwanso and thus Ptoletny's Malanga 
would become the capital of the Niigas of Majeri- 
ka, Anc. Geo. of Ltd., (pp. 531), 540). In Yule's 


map Malangi is placed conjee turally about two 
degrees farther south at Velur, near the mouth 
of the Pennar. 

Of the five cities attributed to the Maisoloi, 
only Koroungkala can be recognized. It 
appears to be the place now known as Worankal, 
the mediaeval capital of Telingana. It has but few 
tokens remaining to attest its former grandeur. 

Pityndra, the capital of Maisolia, was pro- 
bably Dhanakataka now Dharanikota, about 20 
miles above Bejwada on the Krishn^. 

94. Islands lying near the part of India 
which projects into the ocean in the Gulf of 
Kanthi : — 

Baraks IIP 18° 

95. And along the line of coast as far as 
the Kolkhic Gulf :— 

Miliz^gyris (or Milizigeris).. 110° 12° 30' 

Heptanesia 113° 13° 

Trikadiba 113° 30' 11° 

Peperine , 115° 12° 40' 

Trinesia 116° 20^ 12° 

Leuke : 118° 12° 

Nanigeris 122° 12° 

96. And in the Argaric Gulf : — 

Kory 126° 30'— 13° 

-B a r a k e : — This is the name given in the PerU 
pMs to the Gulf of Kachh, called by our author 
the Gulf of Kanthi, a name which to this day is 
applied to the south coast of Kachh The Peri- 
plus does not mention Barake as an island, but 
says that the Gulf had 7 islands. Regarding 


Barak^, Dr. Burgess says : " Yule places Barake 
at Jaggat or Dw&raka ; Lassen also identifies 
it with Dwftrakfi, whicli he places on the coast 
between Purbandar and Miy^ni, near Srinagar. 
Mula-Dw&raka, the original site, was further 
east than this, but is variously placed near 
M&dhupur, thirty-six miles north-west from 
Soman&th-Pattran, or three miles south-west 
from Kodinar, and nineteen miles east of Soma- 
nfith. This last spot is called Mula-Dw&rak& 
to this day." {Tdr^h^i-Sdrath, Introd. p. 7). 

MilizegyriR occm*8 in the PeripMs as 
Melizeigara, which may be identified with Jayagad 
or Sidi -Jayagad, which would appear to be the 
Sigerus of Pliny (lib. vi, c. 26). 

Heptanesia {or gi'oup of 7 inlands) pro^ 
bably corresponded to the Sesikrienai of the 
PeripMSf which may be the Burnt Islands of the 
present day, among which the Vingorla rocks are 

Trikadiba or* the island Trika,' — diba being 
the Sanskrit word dvfpa, * an island.' 

Peperine : — ^This, to judge from the name, 
should be an island somewhere off the coast of 
Cottonara, the great pepper disti-ict, as stated by 
Pliny (lib. VI, c. xxvi). 

Trin^sia [or group of 3 islands) : — Ptole- 
my places it off the coast of Limyrike between 
Tyndis and Mouziris, but nearer the former. 

Leuke: — This is a Greek word meaning- 
* white.' The island is placed in the Teriplus off" 
the coast where Limyrike begins and in Ptolemy 
near where it ends. 

Nanig^ris: — To judge from Ptolemy's. 


figui'es he has taken this to be an island lyin^ 
between Cape Kumari (Comorin) and Taprobane 

K 6 r y : — It has already been noticed that Kory 
was both the name of the Island of Ramesvaram 
and of the promontory in which it terminated. 

Cap. 2. 

Position of India beyond the Ganges. 

1. India beyond the Ganges is bounded on 
the wist by the river Ganges ; on the north 
by the parts of Skythia and S^rik6 already 
described', on the east by the Sinai along the 
Meridian, which extends from the furthest 
limits of S6rik^ to the Great Gulf, and also by 
this gulf itself, on the south by the Indian 
Ocean and part of the Green Sea which stretches 
from the island of Menouthias in a line 
parallel to the equator, as far as the regions 
which lie opposite to the Great Gulf. 

India beyond the Ganges comprised with Ptole- 
my not only the great plain between that river 
and the Him&layas, but also all south-eastern 
Asia, as far as the country of the Sinai (China). 
Concerning these vast regions Ptolemy is our 
only ancient authority. Strabo's knowledge of 
the east was limited in this direction by the 
Ganges, and the author of the PeripMs, who was 
a later and intermediate writer, though he was 
aware that inhabited countries stretched far 
beyond that limit even onwards to the eastern end 
of the world, appears to have learned little more 


about tliem than the mere fact of their existence. 
Ptolemy, on the other hand, supplies us with much 
information regarding them. He traces the line 
of coast as far as the Gulf of Siam (his Great Gulf) 
enumerating the tribes, the trading marts, the 
river mouths and the islands that would be passed 
on the way. He has also a copious nomenclature 
for the interior, which embraces its inhabitants, 
its towns, its rivers, and its mountain ranges. 
His conceptions were no doubt extremely confused 
and erroneous, and his data, in many instances, 
as inconsistent with each other as with the 
reality. Still, his description contains important, 
elements of truth, and must have been- based 
upon authentic information. At the same time 
an attentive study of his nomenclature and 
the accompanying indications has led to the 
satisfactory identification of a few of his towns, 
and a more considerable number of the rivers and 
mountains and tribes which he has specified. 

His most notable error consisted in the supposi- 
tion that the eastern parts of Asia were connected 
by continuous land with the east coast of Africa, 
so that, like Hipparkhos, he conceived the Indian 
Ocean to resemble the Mediten^anean in being 
surrounded on all sides by land. He makes 
accordingly the coast of the Sinai, beyond the 
Gulf of Siam, turn toward the south instead of 
curving up towards the north . Again he repre- 
sents the Malay Peninsula (his Golden Khersonese) 
which does not project so far as to reach the 
equator, extend to 4 degrees southward from it, 
and he mentions neither the Straits of Malacca 
nor the great island of Sumatra, unless indeed 


his labadios be this island, and not Java, as is 
generally supposed. By the Green Sea (llpaerwSi/y 
6aka<raa) which formed a part of the southern 
boundary is meant the southern part of the Indian 
Ocean which stretched eastwai'd from Cape 
Prasum (Cape Delgado) the most southern point 
on the east coast of Africa known to Ptolemy. 
The island of Menouthias was either Zanzibar or 
one of the islands adjacent to it. It is mentioned 
by the author of the PeripMs. 

In his description of India beyond the Ganges 
Ptolemy adheres to the method which he had 
followed in his account of India within the Ganges. 
He therefore begins with the coast, which he des* 
cribesfrom, the Eastern Month of the Ganges to the 
Great Promontory where India becomes conter- 
minous with the country of the Sinai. The moun- 
tains follow, then the rivers, then the towns in the 
interior, and last of all the islands. 

2. The seacoast of this division is thus de- 
scribed. In the Gauge tic Gulf beyond the 
Mouth of the Ganges called Antibolei ; — 

The coast of the Airrhadoi : — 

PentapoHs 150° 18° 

Mouth of River Katabeda... 151° 20' 17° 

Barakoura, a mart 152° 30' 16° 

Mouth of the River Toko- 

sanna 153° 14° 30' 

Wilford, probably misled by a comipt reading, 
took the name of the Airrhadoi to be another 
form of Antibole. He says {Asiat. Research. ^ 
Yol. XIV, p. 444) " Ptolemy says that the eastern- 
most branch of the Ganges was called Antibole 


Of AiiThadon. This lost is from the Sanskrit 
Hi*ad&na ; and is the name of the Brahmaputra. 
Antibole was the name of a town situated at the 
confluence of several large rivers to the S. E. of 
Dhakka and now called Feringibazar." Bj the 
Airrhadoi, however, are undoubtedly meant the 
KirS>ta. With regard to the position here assigned 
to them Lassen' thus writes {Ind, Alt,, vol. Ill, pp. 
235-237) :— " By thename K i r r a d i a Ptolemy de- 
signates the land on the coast of further India from 
the city of Pentapolis, perhaps the present Mirkan- 
serai in the north, as far as the mouth of the 
Tokosanna or Ai^akan river. The name of this 
land indicates that it was inhabited by the Kirata, 
a people which we find in the great Epic settled in 
the neighbourhood of the Lauhitya, or Brahma- 
putra, consequently somewhat further to the north 
than where Ptolemy locates them. Hence arises 
the question whether the Kii-ata who, as we know, 
belong to the Bhota, and are still found in Nepal 
had spread themselves to such a distance in earlier 
times, or whether their name has been erroneously 
applied to a different people. The last assump- 
tion is favoured by the account in the Peri- 
pMs, according to which ships sailing northward 
from Dosarene, or the country on both sides of 
the Yaitarani, arrived at the land of the wild flat- 
nosed Kirradai, who like the other savage tribes 
were men-eaters. Since the author of that work 
did not proceed beyond Gape Oomorin, and applied 
the name of Kirdta to a people which lived on the 
coast to the S. W. of the Ganges, it is certain that 
he had erroneously used this name to denote the 
wild and fabulous races. Ptolemy must have f ol- 


lowed liim or other writers of tlie kind, and to tlie 
name Kirata has given a signification wMcli did 
not originate with himself. Although the Kir&ta, 
long before the time in which he lived, had wander- 
ed from their northern Fatherland to the Hima- 
laya and thence spread themselr^s to the regions 
on the Brahmapntra, still it is not to be believed 
that thej should have possessed themselves of 
territory so far south «ib Cbatnrgi&ma(Chittagong) 
and a part of Arakan, We can therefore scarcely 
be mistaken if we consider the inhabitants of this 
territory at that time as a. people belonging to 
further India, and in fact as tribal relatives of the 
Tamerai, who possessed the mountain region that 
lay back in the interior, as I shall hereafter show. 
I here remark that between the name of the city 
Pentapolis, i.e. five cities^ and the name of the 
most northern part of Kirradia,, 
i,e. four cities^ there is a connexion that can 
scarcely be mistaken, since Chaturgr&ma could 
not originally have denoted a country, but only a 
place which later on became the capital, though it 
was originally only the capital of four village 
communities over which a common headship was 
possessed, while Pentapolis was the seat of a 
headship over five towns or rather villages, as it 
can scarcely be believed that the rude tribes of 
Kirradia were civilised enough to possess towns, 
A confirmation of this view is offered by the 
circumstance that the Bunzu, who must have been 
descendants of a branch of the Tamerai, live in 
villages under headships. We must further state 
that according to the treatises used by Ptolemy 
the best Malabathrum was got from Kirradia. I 
25 G 


^ I 

see no reason to doubt the correctness of this state- 
ment, although the trees from which this precious 
oil and spice were prepared and which are different 
kinds of the laurel, do not appear at the present 
day to be found in this country, since, according 
to the testimony of the most recent writers the 
botanical productions of Arakan at least have 
not as yet been sufficiently investigated. It can, 
however, be asserted that in Silhet, which is not 
very remote from Ghaturgr&ma, Malahathrum is 
produced at this very day." Saint- Martin Ex- 
presses similar views. He writes {Etudey pp. 343, 
344). " The Kirrhadia of Ptolemy, a country men- 
tioned also in the PeHplUs as lying west from 
the mouths of the Ganges and the Skyritai of 
Megasthenes are cantons of Kir&ta, one of the 
branches of the aboriginal race the widest spread 
in Gangetic India, and the most anciently known. 
In different passages of the Purdnas and of the 
epics their name is applied in a general manner 
to the barbarous tribes of the eastern frontiers 
of Aryavarta, and it has preserved itself in several 
quarters, notably in the eastern districts of Nep&l. 
There is a still surviving tradition in Tripurt 
(Tipperah), precisely where Ptolemy places his 
Kirrhadia, that the first name of the country was 
Kir&t (/. A. S. Beng., Vol. XIX., Long, Chronicles 
of Tripurd^, p. 536.) The Tamerai were a tribe 
of the same family." 

Mouth of the River Katabeda : — ^This may 
be the river of Chittagong called the Karma- 
phuli. The northern point of land at its mouth 
is, according to Wilford {Asiut. Research, vol. 
XIY, p. 445) called Pattana, and hence he thinks 


Ihafc Chatgi^m or Chatiirgram (Chittagong) it 
the Pentapolid of Ptolemy for Pattanphulli, 
which means ' flourishing seat.' The same au- 
thor has proposed a different identification for 
the Katabeda River. '' In the district of San- 
do wS/' he says, " is a river and a town called in 
modem maps Sedoa for Saiudwa (for Sandwtpa)" 
and in Ptolemy S a d u s and S a d a. Between this 
river and Arakan there is another large one 
concealed behind the island of Cheduba, and the 
name of which is KatabaidS. or Katdbaiza. This 
is the river Kat&beda of Ptolemy, which, it is true, 
he has placed erroneously to the north of x^akan, 
but as it retains its name to this day among the 
natives, and as it is an uncommon one in that 
country, we can hardly be mistaken. As that part of 
the country is very little frequented by seafaring 
people the £[att^baidd is not noticed in any 
map or sea chart whatever. It was first brought 
to light by the late Mr. Burrows, an able astro- 
nomer, who visited that part of the coast by order 
of Government. In the language of that country 
Jcdta is a fort and Byeitzft or Baidzd is the name 
of a tribe in that country." {Asiat. Bes,, vol. XIY, 
pp. 462, 453). 

Barakoura : — This mart is placed in Yule's 
map at Bamfti, called otherwise Rftmu, a town 
lying 68 miles S.S.E. of Chittagong, 

Mouth of the Tokos anna:— This river 
Wilford and Lassen {Ind. Alt,, vol. II T, 
p. 237) identified with the Arakan river. Yule 
prefers the Naf , which is generally called the 
Teke-n&f, from the name of a tribe inhabiting 
its banks. 


3^. 'tliat of tie Silver country (A r g y ra)^ 

Sambra, acity 153° 30' 13° 45' 

Sada, a city 154° 20° 11° 2(/ 

Mouth of the River Sados... 153° 30^ V2° 30^ 

Berabonsa, a roscrt 155° 30^ 10' 20' 

The mouth of the River 

Temala... 157^^30'' 10° 

Temala, a city 157° 30^ 9° 

The Cape l?eyond it 157° 20' 8° 

4. That of the Besyngeitai Cannibals- 
on the Sarabakic Gulf where are— 

Sahara, acity 159** 30' 8° 30' 

Mouth of the River Besynga 162° 20' 8° 25' 

Besyuga, a mart... 102^ 9° 

Berabai, a city 162° 20' 6° 

The Cape beyond it 1 59° 4° 40' 

Arakan is no doubt ihe Silver Ooimtry, but the 
reason why it should have been so designated is 
not apparent, since silver has never so far as is 
known, been one of its products. It appears to 
have included part of the province of Pegu, 
which lies immediately to the, south of it. 

Sada : — This towB is mentioned in that part of 
Ptolemy's introductory book (eh. xiii, § 7) of which 
a translation has been given, as the first port on 
the eastern side of the Gangetic Gulf at which 
ships from Paloura on the opposite coast touched 
before proceeding to the more distant ports of 
the Golden Khersonese and the Great Gulf. li 
cannot be with certainty identified.. " It may 
perhaps have been Ezata, which appears in Pegu 
legend as the name of a port between Pegw 


and Bengal."— Yule, quoting J. A. 8. Beng., vol. 
XXVIII, p. 476. 

Berabonna : — The same authority suggests 
that this may be Sandow^, which Wilf ord proposed 
to identify with Sada. 

T e m a 1 a is the name of a town, a river, and a 
cape. In the introductory book (c. xiii, § 8) it is 
called Tamala, and said to lie to the south-east of 
Sada, at a distance of 3500 stadia. Yule would 
identify it, though doubtfully, with Gwa. Lassen 
again places it at Cape Negrais, which is without ' 
doubt the promontory which Ptolemy says comes 
after TSmala. 

The S arabakic Gulf is now called the Gulf 
of Martaban : — The name (Bdsyngytai) of the can- 
nibals is partly preserved in that of Bassein, which 
designates both a town and the river which is the 
western arm of the Irdwadi. Ptolemy calls this 
river the B ^ s y n g a. The emporium of the same 
name Lassen takes to be Rang£ln, but the simi- 
larity of name points to its identification with 
Bassein, an important place as a military position, 
from its commanding the river. 

Berabai: — Beyond this Ptolemy has a pro- 
montory of the same name, which may be Barago 
Point. The names at least are somewhat simi- 
lar and the position answers fairly to the require- 
ments. Lassen took Berabai, the town, to be 

5. That of the Golden Khersones© 

Takola, amart 160^ 4° 15' 

The Cape beyond it 158° 40' 2° 40' 


Mouth of the River Khrysoa- 

nas 159^ 1^ 

Sabana, a mart 160'' 3^S.L. 

Mouth of the River Palandos 1 6 1 ** 2^S . L. 

Cape Maleou Kolon 163^ 'i'^S.L. 

Mouth of the River A^ttaba 164° l^S.L. 

K61i, a town , 164° 2(y on the 


Perimoula 163^15' 2"=^ 20' 

Perimoulik Gulf.... 168° 30" 4° 15' 

The Golden Khersonese denotes gene- 
rally the Malay Peninsula, but more specially the 
Delta of the Ir&wadi, which forms the province 
of Pegu, the Suvamabhumi (Pali form, — 8ovan- 
nalihumi) of ancient times. The Golden Region 
which lies beyond this, in the interior, is Burmft, 
the oldest province of which, above Ava, is still, as 
Tule informs us, formally styled in State documents 
Sonapar4nta, i. e. * Gk)lden Frontier.'*' 

Takola: — RangOn, as Yule points out, or a 
port in that vicinity^ best suits Ptolemy's position 
with respect to rivers, &c.,'' while at the same 

■' Thornton notices in his Oazetteer of India (s. v. Bur- 
mah) that when Colonel Burney was the resident in Ava, 
official commnnications were addressed to him nnder the 
authority of the " Founder of the great golden city of 
precious stones ; the possessor of mines of gold, silver, 
rubies, amber and noble serpentine." 

*' Dr. Forchammer in his paper on the First Buddhist 
Mission to SuvannahMmi^ pp. 7, 16, identifies Takola 
with the Burman Kola or Kula-taik and the Talaing 
TaikkulA, the ruins of which are still extant between 
the present Ayetthima and Kinyua, now 12 miles from 
the sea-shore, though it was an important seaport till 
the 16th century. — J. B. 


time Thakalai is the legendary name of tha 
founder of Bangil^n Pagoda. There waa, how- 
ever, he says, down to late mediaeval times, a 
place of note in this quarter called Takkhala, 
Takola, or Tagala, the exact site of which he 
cannot trace, though it was apparently on the 
Martaban side of the Sitang estuary. 

Mouth of the Khrysoana River : — This must 
be the Eastern or Rangun mouth of the Irdwadt, 
for, as Tule states on the authority of Dr. F. 
Mason, Hm4bi immediately north of RangCA 
was anciently called Suvarnanadt, i. e. * Golden 
River,' and this is the meaning of Khrysoana. 

S a b a n a : — This may be a somewhat distorted 
form of Suvarna, * golden-coloured,' and the mart 
so called may have been situated near the mouth of 
the Saluen River. Tule therefore identifies it 
with Satung or Thatung. Lassen assigns it quite 
a different position, placing it in one of the 
jsmall islands lying off the southern extremity 
of the Peninsula. 

Cape MaleouKolon : — Regarding this Tule 
says, "Probably the Cape at Amherst. Mr. 
Crawford has noticed the singular circumstance 
that this name is pure Javanese, signifying 
'* Western Malays." Whether the name Malay 
can be so old is a question ; but I observe that in 
Bastian's Siamese Extracts, the foimdation of 
Takkhala is ascribed to the Malays." Lassen 
places it much further south and on the east- 
em coast of the Peninsula, identifying it with 
Cape Romania {Ind, Alt,, vol. Ill, p. 232). 

K 6 1 i : — In the Proceedings of the Royal 
Geographical Society, vol. IV, p. 639 ff, Colonel 


Yule lias thrown mucli liglit on Ptolemy's 
description of the coa^t from this place to Kat- 
tigara by comparing the glimpse which it gives 
us of the navigation to China in the 1st or 2n(l 
century of our era with the accounts of the same 
navigation as made by the Arabs seven or eight 
centuries later. While allowing that it would 
be rash to dogmatize on the details of the trans- 
gangetic geography, he at the same time points 
out that the safest guide to the true interpreta- 
tion of Ptolemy's data here lies in the probability 
that the nautical tradition was never lost. He 
calls attention also to the fact that the names on 
the route to the Sinae are many of them Indian, 
apecifying as instances Sabana, Pagrasa, Er. 
Sobanos, Tiponobaste, Zaba, Tagora, Balonga, 
Sinda, Aganagara, Brama, Ambastas, Babana, 
B/iver Kottlaris, Kokkonagara, &c. At Koli the 
Greek and Arab routes first coincide, for, to 
quote his. words, ** I take this Koli to be the Kalah 
of the Arabs, which was a month's sail from 
Kaulam (Quilon) in Malabar, and was a place 
dependent on the Mahar&ja of Z&baj (Java or 
the Great Islands) and near which were the moun- 
tains producing tin. Ko-lo is also mentioned in 
the Chinese history of the T'ang dynasty in terms' 
indicating its position somewhere in the region of 
Malakan Kalah lay on the sea of Shalahit 
(which we call Straits of Malaka), but was not 
very far from the entrance to the sea of Ka- 
dranj, a sea which embraced the Gulf of Siam, 
therefore I presume that Kalah was pretty far 
down the Malay Peninsula. It may, however, 
have been Kadah, or Quedda as we write it, 


for it was 10 days' voyage from Kalah to 
Tiyflmah (Battimah, Koyftmah). Now the Sea 
of Kadranj was entered, »the Perimulic Gulf of 

Perimulic Gulf : — Pliny mentions an Indian 
promontory called Perimula where there were 
very productive pearl fisheries (lib. VI, c. 64), 
and where also was a very busy mart of com- 
merce distant from Patala, 620 Roman miles 
(lib. YI, c. 20). Lassen, in utter disregard of 
Pliny's figures indicating its position to be 
somewhere near Bombay, placed it on the coasti 
of the Island of Man&r. In a note to mj 
translation of the Indika of Megasthenes I sug- 
gested that Perimula may have been in the 
Island of Salsette. Mr. Campbell's subsequent 
identification of it however with Simylla (Tia- 
mula) where there was both a cape and a gi*eat 
mart of trade I think preferable, and indeed quite 
satisfactory. But, it may be asked, how came it 
to pass that a place on the west coast of India 
should have the same name as another on the far 
distant Malay coast. It has been supposed by way 
of explanation that in very remote times a stream 
of emigration from the south-eastern shores of 
Asia flowed onward to India and other western 
countries, and that the names of places familiar 
to the emigrants in the homes they had left were 
given to their new settlements. There is evidence 
to show that such an emigration actually took 
place. Yule places the Malay Perimula at Pahang . 
The Perimulic Gulf is the Gulf of Siam, called by 
the Arabs, as already stated, the Sea of Kadranj. 
Lassen takes it to be only an indentation of the 
26 Q 


Peninsular coast by the waters of this Galf, which 
in common with most other writers ho identifies 
with Ptolemy's Great Galf . 

6. That of the L e s t a i (Robber's country) . 

Samarade 163° 4^50' 

Pagrasa 165^ 4° 50^ 

Mouth of ihe River Sobanos 165° 40' 4° 45^ 

<Fontes Fluvii)" 162° 30' 13° 

Pithonobast^, a mart 166° 20' 4^ 45' 

Akadra 167° 4° 45' 

Zabai, the city 168° 40' 40°^45' 

7. Thatof the Great Gulf. 
The Great Cape where the 

Gulf begins .' 169° 30' 4° 15' 

Thagora 168° 6' 

Balonga, a Metropolis 167° 30' T 

Throana 167° 8° 30' 

Mouth of the River Doanas. 167° 10° 

(Sources of a river)" 163° 27° 

Kortatha, a metropolis 167° 12° 30' 

Sinda, a town 167° 15' 16° 40' 

Pagrasa 167** 30' 14° 30' 

Mouth of the River Dorias. 168° 15° 30' 

(Sources of a river)" 163° 27° 

or (Tab. Geog.) 162^ 20° 28' 

Aganagara 169° 16° 20' 

Month of the River S^ros ... 171° 30' 17° 20' 
(Sources of a river)". . .1 70° (J add. Tab.) 32° 
(Another source)" ...173° l\ add. Tab.) 30° 
(The confluence)" 171° 27° 

^ Additions of the Latin Translator. 




Tte end of tBe Great Gnlf 

towards the Sinai 173** 17^20' 

Samarade : — This coincides with Samarat, 
the Buddhistic classical name of the place com- 
monly called Ligor {i.e, Nagara, *the city'), 
situated on the eastern coast of the Malay Penin- 
sula and subject to Siam. 

Mouth of the Eiver S oban o s : — Sobanos is the 
Sanskrit Suvarna, in its Pali form Sobanna, which 
means 'golden.' One of the old cities of Siam, 
in the Meinam basin was called Sobanapuri, i.e. 
* Gold-town.' 

Pithonabast^, Yule thinks, may correspond 
to the Bungpasoi of our maps^ at the mouth of 
the large navigable river Bangpa-Kong. It is at 
the head of the Gulf of Siam eastward of Bankok. 

A k a d r a : — Yule would identify this with the 
KadranJ of the Arabs, which he places at Chantibon 
on the eastern coast of the gulf. 

Z a b a i : — This city, according to Ptolemy, lay 
to the west of the Hoanas, or Mekong river, and 
Yule therefore identifies it with the seaport called 
Sanf or Chanf by the Arab navigators. Sanf or 
Chanf under the limitations of the Arabic alpha- 
bet represents G h a m p ft, by which the southern 
extremity of Cochin-China is designated. But 
Champ& lies to the south of the Mekong river, and 
this circumstance would seem to vitiate the iden- 
tification. Yule shows, however, that in former 
times Ohamp& was a powerful state, possessed of a 
territory that extended far beyond its present limits. 
In the travels of Hiuen Tsiang (about A. D. 629) 
it is called Mah&champ&. The locality of the 


ancient port of Zabai or CbampS is probably 
therefore to be sought on the west coast of Kam- 
boja, near the Kampot, or the Kang-kao of our 
maps. (See Ind. Ant., vol. VI, pp. 228-230). 

By the Great Gulf is meant the Gulf of Siam, 
together with the sea that stretches beyond it 
towards China. The great promontory where this 
sea begins is that now called Cape Kamboja. 

Sin da was situated on the coast near Pulo 
Condor, a group of islands called by the Arabs 
Sandar^Fulat and by Marco Polo Sondur and 
Condur. Yule suggests that these may be the 
Satyrs' Islands of Ptolemy, or that they may be 
his Sin da. 

8. The mountains in this division are thus 
named : — 
Bepyrrhos, whose extremities lie in 148° 34** 

and 154^ 26° 

and MaiandroB, whose extremities lie 

in 162° 24° 

and 160° 16° 

and Damassa (or Dobassa), whose 

extremities lie in 162° 23° 

and 166° 33° 

and the western part of Semanthinos, 

whose extremities lie in 1 70° 33° 

and 180° 26° 

Bepyrrhos : — -The authorities are pretty well 
agreed as to the identification of this range. ** Be- 
pyrrhos," says Lassen {lad. Alt, vol I., pp. 549-50) 
" answers certainly to the Himalaya from the 
sources of the Sarayii to those ^of the Tlsta.** 
"Ptolemy," says Saint-Martin {Ettide, p. 337) 


'' applies to a portion of the Him&Iayan chain the 
name of Bdpyrrhos, but with a direction to the 
south -east which does not exist in the axis of this 
grand system of mountains. In general, his notions 
about the Eastern Himalayas are vague and 
confused. It is the rivers which he indicates as 
flowing from each group, and not the position 
which he assigns to the group itself that can serve 
us for the purpose of identification. He makes 
two descend from Bepyrrhos and run to join 
the Ganges. These rivers are not named, but 
one is certainly the Kausiki and the other ought 
to be either the Gandak! or the Ttsta." Yule 
remarks, " Ptolemy shows no conception of the 
great Brahmaputra valley. His BSpyrrhos shuts 
in Bengal down to Maeandrus. The latter is the 
spinal range of Arakan (Yuma), Bepyrrhos, so far 
as it corresponds to facts, must include the Sikkim 
Him&laya and the G&ro Hills. The name is 
perhaps Vipula — * vast,* the name of one qf the 
mythical cosmic ranges but also a specific title 
of the Him&laya." 

Mount Maiandros : — From this range de- 
scend all the rivers beyond the Ganges as far as the 
Besynga or Bassein river, the western branch of 
the Ir&wadi. It must therefore be the Yuma 
chain which forms the eastern boundary of Arakan, 
of which the three principal rivers are the Mayu, 
the Kula-dan and the Le-myo. According to Lassen 
Maiandros is the graecized form of Mandara, a 
sacred mountain in Indian mythology. 

Dobassa or Damassa range : — This range 
contributes one of the streams which form the 
great river Doanas, Bepyrrhos which is further to 


the we^tf contributing the other confluent. A 
single glance at the map, Saint-Martin remarks 
{Etude^ p. 808), clearly shows that the reference 
here is to the Brahmaputra river, whose indigenous 
name, the Dihong, accounts readily for the word 
Doanas. It would be idle, he adds, to explain 
where errors so abound, what made Ptolemy 
commit the particular error of making his Doanas 
run into the Great Gulf instead of joining the 
eastern estuary of the Ganges. The Dobassa 
Mountains, I therefore conclude, can only be the 
eastern extremity of the Himalaya, which goes 
to force itself like an immense promontory into 
the grand elbow which the Dihong or Brah- 
maputra forms, when it bends to the south-east to 
enter As&m. If the word Dobassa is of Sanskrit 
origin, like other geographical appellations applied 
to these eastern regions, it ought to signify the 
* mountains that are obscure,''^T&masa Paryata. 
Yule (quoting J. A. S. Beng. vol. XXXVII, pt. ii, 
p. 192) points out that the Dimasas are mentioned 
in a modern paper on Asftm, as a race driven down 
into that valley by the immigration of the Bhotiyas. 
This also points to the Bhotan Himftlayas as being 
the Damassa range, and shows that of the two 
readings, Dobassa and Damassa, the latter is pre- 

Mount SSmanthinos is placed 10 degrees 
further to the east than Maiandros, and was re- 
garded as the limit of the world in that direc- 
tion. Regarding these two Sanskrit designations, 
Saint-Martin, after remarking that they are 
more mythic than real, proceeds to observe: 
" These Oriental countries formed one of the 


horiEons of the Hindu world, one of the extreme 
regions, where positive notions transform them- 
selves gradually into the creations of mere fancy. 
This disposition was common to all the peoples 
of old. It is found among the nations of the 
east no less than in the country of Homer^ 
Udayagiri, — the mountain of the east where the 
sun rises, was also placed by the Brahmanik 
poets very far beyond the mouths of the Ganges, 
The Semanthinos is a mountain of the same family. 
It is the extreme limit of the world, it is its very 
girdle {Samanta in Sanskrit). In fine, Pur&nik 
legends without number are connected with Man- 
dara, a great mountain of the East. The fabulous 
character of some of these designations possesses 
this interest with respect to our subject, that they 
indicate even better than notions of a more posi- 
tive kind the primary source of the information 
which Ptolemy employed. The Maiandros, how- 
ever, it must be observed, has a definite locality 
assigned it, and designates in Ptolemy the chain of 
heights which cover Arakan on the east." 

9. From B^pyrrhos two rivers discharge 
into the Ganges, of which the more northern has 

its sources in 148° 33° 

and its point of junction with 

the Ganges in 140° 15' 30° 20^ 

The sources of the other 

river are in 142° 27° 

and its point of junction with 

the Ganges in 144° 26° 

10. From Maiandros descend the rivers 
beyond the Ganges as far as the Besynga River, 


but the river 8^roB flowB from the range of 
SSmanthinos from two sources, of which the 

most western lies in 170° SCK 32* 

and the most eastern in 173° 30' 30° 

and their confluence is in ... 171° 27° 

11. From the Damassa range flow the 
Daonas and Dorias (the Doanas runs as far ba 
to Bepyrrhos) 

and the Ddrias rises in 164° 30' 28° 

Of the two streams which unite to form the 
Doanas that from the Damassa range rises 

in 162° 27° 30' 

that from Bepyrrhos rises in 163° 27° 30' 

The two streams unite in ... 160° 20' 19° 

The river Sobanas which flows from Maiandros 
rises in 163° 30' 13° 

12. The rivers which having previously 
united flow through the Golden Khersonese 
from the mountain ridges, without name, which 
overhang the Khersonese — the one flowing 
into the Khersonese first detaches from it 

the Attabas in about 161° 2° 20' 

and then the Khrysoanas in about 161° 1° 20' 
and the other river is the Palandas. 

Nearly all the rivers in the foregoing table have 
already been noticed, aud we need here do little 
more than remind the reader how they have been 
identified. The two which flow from Bepyrrhos 
into the Ganges are the Kausikt and the Tista. 
The B^synga is the Bassein River or Western 
branch of the Ir&wadi. The S I r o s enters the 


sea further eastward than any of the other rivers, 
probably in Ohamp&, the Zaba of Ptolemy, while 
Lassen identifies it with the Mekong. TheD a o n a a 
is no doabt the Brahmapatra, though Ptolemy, 
taking the estuary of the Mekong or Kamboja 
river to be its mouth, represents it as falling into 
the Great Gulf. It was very probably also, to 
judge from the close resemblance of the names 
when the first two letters are transposed, the 
Oidanes of Artemidoros, who, according to Strabo 
(lib. XV, c. i, 72), describes it as a river that bred 
crocodiles and dolphins, and that flowed into the 
Ganges. Ourtius (lib. VIII, c. 9) mentions a river 
called the Dyardanes that bred the same creatures, 
and that was not so often heard of as the Ganges, 
because of its flowing through the remotest parts of 
India. This must have been the same river as the 
Oidanes or Doanas, and therefore the Brahma- 
putra. TheDorias is a river that entered the 
Chinese Sea between the Mekong Estnary and 
the S^ros. The Sobanas is perhaps the river 
Meinam on which Bangkok, the Siamese capital, 
stands. 'The Attabasis Very probably the Tavoy 
river which, though its course is comparatively 
very short, is more than a mile wide at its mouth, 
and would therefore be reckoned a stream of im- 
portance. The similarity of the names favours 
this identification. The Ithrysoana is the 
eastern or Rang An arm of the Ir&wadi. The 
Palandasis probably the Salyuen River. 

Ptolemy now proceeds to describe the interior 
of Transgangetic India, and begins with the tribes 
or nations that were located along the banks of 
the Ganges on its eastern side, 
27 G 


13. The regions of this Division lying along 
the course of the Ganges on its eastern side and 
furthest to the north are inhabited by the 
Ganganoi, through whose dominions flows 
the river Sarabos, and who have the following 
towns : — 

Sapolos 139° 20' 35° 

Stoma 138° 40' 34° 40' 

Heorta 138° 30' 34° 

Rhappha 137° 40' 33° 40' 

For Ganganoi should undoubtedly bo read 
Tanganoi, as Tangana was the name given in 
the heroic ages to one of the great races who 
occupied the regions along the eastern banks 
of the upper Ganges. Their territory probably 
stretched from the Kamgang4 river to the 
upper SarayA, which is the Sarabos of Ptolemy. 
Their situation cannot be more precisely defined, 
as none of their towns named in the table can with 
certainty be recognized. " Concerning tiie people 
themselves," says Sa,mt-'M.iiviin {Mude, pp. 327, 328) 
" we are better informed. They are reprcseuled 
in the Mahdbhdrata as placed between the Kirata 
and the Kulinda in the highlands which protected 
the plains of Kosala on the north. They were 
one of the barbarous tribes, which the Brahmanic 
Aryans, in pushing their conquests to the east of 
the Ganges and Jamna, drove back into the Hima- 
layas or towards the Vindhyas. It is principally 
in the Vindhya regions that the descendants of 
the Tangana of classic times are now to be found. 
One of the Rajput tribes, well-known in the 
present day under the name of Tank Or Tonk is 


settled in Rohilkliand, the very district where 
the Mahdhhdrata locates the Tarigana and Ptolemy 
his Tanganoi. These Tank Rajputs extend west- 
ward to a part of the Doab, and even as far as 
Gujamt, but it is in the race of the Dangayas, 
spread over the entire length of the Vindhya 
Mountains and the adjacent territory from the 
southern borders of the ancient Magadha to the 
heart of M&Iwa to the north of the lower Narraad&, 
it is in this numerous race» subdivided into clans 
without number, and which ia called according to 
the districts inhabited Dhangis, Dhangars, Donga, 
&c. that we must search for the point of departure 
of the family and its primordial type. Thia type, 
which the mixture of Aryan blood has modified 
and ennobled in the tribes called BSjput, preserves 
its aboriginal type in the mass of mountain tribes, 
and this type is purely Mongolian, a living 
commentary on the appellation of Mlechha, of 
Barbarian, which the ancient Brahmanic books 
apply to the Tangana." (Conf. Brih, Bamk. ix, 
^7; X, 12; XIV, 12, 29; XVI, 6 ; XVII, 25; xxxi, IS 
Bdmdyana iv, 44, 20). 

The towns, we have said, cannot be identified 
with certainty, but we may quote Wilford's views 
as to what places now represent themw He says 
(Asiat. Research, vol. XIV, p. 457) : "The B&n or 
Saraban river was formerly the bed of the Ganges 
and the present bed to the eastward was also once 
the Ban or Saraban river. This Ptolemy mistook 
for the B&magang&, called also the B&n, Saraban 
and Sar&vati river, for the four towns which he 
places on its banks, are either on the old or the 
new bed of the Ganges. Stoma and S a p o 1 o s 


are Hastnanra, or Hastina-nagara on the old bed, 
and Sabal, now in rains, on the eastern bank of 
the new bed, and is commonly called Sabalgarh. 
Hastinapur is 24 miles S. W. of Dar&nagar, and 
11 to the west of the present Ganges ; and it is 
called Hastnawer in the Ay in Akbari. Heorta 
is Awartta or Hardw&r. It is called Arate in 
the Peutinger tables, and by the ADonymous of 

14. To the south of these are the M a r o n n- 
dai who reach the Gangaridai, and have 
the following towns on the east of' the 
Ganges : — 

Boraita 142^20' 29° 

Korygaza 143° 30' 27° 15' 

Kond6ta 145° 26° 

Kelydna 146° 25° 30' 

Aganagora 146° 30' '22° 30' 

Talarga 146° 40' 21° 40' 

The Maroundai occupied an extensive 
territory, which comprised Tirhut and the country 
southward on the east of the Ganges, as far sea 
the head of its delta, where they bordered with the 
Gangaridai. Their name is preserved to this day 
in that of the MAndas, a race which originally 
belonged to the Hill-men of the North, and is now 
under various tribal designations diffused through 
Western Bengal and Central India, ** the nucleus 
of the nation being the Ho or Hor tribe of Singh- 
bham.*® They are probably the M o n e d e s of 

" J. A. 8. B., vol. XXXV, p. 168. The Mihida tribes as 
enumerated by Dalton, id. p. 158, are the Knars of Ilich- 
pnr, the Eorewas of Sirgnja and Jaspnr, the Kherias of 
Chntia Nfigpnr, the Hor of Singhbhnm, the Bhumij of 



wliom Pliny speaks, in conjunction with tbe Snari. 
That they were connected originally with the 
Muranda, a people of Lamp&ka (Lamghan) at 
the foot of the Hindu-Koh mentioned in the 
inscription on the AUah&b&d pillar, along with the 
Saka, as one of the nations that brought tributary 
gifts to the sovereign of India, is sufficiently pro- 
bable*°; but the theory that these Muranda on 
being expelled from the valleys of the Kophes by 
the invasion of the Yetha, had crossed the Indus 
and advanced southwards into India till they 
established themseWes on the Ganges, in the king- 
dom mentioned ^by Ptolemy, is, as Saint-Martin has 
clearly proved (JS?^iw2e, pp. 329,330) utterly untenable, 
since the sovereign to whom the Muranda of tbe .^ . } 

north sent their gifts was Samndragupta, who C^xf- - 
reigned subsequently to the time of Ptolemy, and A < ' •' ' ' > 

they could not therefore have left their ancestral 
seats before he wrote. Saint- Martin further observes ^ • ^ ■ ' 
that not only in the case before us but in a host of 
analogous instances, it is certain that tribes of 
like name with tribes in India are met with 
throughout the whole extent of the region north of 
the Indus, from the eastern' extremity of the 
HimSrIaya as far as the Indus and the Hindu-Koh, 
but this he points out is attributable to causes 
more general than the partial migration of certain 
tribes. The Fat/w Turdna mentions the Muranda 
among the Mlechha tribes which gave kings to 

MAnbhAm DhalbhAm, and the Santala of MAnbh^m 
Singhbhum, Katak, HazfiribAgh and the BhAgalrpnr 
hills. The western branches are the Bhills of MAlwa and 
KAnhdos and tbe Kolis of Gujarat. 

30 MaMhh. vii, 4847 ; Reinand, MCm. sur VJnda, 
p. 353 Lassen, Jnd, Alt.^ vol. II, p. 877.— Ed. 








^C^*' India during the period of subversion which 

,/ ^ . followed the extinction of the two great Aryan 

^ dynasties. See Cunningham, Anc, Geoff, of Ind,, 

J pp. 605-509, also Lassen, bid. AIL, vol. Ill, 
pp. 136f. 165—157, and vol. II, p. 877n. 

Regarding the towns of the Maroundai, we may 
quote the ^following general observations of Saint- 
Martin {Etude, pp. 331, 332). " The list of towns 
nV*" " J, ^ ' ^ attributed to the Maroundai would, it might be 

A**' 1 S ^ expected, enable us to determine precisely what 

J^ - 1 extent of country acknowledged in Ptolemy's time 

.^J^^ the authority of the Muranda dynasty, but the 

corruption of many of the names in the Greek 
text, the inexactitude or insufi5.ciency of the indi- 
cations and, in fine, the disappearance or change of 
name of old localities, render recognition often 
doubtful, and at times impossible." He then goes 
on to say : ** The figures indicating the position of 
these towns form a series almost without any devia- 
tion of importance, and betoken therefore that we 
have an itinerary route which cuts obliquely all the 
lower half of the Grangetic region. From B o r a i t a 
toKelydna this line follows with sufficient regu- 
larity an inclination to S. E. to the extent of about 
6 degrees of a great circle. On leaving Kelydna 
it turns sharply to the south and continues in 
this direction to Talarga, the last place on the 
list, over a distance a little under four degrees. This 
sudden change of direction is striking, and when 
we consider that the Ganges near Bijmahal alters 
its course just as sharply, we have here a coin- 
cidence which suggests the enquiry whether near 
the point where the Ganges so suddenly bends, 
there is a place having a name something like 


Kelydua, which it may be safely assumed is a bad 
transcription into Greek of the Sanskrit Kalinadt 
(' black river*) of which the vulgar form is Kalindi. 
Well then, Kalindi is found to be a name applied 
to an arm of the Ganges which communicates 
with the Mahanand^, and which surrounds on the 
north the large island formed by the Mahananda 
and Ganges, where once stood the famous city of 
Gauda or Gaur, now in ruins. Gauda was not in 
existence in Ptolemy's time, but there may have 
been there a station with which if not with the 
river itself the indication of the table would 
agree. At all events, considering the double 
accordance of the name and the position, it seems to 
me there is little room to doubt that we have there 
the locality of Kelydna. The existing town of 
Malda, built quite near the site of Gaur, stands at 
the very confluence of the Kalindi and Mahananda. 
This place appears to have preserved the name of 
the ancient M a I a d a of the Puranik lists, very 
probably the M o li n d a i of Megasthenes. This 
point being settled, we are able to refer thereto the 
towns in the list, both those which precede and 
those which follow after. Wo shall commence with 
the last, the determination of which rests on data 
that arc less vague. These are Aganagara and 
T a 1 a r g a. The table, as we have seen, places them 
on a line which descends towards the sea exactly 
to the south of Kelydna. If, as seems quite likely, 
these indications have been furnished to Ptolemy 
by the designating of a route of commerce 
towards the interior, it is natural to think that this 
route parted from the great emporium of the 
Ganges (the Gauge Regia of Ptolemy, the 


Ganges emporiam of the Peripliis) which should be 
found, as we have already said, near where HQghli 
now stands. From Kelydna to this point the route 
descends in fact exactly to the south, following 
the branch of the Ganges which forms the western 
side of the delta. The position of Aghadip 
Agadvipa) on the eastern bank of the river a 
little below Katw4, can represent quite suitably 
Aganagora (Aganagara); while Talarga may be 
taken to be a place some leagues distant from Cal- 
cutta, in the neighbourhood of Hiighli The 

towns which precede Kelydna are far from having 
the same degree of probability. We have nothing 
more here to serve for our guidance than the 
distances taken from the geographical nota- 
tions, and we know how uncertain this indication 
is when it has no check to control it* The first 
position above Kelydna is Kondota or Ton- 
do t a ; the distance represented by an arc of two 
degrees of a great circle would conduct us to the 
lower Bagamatt (BhagaVati). Korygaza or 
Sorygaaa (distant J degree) would come to be 
placed perhaps on the Gandakt, perhaps between 
the Gandaki and the lower Sarayii ; last of all 
B o r a i t a, at tv^o degrees from Korygaaa, would 
conduct us to the very heart of ancient Kosala, 
towards the position of the existing town of Bar* 
d^. We need scarcely add, in spite of the con* 
nexion of the last two names, that we attach but a 
faint value to determinations which rest on data 
so vague." Boraita may be, however, Bhar^ch 
in Audh, as Yule has suggested, and with regard 
to Korygaza, it may be observed that the last part 
of the name may represent the Sanskrit kachha. 


which means a marsh or place near a marsh, and 
hence KorygaKa may he Gorakhpur, the situation 
of which is notably marshy. 

15. Between the Imaos and Bepyrrhos 
ranges the Takoraioi are farthest north, and 
below them are the Korangkaloi, then the 
P a s s a 1 a i, after whom to the north of Maian- 
dros are the T i 1 a d a i, such being the name 
apph'ed to the Beseidai, for they are short of 
stature and broad and shaggy and broad- 
faced, but of a fair complexion. 

Takoraioi: — This tribe occupied the valleys 
at the foot of the mountains above Eastern Kosala 
and adjoined the Tanganoi. The Tanganas are 
mentioned among the tribes of the north in the 
lists of the Brihat Sanhitd (IX, 17 ; X, 12 ; XIV, 
29). They have left numerous descendants in 
different parts of Gangetic India. A particular 
clan in Rohilkhand not far from the seats of the 
Takoraioi preserves still the name under the form 
DakhskuraiiYiWiot's Supplementary Glossary of Indian 
terms, p. 360), and other branches are met with 
near the Jamna and in Kajputana. Towards the 
east again the Dekra form a considerable part of 
the population of Western Asam (J. A. 8. Beng., 
vol. XVIII, p. 712). 

Korangkaloi; — These are probably of the 
same stock, it* not actually the same people, as 
Korankara of the Purdnas {Asiat. Research., 
vol. VIII), and the Kyankdanis of Shekavati. 
Their position is near the sources of the Gandak. 

P a s s a 1 a i : — The Passalai here mentioned are 
not to be confounded with the Passalai of the Do&b. 
28 6 


In tlie name is easily to be recognized the Yaisdli 
of Hiuen Tsiang, which was a small kingdom 
stretching northward from the Ganges along the 
banks of t^e river Gandak. The capital had the 
same name as the kingdom, and was sitnated in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Hajipnr, a station 
near the junction of the Gandak and Ganges, where 
a great fair is annually held, distant from F&tna 
about 20 miles. *• Here we find the village of 
Bes&rh, with an old ruined fort, which is still 
called Raja 6isal-ka-garh, or the fort of Baja 
Visala, who was the reputed founder of the 
ancient Vaissili." (Cunningham, Anc, Geoff, of 
Ind^f p. 443). 

T i I a d a i : — We here leave the regions adjoin- 
ing the Ganges, and enter the valleys of the Brah- 
maputra. The Tiladai are called also Besadai or 
Basadai . Ptolemy places them above the Maiandros, 
and from this as well as his other indications, we 
must take them to be the hill-people in the vicinity 
t)f Silhet, where, as Tule remarks, the plains break 
into an infinity of hillocks, which are specially 
known as tila. It is possible, he thinks, that the 
Tiladai occupied these tUas, and also that the 
Tiladri hills (mentioned in the Kshetra Samdea) 
were the same Tilas. The same people is men- 
tioned in the Periplusj but under the corrupt 
form of S^satai. The picture drawn of them by 
the author of that work corresponds so closely with 
Ptolemy's, that both authors may be supposed 
to have drawn their information from the same 
source. We may quote (in the original) what 
each says of them : — 

Periplus : iBpos rt, r© /iff cra>fiaTi KoXo/Sot Ka\ 


fr(f>6bpa 9rXarvTrpo<r6i7ro(, cvvoiais be X^trroi avTovs 
f dc] XfyarBai [^00*1] S7(raraf, vapofiolovs di^rjfifpois, 

Ptolemy : U(ri yap KoXofioi^ koi nXarcls, Koi 
iao'etSf Kat 9rXarv7r/>d(rcD9rot, Xcu/coi p^vrot ras XP^^^- 

Description of the regions which extend from 
the Brahmaputra to the Great Gulf, 

16, Beyond Kirrhadia, in which they 
say the best Malahathrum is produced, the 
Zamirai, a race of cannibals, are located near 
Mount Maiandros. 

17. Beyond the Silver Country, in which 
there are said to be very many silver mines, 
{p€Ta\\a da-r^pov), is situated in juxtaposition to 
the Besyngeitai, the Gold Country {Xpva-rj 
\^pa\ in which are very many gold mines, and 
whose inhabitants resemble the Zamirai, in 
being f air- complexioned, shaggy, of squat figure, 
and flat-nosed. 

Kirrhadia : — This has been already noticed. 
With reference to its product Malahathrum^ which 
is not betel, but consists of the leaves of one or 
more kinds of the cinnamon or cassia-tree. I may 
quote the following passage from the /. A. S. Beng., 
vol. XVI, pp. 38-9 : — " Cmnamomum albiflorum is 
designated taj, tejpat in Hindustani, the former 
name being generally applied to the leaf and the 
latter to the bark of the tree ; taj, tejpata, or tejapa- 
tra, by all which nances this leaf is known, is used 
as a condiment in all parts of India. It is indigen- 
ous in Silhet, Asam, Rungpur (the Kirrhadia of 
Ptolemy), and in the valleys of the mountain-range 
as far as Masari. The dry branches and leaves 


are brought annnally in large quantities from tlie 

former place, and sold at a faix, wliich is held &t 

VikiaiDapura. Tn/, however, is a name also 

given in the eastern part of Bengal to the bark 

of a variety of Cinnamoviu7n Zeijlanicum or Cassia 

lignea, which abounds in the valleys of Kach&r, 

Jyntiya and Asam." The word Malabaihrnm is a 

compound of tamala (the Sans^krit name of Cinyia- 

momnm albiflmum) and pdiroj • a leaf/ Another 

derivation has been suggested wa/tf, * a garland/ 

and pdtra *a leaf.' (Lassen, Ijid. Alt.,'To}. I, p. 283 

Beq.,andconf. Dymock's Vfget, Mat. Med., p. 553). 

The following interesting passage describes 

the mode in which the Besadai trade in this article 

with the Chinese. I translate from the Pejiplug, 

cap. 65:— **0n the confines of lliina is held an 

aiinnal fair attended by a race of men called the 

Sesatai, who are of a squat fignre, broad-faced, and 

in appearance like wild beasts, though all the same 

they are quite mild and gentle in their disposition. 

They resort to this fair with their wives and 

children, taking greiit loads of produce packed in 

mats like the young leaves of the vine. The fair 

is held where their country borders on that of the 

Thinai. Here, spreading out the mats they use 

4hem for lying on, and devote several days to 

festivity. This being over, they withdraw into 

their own country and the Thinai, when they see 

they have gone, come forward and collecting the 

mats, which had been purposely left behind, extract 

first from the Calami (called Petroi), of which they 

were woven, the sinews and fibres, and then taking • 

the leaves fold them double and roll them up into 

balls through which they pass the fibres of the 


Calami* The balls are of three kinds, and are 
designated according to the size of the leaf from 
which they are made, hadro, meso and mikro* 
sphaiton. Hence there are tliree kinds of Mnlaha* 
thnintj and these are then carried into India by the 

Z a m t r a i :^A various reading is Zamerai. Ili 
has been already stated that this Was a tribe of 
the same family as the Kir^ta, beaido whom they 
are named in the great geographical catalogue of 
the Mahdbhdrat(.u Ramifications of the Zamirai 
Btill exist under the names of 2amarina, Tomara, 
&c., in the midst of the savage districts which 
extend to the S. and S.E. of Magadha, and to the 
west of the Son. 

The silver country, it has already been noticed, 
is Arakan, and the gold country and copper 
country, Yule remarks, correspond curiously evert 
in approximate position with the Sonapar&nta 
(golden frontier land), and 2arapadipa of Burmese 
fitate-documents. The Malay peninsula, taken 
generally, has still many mines both of the 
precious and the useful metals. 

18, And, again, between the ranges of 
B^pyrrhos and D a m a s s a, the country 
furthest north is inhabited by the Aninakhai 
(or Aminakhai), south of these the Inda- 
prathai, after these the Ib^ringai, then 
the Dabasai (or Damassai ?), and up to 
Maiandros the Nangalogai, which means 
** the World of the Naked'* {yvfivav koo-hos), 

19. BetAveen the D a m a s s a range and the 
frontiers of the Sinai are located furthest 


north the K a k o b a i ; and below them the 

20. Next comes the country ofKhalkitis, 
in which are very many copper mines. 
South of this, extending to the Great Gulf 
the Koudoutai, and the B a r r h a i, and, 
after them the I n d o i, then the D o a n a i, 
along the river of the same name. 

21. To these succeeds a mountainous coun- 
try adjoining the country of Robbers (At/o-tcoi/) 
wherein are found elephants and tigers. The 
inhabitants of the Robber country are re- 
ported to be savages {drjpMeis)^ dwelling in 
caves, and that have skins like the hide of 
the hippopotamus, which darts cannot pierce 

Aninakhai: — The position Ptolemy assigns to 
them is the mountain region to the north of the 
Brahmaputra, corresponding to a portion of Lower 

Indaprathai : — This is a purely Hindu 
name. In Sanskrit documents and in inscrip- 
tions mention is made of several towns in 
the provinces of the Ganges, which had taken the 
name of the old and famous Indraprastha (the 
modern Dehli), and we may* conclude that fhe 
Indaprathai of the East were a Brahmanic 
settlement. In subsequent times Sanskrit desig- 
nations spread further down into the Dekhan 
with the cultus, either of the Brahmans or the 
Buddhists. Instances in point are Modura and 
Kosamba, which have been already noticed. The 


Indaprathai appear to have established them- 
selves in the districts S. of the Brahmaputra, and 
of the Aninakhai. 

Iberingai and Dabasai or Damas- 
s a i : — The D a m a s s a i (now the Dimasas as 
already noticed), occupied the region extending 
from, their homonymous mountains to the Brahma- 
putra, but further to the east than the Aninakhai 
and Iberingai. 

Nangalogai : — Many tribes still existing on 
the hills, east and north-east of Silhet, are called 
Nagas. This name, which is given correctly in 
Ptolemy as Nanga, is the Indian word for naked, 
and according to Yule it is written Nanga in 
the Musalman History of Asam. The absolute 
nakedness of both sexes, he says, continues in 
these parts to the present day. The latter half of 
the name I6g (Sanskrit I6k)y is the Indian term for 
people, mankindt or the world, as Ptolemy has it. 

With regard to the other tribes enumerated, 
Saint Martin remarks {Etude, pp. 345-6) :— 
"The Iberingai are still a tribe of the north 
just as the Dabassae, perhaps on the mountains of 
the same name. There is still a tribe of Dhobas 
in Dinajpur, one of the districts of the north-east 
of Bengal, on the confines of the ancient K^mart^pa. 
To the east of the Dobassa mountains, towards the 
frontiers of the Sinai, the tribe of the Kakobai is 
found to a surety in that of the Khokus, who 
occupy the same districts. The Basannarae, in a 
locality more southern, are very probably the 
Bhanzas, a tribe of the mountains to the south of 
Tippera, east of the mouth of the Brahmaputra. 
In the Koudoutai and the Barrhai, it is easy to 


recognize, though Ptolemy carries them too far 
into the south, the Kolitas and the Bhars or Bhors, 
two of the most notable parts of the population of 
Western As^m, and of the districts of Bengal that 
belong to KamarApa. The Dodn^ii or Daonai are 
perpetuated in the Za^ri of Eastern Asam ; and 
the name of the Lestae, the last of the list, corre- 
sponds to all appearance to that of the Lepchhas, a 
well-known mountain race on the confines of 
Sikkim to the west of the TistA." For notices of 
the tribes vfhicli he has thus identified with those 
of Ptolemy, he refers to the Journal of the Asiatic 
Soiitity of Bengali vols. TI, IX, XIV, and XVIII. 
His identification of the Lestai with the Lepchhas 
is in every way unfortunate. That the name Aiyora t 
is not a transcript of any indigenous name, but 
the Greek name for robbers or pirates, is apparent 
from the fact alone that the r] has the iota 
subscribed. The Lepchhas, moreover, live among 
mountains, far in the interior, vrhile Ptolemy 
locates his Ldstai along the shores of the Gulf of 

Ptoleitny gives next a list of 33 towns in the 
interior by Way of supplement to those already 
mentioned as situated along the course of the 
Ganges, followed by a list of the towns irk the 
Golden Khersonese : — 

22, The inland towns and villages of this 
division (Transgangetic India), in addition 
to those mentioned along the Ganges are 
called : — 

Selamponra.. 148° 30' 33^20' 

Kanogiza 143"^ 32"* 



Kassida 146° 3P 10' 

Eldana 152° 31° 

Asanabara 155° 31° 3(/ 

Arkhinara 163° 31° 

Oarath^nai 170° 31° 20' 

Souanagoura 145° 30' 29° 30' . 

Sagoda or Sadoga 155° 20' 29° 20' 

Anina 162° 29° 

Salatha 165° 40' 28° 20' 

23. Rhadamarkotta, 

in jw^liicli is much nard ... 1 72° 28' 

Ath^nagouron 146° 20' 27° 

Maniaiiia(orManiataia) 147° 15' 24° 40' 

T6salei, a metropolis ... 150° 23° 20' 

Alosanga 152° 24° 15' 

Adeisaga 159° 30' 23° 

Kimara 170° 23° 15' 

Parisara 179° 21° 30' 

Tougma, a metropolis... 152° 30' 22° 15' 

Ariaabion 158° 30' 22° 30' 

Posinara 162° 15' 22° 50' 

Pandasa 165° . 21° 20' 

Sipiberis (orSitteb^ris). 170° 23° 15' 
Triglypton, called also Trilingon, capital 

of the kingdom 154° 18° 

In this part the cocks are ^ said to be 
bearded, and the crows and parrots white. 

24. Lariagara 162° 30' 18° 15' 

Rhingiberi 166° 18° 

Agimoitha 170° 40' 18° 40' 

Tomara 172° 18° 

29 Q 


Daeana or Doana 165^ 15° 2(y 

Mareoura, a metropolip^ 

called also Malthoura 158^ 12*^30' 

Laaippa (or Lasyppa)... IGF 12° SC^ 

Bareukora (or Bareua- 
.thra 164° 30' 12° 50' 

25. In the Golden Khersonese — 

Balongka 162° 4° 40' 

Kokkonagara 160° 2° 

Tharrha 162° 1° 20' S. 

Palanda 161° 1° 20' S, 

Regarding the foregoing long list of inland towns , 
the following general observations by Sainfc- Martin 
are instructive : " With Ptolemy, unfortunately," 
he says {Mude, pp. 348-9) " the correspondence 
of names of towns in many instances, is less easy 
to discover than in the case of the names of 
peoples or tribes. This is shown once again in 
the long-enough list which he adds to the names 
of places already mentioned under the names of 
the people to which they respectively belonged. 
To judge from the repetitions in it and the want of 
connexion, this list appears to have been supplied 
to him by a document different from the docu- 
ments he had previously used, and it is precisely 
because he has not known how to combine its 
contents with the previous details that he has thus 
given it separately and as an appendix, although 
thereby obliged to go again over the same ground 
he had already, traversed. For a country where 
Ptolemy had not the knowledge of it as a whole to 
guide him, it would he unjust to reproach him with 
this want of connexion in his materials, and the con- 


fusian therefram resulting; but this absence, almoirt 
absolute, of connexion does only render the task 
of the critic all the more laborious and unwelcome 
and there results from it strange mistakes for 
those who without sufficiently taking into account 
the composition of this part of the Tables, have 
believed they could find in the relative positions 
which the places have there taken a sufficient means 
of identification. It would only throw one into the 
risk of error to seek for correspondences to these 
obscure names^ (of which there is nothing to 
guarantee the correctness, and where there is not 
a single name that is assigned to a definite terri- 
tory,) in the resemblances, more or less close, which 
oould be furnished by a topographical dictionary 
of India." 

Selampoura : — This suggests Selenrpur, m 
place situated at some distance north of the D^vat 
or lower S'arayA. The identity of the names i» 
our only warrant for taking them as applying to 
one and the same town ; but as the two places 
which follow belong to the same part of th« 
country, the identification is in some measura 
supported. Selempur is situated on a tributary 
of the SarayA, the little Gandak. 

K a n o g i z a : — ^Tbis is beyond doubt the famous 
city of Kanyakubja or Kanauj, which has already 
been noticed under the list of towns attributed to 
PrasiakS, where the name is given as Kanagors. 
Ptolemy, while giving here the name more correct- 
ly has put the city hopelessly out of its position 
with reference to the Ganges, from which he has 
removed it several degrees, though it stood upon 
its banks. Among Indian cities it ranks next in 


point of antiquity to Ayodhyft in Audb, and it ipfftd 
for many centuries tbe Capital of North- Western 
India. It Tras then a stately city, full ci incre- 
dible wealth, and its king, who was sometimes 
styled tbe Emperor of India, kept a very splendid 
court. Its remains are 65 miles W.N.W. from 
Lakbnau. The place was yisited hy Hinen Tsiang 
in 634 A.D. Pliny (S, N, lib. YI, c. 21) has Oalini- 
paxa. Oonf. Lassen, Ind. AU, toL I, p^ 158; 
MaMhh. Ill, 8313; Bdmdyana, I, 34, S7. 

K a s s i d a : — Here we have another case of n 
recurrence of tbe same name in an altered form. 
In' Sanskrit and in inscriptions K&s^ is the ordi- 
nary name of B&nftras. How Ptolemy came to 
lengthen the name by affixing da to it has not been 
explained. Pfcolemy has mutilated V&ranftsf into 
Erarasa, which be calls a metropolis, and assigns 
to the Kaspeiraioi. &ucb is tbe view taken hj 
Sflint-Martin, but Yule, as we have seen, identifies 
Erarasa with Govardban (Giriraja). fie also 
points out, on the authority of Dr. F. Hall 
that Yftran&si was never used as a name for 

Souanagoura : — 'M[. Saint-Martin ( Mude, p. 
351)thinks this is a transcript of the vulgar form of 
Snlvarnanagara, and in this name recognizes that 
of one of the ancient capitals of Eastern Bengal, 
SuvarDagrSrma (now Sociargdon, about 12 miles 
from Bhakka), near the right bank of the Lower 

S a g 6 d a : — There can be no doubt of the iden- 
tity of this place with Ayodhya, the capital of 
Kosala, under the name of Saketa or Sageda. 
Sd.kyamuni spent the last days of his life in this 


cifcy, and daring his sojourn the ancient name 
of Ayodhyft gave place to that of S^keta, the 
only one current* Hindu lexicographers give 
SAketa and Kdsala (or Kosala) as synonyms of 
Ayodhyft. The place is now called Audh, and is 
on the right bank of the SarayO or Gbaghrft, near 
Faiz&b&d, a modern town, built from its ruins. 
At some distance north from Audh is the site of 
Sr&vasti, one of the most celebrated cities in the 
annals of Buddhism. For the identity of SSk^ta 
with Ayodhya and also Yisakha see Cunningham, 
Geog, of Anc. Ind., pp. 401 sqq. 

Bhadamarkotta (v. 1. Ehandamarkotta). 
Saint-Martin has identified this with KangAmati, 
an ancient capital situated on the western bank 
of the lower Brahmaputra, and now called Ude- 
pur (TJdayapura, — city of Bwiriae), Yule, who 
agrees with this identification, gives as the Sans- 
krit form of the name of the place, Ra6ga- 
mritika. The passage about Nard which follows 
the mention of Bhadamarkotta in the majority 
of editions is, according to Saint *Mart in {Mude, 
p. 352 and note), manifestly corrupt. Some editors, 
correct ttoXX^, much, into TroXety, cities, and thus 
Nardos becomes the name of a town, and Bha- 
damarkotta the name of a district, to which 
Nardos and the towns that come after it in the 
Table belong. On this point we may quote a 
passage from Wilford, whose views regarding 
Bhadamarkotta were different. He says {Asiat. 
Besearch. vol. XIV, p. 441), Ptolemy has delineated 
tolerably well the two branches of the river of 
Ava and the relative situation of two towns upon 
them, which still retain their ancient name, only 



th«y are tmns posed. These two towns are tTrathlnai 
and Nardos or Nardon; XJrathena is Bhftdana« 
the ancient name of Amarapnr, and Nardon is 
Nartenh on the Kayn-dween. ..." He says that 
"Nartenh was situated in the country of Rhanda- 
markota, literally^ the !E^ort of Bandamar, after 
which the whole country was designated." 

Tosalei, called a Metropolis, has become of 
great importance since recent archasological dis- 
coveries have led to the finding of the namo 
In the Alioka Inscriptions on the Dhauli rock. 
The inscription begins thus : *' By the orders of 
DSvanampiya (beloved of the gods) it is enjoined 
to the public officers charged with the administra* 
iion of the city of Tosalij" &c. Vestiges of a 
larger city have been discovered not far from thv 
site of this monument, and there can be no 
doubt that the Tosali of the inscription was the 
capital in Asoka's time of the province of Orissa» 
and continued to be so till at least the time of 
Ptolemy. The city was situated on the margin 
of a pool called K6sal&-Gahga, which was an object 
of great religious veneration throoghout all the 
country. It is pretty certain that relative to this 
circumstance is the name of Tosala-Kos&lakas, 
which is found in the Brahmdnda Purdna, which 
Wilford had already connected with the Tosale of 
Ptolemy. He had however been misled by the 
2nd part of the word to locate the city in N, 
K6sal4, that is Audh. An obvious objection to 
the locating of Tosale in Orissa is that Ptolemy 
assigns its position to the eastern side of the 
Ganges, and Lassen and Burnouf have thus been 
led to conclude that there must have been twO 


eities of the name. Lassen accordingly finds for 
Ptolemy's Tosald a place somewhere in the Province 
j}f Pb&kkft. Bat there is no necessity for this. If 
we take into account that the name of T6sal4 iji 
among those that are marked as having been 
added to our actual Greek texts by the old Latin 
translators (on what authority we know not) we 
shall be the less surprised to find it out of its real 
place. (Saint-Martin, Etude, pp. 353-4, citing J. A, 
S. Beng,, vol. YII, pp. 435 and 442; Lassen, Ind. 
Alt., vol. II, p. 256, and vol. Ill, p. 158; and 
Asiat Research, vol. YIII, p. 344). 

Alosanga: — The geographical position of 
A 1 o 8 a n g a places it a quarter degree to the north 
of the upper extremity of Mount Maiandros. " By 
a*8trange fatality," says Wilford {Asiat, Rea. 
«< «., p. 390) "the northern extremity of Mount 
Maindros in Ptolemy*8 maps is brought close to 
the town of Alosanga, now Ellasing on the Lojung 
river, to the north-west of Dhakka. This mistake 
is entirely owing to his tables of longitude and 

T o u g m a : — In Yule*s map this is identified, 
but doubtfully, with Tagaung, a place in KhrysS 
(Burma) east from the Ir&wadi and near the 

Triglypton or Trilingon: — Opinions 
vary much as to where this capital was situated. 
Wilford says {Asiat. Research, vol. XIV, p. 450-2) : 
" Ptolemy places on the Tokosanna, the Metropolis 
of the country, and calls it Trilingon, a true 
Sanskrit appellation. Another name for it, saya 
our author, was Triglypton, which is an attempt* 
to render into Greek the meaning of Trilinga or 


Trai-lifiga, the three 'lingas' of Mah&deva; and 
this iu Arakau is part of an extensive district 
in the Pnrdnas, called Tri-pura, or the three 
tovvns and townships first inhabited by three 
Daityas. These three districts were Kamila, 
Ghattala and Burmftnaka, or Basang^ to be pro- 
nounced Ba-sh&nh, or nearly so ; it is now 
Ardkan. Kamilla alone retains the name of Tri- 
pura, the two other districts having been wrested 
from the head Raja. Ptolemy says that in the 
country of the Trilinga, there were white ravens, 
white parrots, and bearded cocks. The white 
parrot is the kdkdttod; white ravens are to be 
seen occasionally in India . • . Some say that 
this white colour might have been artificial .... 
The bearded cocks have, as it were, a collar *of 
reversed feathers round the neck and throat, 
and there only, which gives it the appearance of a 
beard. These are found only in the houses of 
native princes, from whom I procured three or 
four; and am told that they came originally 
from the hills in the N. W. of India." Lassen 
has adopted a somewhat similar view. He 
says (Ind. Alt., vol. Ill, p. 238-9): "Trigly- 
phon was probably the capital of the Silver 
country, Ar&kan of the present day. It lies, 
according to Ptolemy's determination, one degree 
further east and 3^ degrees further north than 
the mouths of the Ar&kan river. The mouths 
are placed in the right direction, only the numbers 
are too great. It may be added that the founda- 
tion of this city, which was originally called 
YaiS&lt, belongs to earlier times than those of 
Ptolemy, and no other capital is known to as in 


this country. The Greek name which means 
' thrice cloven,' i,fi., * three-forked' or * a trident* 
suits likewise with Arakan, because it lies at the 
projections of the delta, and the Arakan river, in 
the lower part of its course, splits into several 
arms, three of which are of superior importance. 
Ptolemy's remark that the cocks there are bearded 
and the ravens and parrots white, favours this 
view, for according to Blyth (J. A, S. Beng., vol. XV, 
p. 26] there is found in Ar&kan a species of the 
Bucconidae, which on account of their beards are 
called by the English * bar bets,' and on the same 
authority we learn that what is said of the ravens 
and parrots is likewise correct." Cunningham 
again, says (Anc. Geog. of Ind., pp. 518-9): '* In 
the inscriptions of the Kalachuri, or Haihaya 
dynasty of Chedi, the Eajas assume the titles 
of " Lords of Kalinjarapura, and of Trikalinga." 
Trikalinga, or the three Kalingas, must be the 
three kingdoms Dhanakataka, or Amar&vati, on 
the Krishnsl, Andhra or Warangol, and Kalinga, or 
BAjamahendri. " The name of Trikalinga is pro- 
bably old, as Pliny mentions the Macco-Calingsa 
and the Gangarides-Calingae as separate peoples 
from the Calingae, while the Mahdbhdrata names 
the Kalingas three separate times, and each time 
in conjunction with different peoples. As Tri- 
kalinga thus corresponds with the great province 
of Telingana, it seems probable that the name of 
Telingana may be only a slightly contracted form 
of Trikalingana, or the three Kalingas. I am 
aware that the name is usually derived from 
Tri-linga, or the three phalli of MahMeva. Bat 
the mention of Macco- Calingae and Gangarides- 
80 G 


Caliiigae by Pliny would seem to show that the 
three Kalingas were known as early as the time 
of Megasthen^s, from whom Pliuy has chiefly 
copied his Indian Geography. The name must 
therefore be older than the Phallic worship of 
Mah^ddva in Southern India." Caldwell observes 
{Dravid, Oram., Introd., p. 32) that though 
Trilihgon is said to be on the Ganges, it may 
have been considerably to the south of it, and on 
the God&vart, which was always regarded by 
the Hindus as a branch of the Ganges, and is 
mythologically identical with it. The Andhras 
and Kalingas, the two ancient divisions of the 
Telugu people are represented by the Greeks as 
Gangetic nations. It may be taken as certain that 
Triglyphon, Trilinga or Modogalibga was identical 
with Telingftna or Trilingam, which signifies the 
country of the three Imgas. The Telugu name and 
language are fixed by Pliny and Ptolemy as near 
the mouths of the Ganges or between the Ganges 
and the God&vari. Modo or Modoga is equivalent 
to w/Adu of modem Telugu. It ** means three.** 
Y ule again places Trilingon on the left bank of 
the Brahmaputra, identifying it with Tripura 
(Tippera), a town in the district of the same 
name, 48 miles E.S.E. of Dhakka. 

Bhingib^ri : — Saint-Martin and Yule, as we 
have seen, place Rang&mati on the Brahmaputrd 
at Udipur. Wilfords however, had placed it near 
Chitagaon, and' identified it with Ptolemy's Bhing- 
giberi. ** Ptolemy," he says (i4»a^. 2Je#.,~vol. XIV, 
p 439) ; " has placed the source of the Dorias" 
(which in Wilford's opinion is the DumurS* or 
Dumriya, called in the lower part of its course the 


Karmaphnli) " in some country to the south of 
Salhata or Silhet, and he mentions two towns on 
its banks : Paudassa in the upper part of its course* 
but unknown ; in the lower part Rhingib^ri, now 
Rang&mati near Oh&tgd7 (Ghitagaon), and Beang 
is the name of the country on its banks. On 
the lesser DumurS, the river Chingri. of the 
Bengal Atlas, and near its source, is a town called 
there Beang. Bangamati and Bang&-b&ti, to be 
pronounced Rangabari, imply nearly the same 

Tomara was no doubt a place belonging to 
the Zamirai or Tamarai, who were located inland 
from Kirrhadia, and inhabited the Garo Hills. 

Mareoura or Malthoura : — In Yule's map this 
metropolis is located, but doubtfully, to the west 
of ToUgma (Tagaun) near the western bank of 
the Khyendwen, the largest confluent of the 

Bareukora (or Bareuathra) is in Yule's map 
identified with BamO, a place in the district of 
Chitagaon, from which it is 68 miles distant to 
the S.S.E. Wilford identified it with Phalgun, 
another name for which, according to the Kshetra 
Samaia was Pharu'igara, and this he took to be 
Ptolemy's Bareukora. Phalgun he explains to be 
the Palong of the maps. 

Kokkonagar a : — Yule suggests for this Pegu. 
•*It appears," he says, "from T^ran&tha's his- 
tory of Buddhism (ch. xxxix.) that the Indo- 
Chinese countries were in old times known 
collectively as Koki. In a Ceylonese account of 
an expedition against B&maniy^, supposed to be 
Pegu, the army captures the city of Ukkaka, and 


in ifc the Lord of R&maniy&. Kokkonagara 
again, is perhaps the K^kula of Ibn Batuta, 
which was certainly a city on the Gulf of Siam, 
and probably an ancient foundation from Kalinga, 
called after Sri-k&kola there." 

T h a r r a : — The same authority identifies this 
with Thar&wati at the head of the delta of the 
Ir&wadi. It is one of the divisions of the Pro- 
vince of Pegu. 

"Ptolemy* 8 description of Transgangetic India now 
closes with the Islands. 

26. The islands of the division of India 
we have been describing are said to be these : 

Bazakata 149° 30' 9° 30' 

[Khalin^ 146° 9° 20'] 

In this island some say there is found in 
abundance the murex shell-fish (kox^os) and 
that the inhabitants go naked, and are called 

27. There are three islands called S i n d a i, 
inhabited by Cannibals, of which the centre 

lies in 152° 6° 40' S. 

Agathou daimonos ... 145° 15' on the equator. 

28. A group of five islands, theB a r o u s a i, 
whose inhabitants are said to be cannibals, and 
the centre of which lies in 152° 20' 5° 20' S 


A group of three islands, the Sabadeibai, 
inhabited by cannibals, of which the centre lies 
in 160° 8° 30' S. 

Bazakata may perhaps be the island of 
Cheduba, as Wilford has suggested. Lassen 


takes it to be an island at . the mouth of the 
Bassein river, near Cape Negrais, called Diamond 
Island. Its inhabitants are called by Ptolemy 
the Aginnatai, and represented as going naked. 
Lassen, for Aginnatai would therefore read Apin- 
natai, '* because apinaddha in Sanskrit means 
unclothed ;" but apinaddha means * tied on,' 
clothed. Yule thinks it may perhaps be the greater 
of the two Andaman islands. He says {Proc, 
Roy. Geog. Soo. vol. IV, 1882, p. 654) ; " Pro- 
ceeding further the (Greek) navigator reaches 
the city of Koli or Kolis, leaving behind him the 
island of Bazakota, ' Good Fortune' {'AyaOov 
Aaifiovos) and the group of the Barusae. Here, at 
Koli, which I take to be a part of the Malay 
peninsula, the course of the first century Greek, 
and of the ninth century Arab, come together." 
Bazakota and the Island of Good Fortune may be 
taken as the Great and the Little Andam&n re- 
spectively. The Arab relation mentions in an 
unconnected notice an island called MalhSiu 
between Serendib aad Kalah, i.e., between Ceylon 
and the Malay Peninsula, which was inhabited 
by black and naked cannibals. ** This may be 
another indication of the Andd*md*n group, and 
the name may have been taken from Ptolemy's 
Maniolae, which in his map occupy the position 
in question." And again : ** Still further out of 
the way (than the Anddm&ns) and difficult of access 
was a region of mountains containing mines of 
silver. The landmarks (of the Arab navigator) 
to reach these was a mountain called Alkhushn&mi 
(* the Auspicious'). " This land of silver mines is 
both by position and by this description identified 


with the Argyre of Ptolemy. As no silver is 
known to exist in that region (Arakan) it seems 
probable that the Arab indications to that effect 
were adopted from the Ptolemaic charts. And 
this leads me to suggest that the Jibal Khush- 
n4mi also was bat a translation of the Aya6ov 
dalfiovo£ vTJ<ros, or isle of Good Fortune, in those 
maps, whilst 1 have thought also that the name 
Andd»man might have been adopted from a tran- 
script of the same name in Greek as Ay. bai/iov" 

KhalinS in Yale*s map is read as Saline, 
and identified with the Island of Salang, close to 
the coast in the latitude of the Nikobar Islands. 

The Sindai Islands are placed by Ptolemy 
about as far south as his island of labadios (Java) 
but many degrees west of them. Lassen says {Ind. 
Alt., vol. Ill, pp. 250-1) that the northmost of the 
three islands must be Pulo-Bapat, on the coast of 
Sumatra, the middle one the more southern, Pulo 
Pangor, and the island of Agatho-Daimon, one of 
the Salat Mankala group. The name of Sindai 
might imply, he thinks, that Indian traders had 
formed a settlement there.^ He seems to have 
regarded the Island of Agatho-Daimon as belonging 
to the Sindai group, but this does not appear to me 
to be sanctioned by the text. Yule says : " Possibly 
Sundar-Ful&t, in which the latter word seems to 
be an Arabized plural of the Malay Pulo * island* is 
also to be traced inSindaelnsulae, but I have 
not adopted this in the map." 

The Barousai Islands : — " The (Arab) na- 
vigators," says Yule in his notes already referred 
to, " crossing the sea of Horkand with the west 
monsoon, made land at the islands of Lanja- Lanka, 


br Lika-Balds, where tlie naked iuhabitants camo 
off in their canoes bringing ambergris and cocoa- 
nuts for barter, a description which with the posi- 
tion identifies these islands with the Nikobars, 
Nekaveram of Marco Polo, L&ka-V&ram of 
Rashidu'd-din, and, I can hardly hesitate to say, 
with the Barnsae Islands of Ptolemy." 

Sabadeibai Islands : — The latter part of 
this name represents the Sanskrit dwipa, * an 
island.' The three islands of this name are pro- 
bably those lying east from the more southern 
parts of Sumatra. 

29. The island oflabadios (or Sabadios) 
which means the island of Barley. It is said 
to be of extraordinary fertility, and to produce 
very much gold, and to have its capital called 
A r g y r e (Silver- town) in the extreme west of it. 

It lies in 167° 8° 30' S. 

and the eastern limit lies in ...169° 8° 10' S. 

30. The Islands of the Satyrs, three in num- 
ber, of which i\ie centre is in 171° 2° 30' S. 
The inhabitants are said to have tails like 
those with which Satyrs are depicted. 

31. There are said to be also ten other 
islands forming a continuous group called 
Maniolai, from which ships fastened with 
iron nails are said to be unable to move away, 
(perhaps on account of the magnetic iron in 
the islands) and hence they are built with 
wooden bolts. ' The inhabitants are called 
Maniolai, and are reputed to be cannibals. 

The island of labadios : — Yava, the first part 


of this name, is the Sanskrit word for ' barley,' and 
the second part like deiba^ diba, diva, and div or 
diuj represents dvipa, * an island.' We have here 
therefore the Island of Java, which answers in 
most respects to Ptolemy's description of it. The 
following note regarding it I take from Banbury's 
History of Ancient Geography (pp. 643-4): "The 
name of Java has certainly some resemblance ^with 
labadius, supposing that to be the correct form 
of the name, and, what is of more consequence, 
Ptolemy adds that it signifies * the island of 
barley,' which is really the meaning of the name of 
Java. The position in latitude assigned by him 
to the island in question (8^ degrees of south 
latitude) also agrees very well with that of Java : 
but his geographical notions of these countries 
are in general so vague and erroneous that little 
or no value can be attached to this coincidence. 
On the other hand, the abundance of gold 
would suit well with Sumatra, which has 
always been noted on that account, while there is 
little or no gold found in Java. The metropolis 
at its western extremity would thus correspond 
with Achin, a place that must always have been 
one of the principal cities of the island. In 
either case he had a very imperfect idea of its 
size, assigning it a length of only about 100 Geog. 
miles, while Java is 9° or 540 G. miles in length, 
and Sumatra more than 900 G. miles. It seems 
not improbable that in this case, as in several 
others, he mixed up particulars which really refer- 
red to the two different islands, and applied them 
to one only : but it is strange that if he had any 
information concerning such islands as Sumatra 


and Java, he should have no notion that they 
were of very large size, at the same time that 
he had such greatly exaggerated ideas of the 
dimensions of Ceylon." Mannert took labadios 
to be the small island of Banka on the S.E. 
of Sumatra. For the application of the name of 
Java to the Island of Sumatra, see Yule's Marco 
Polo, vol. II, p. 266, note 1. 

' Regarding the Islands of the Satyrs, Lassen says 
(Ind, Alt, vol. Ill, p. 252) : The three islands, called 
after the Satyrs, mark the extreme limits of the 
knowledge attained by Ptolemy of the Indian Archi- 
pelago. The inhabitants were called Satyrs becau se, 
according to the fabulous accounts of mariners, they 
had tails like the demi-gods of that name in Greek 
mythology. Two of these must bo Madura and 
Bali, the largest islands on the north and east coasts 
of Java, and of which the first figures prominently 
in the oldest legends of Java ; the second, on the 
contrary, not till later times. The third island is 
probably Lombok, lying near Bali in the east. A 
writer in Smith's Dictionary of Classical Geography 
thinks these islands were perhaps the A n a m b a 
group, and the Satyrs who inhabited them apes 
resembling men. Yule says in the notes : — '* San- 
dar-Fulat we cannot hesitate to identify withPulo 
Condor, Marco Polo's Sondur and Condur. These 
may also be the Satyrs' islands of Ptolemy, but 
they may be his Sindai, for he has a Sinda city 
on the coast close to this position, though his 
Sindai islands are dropped far way. But it 
would not be difficult to show that Ptolemy's 
islands have been located almost at random, or as 
from a pepper-castor." ^ 

31 G 


Ptolemy locates the Maniolai Islands, of 
which he reckons ten, about 10 degrees citstward 
from Ceylon. There is no such group however 
to be found in that position, or near it, and we 
may safely conclude that the Maniolai isles are 
as mythical as the magnetic rocks they were 
said to contain. In an account of India, written 
at the close of the 4th or beginning of the 5th 
century, at the request either of Palladius or 
of Lausius, to whom Palladius inscribed his 
Historia Lausiaca, mention is made of these 
rocks : "At Muziris," says Priaulx, in his notice 
of this account*^ "our traveller stayed some time, 
and occupied himself in studying the soil and 
climate of the place and the customs and manners 
of its inhabitants. He also made enquiries about 
Ceylon, and the best mode of getting there, but 
did not care to undertake the voyage when he 
heard of the dangers of the Sinhalese channel, 
of the thousand isles, the Maniolai which impede 
its navigation, and the loadstone rocks which 
bring disaster and wreck on all iron-bound ships." 
And Masu'di, who had traversed this sea, says that 
ships sailing on it were not fastened with iron 
nails, its waters so wasted them. {The Indian 
Travels of Apolloniue of Tyana, Sfc., p. 197). 
After Ptolemy's time a different position was 
now and again assigned to these rocks, the direc- 
tion in which they were moved being more and 
more to westward. Priaulx (p. 247), uses this 

^ Wilf ord {As. Res. vol. XIV, pp. 429-30), gives the fable 
regarding these rocks from the Chaturvarga Chmtdmani, 
and identifies thejn with those near PArindra or the lion'a 
place in i^e lion's mouth or Straits of Singapnr. 



as an argument iu support of his contention that 
the Roman traffic in the eastern seas gradually 
declined after 273 A.D., and finally disappeared. 
How, otherwise, he asks, can we account for the 
fact that the loadstone rocks, those myths of 
Roman geography, which, in Ptolemy's time, the 
flourishing days of Roman commerce, lay some 
degrees eastward of Ceylon, appear A.D. 400 
barring its western approach, and A.D. 560 have 
advanced up to the very mouth of the Arabian Gulf. 
But on the Terrestrial Globe of Martin Behem, 
Nuremberg A.D. 1492, they are called Manillas, 
and are placed immediately to the north of Java 
Major. Aristotle speaks of a magnetic mountain 
on the coast of India, and Pliny repeats the story. 
Klaproth states that the ancient Chinese authors 
also speak of magnetic mountains in the southern 
sea on the coasts of Tonquin and Cochin-China, 
and allege regarding them that if foreign ships 
which are bound with plates of iron approach 
them, such ships are there detained, and can in no 
case pass these places. (Tennant's Ceylon, vol. I, 
p. 444 n.) The origin of the fable, which represents 
the magnetic rocks as fatal to vessels fastened with 
iron nails, is to be traced to the peculiar mode in 
which the Ceylonese and Malays have at all times 
construcbed their boats and canoes, these being 
put together without the use of iron nails ; the 
planks instead being secured by wooden bolts, 
and stitched together with cords spun from the 
fibre of the cocoanut. " The Third Calender,' 
in the Arabian Nights Entertainment , gives a lively 
account of his shipwreck upon the Loadstone 
Mountain, which he tells us was entirely covered 


towards the sea with the nails that belonged 
to the immense number of ships which it had 

Cap. 3. 

Position op the Sinai. 

[11th Map of AsiaJ] 

1. The Sinai are bounded on the north by 
the part of S e r i k e already indicated, on the 
east and south by the unknown land, pn the 
west by India beyond the G.anges, along the line 
defined as far as the Great Gulf and by the Great 
Gulf itself, and the parts immediately adjacent 
thereto, and by the Wild Beast Gulf, and by 
that frontier of the Sinai around which are 
placed the Ikhthyophagoi Aithiopes, 
according to the following outline : — 

2. After the boundary of the Gulf on the 
side of India the mouth of 

the river Aspithra 1 70° 16° 

Sources of the river on the 

eastern side of the Seman- 

thinos range ... 180° 26° 

Bramma, a town 177° 12° 30' 

The mouth of the river 

Ambastes 176° 10° 

The sources of the river 179° 30' 15° 

Rhabana, a town 177° 8° 30' 

Mouth of the river Sainos ... 176° 20' 6° 30' 

The Southern Cape 175° 15' , 4° 

The head of Wild Beast Gulf 176° 2° 


The Cape of Satyrs 175° on the line 

Gulf of the Sinai" 178° 2° 20^ 

3. Aronnd the Gulf of the Sinai dwell the 
fish-eating Aithiopians. 

Mouth of the river Kot- 

tiaris 177° 20' 7° S. 

Sources of the river 180° 40' 2° S. 

Where it falls into the 

river Sainos 180° on the line. 

Kattigara, the port of the 

Sinai 177° 8°30'S. 

4. The most northern parts are possessed 
by the S^manthinoi, who are situated above 
the range that bears their name. Below them, 
and below the range are the A k a d r a i, after 
whom are the Aspithrai, then along the Great 
Gulf the Ambastai, and around the gulfs 
immediately adjoining the Ikhthyophagoi 

5. The interior towns of the Sinai are 
named thus : — 

Akadra 178° 20' 21° 15' 

Aspithra 175° 1G° 

Kokkonagara 179° 50' 2° S. 

Sarata 180° 30' 4° S. 

6. And the Metropolis 

Sinai orThinai 180° 40' 3° S. 

which thoy say has neither brazen walls nor 
anything else worthy of note. It is encompas- 
sed on the side of Kattigara towards the west by 

^* Latin Translator. 


the unknown land, which encircles the Green 
Sea as far as Cape Prason, from which begins, 
as has been said, the Gulf of the Batrakheian 
Sea, connecting the land with Cape Rhapton, 
and the sonthem parts of Azania. 

It has been pointed out how egregiously Ptolemy 
misconceived the configuration of the coast of Asia 
beyond the Great Gulf, making it run southward 
and then turn westward, and proceed in that direc- 
tion till it reached the coast of Africa below the 
latitude of Zanzibar. The position, therefore of 
the places he names, cannot be determined with 
any certainty. By the Wild Beast Gulf may per- 
haps be meant the Gulf of Tonquin, and by the Gulf 
of the Sinai that part of the Chinese Sea which is 
beyond Hai-nan Island. The river Kottiaris 
may perhaps be the river of Canton. T h i n a i, 
or Sinai, may have been Nankin, or better perhaps 
Si-gnan-fu, in the province of Shen-si, called by 
Marco Polo, by whom it was visited, Ken-janfu. 
" It was probably," says Yule (Marco Polo, vol. II, 
p. 21) " the most celebrated city in Chinese history 
and the capital of several of the most potent dynas- 
ties. In the days of its greatest fame it was called 
Chaggan." It appears to have been an ancient 
tradition that the city was surrounded by brazen 
walls, but this Ptolemy regarded as a mere fable. 
The author of the PeripMs (c. 64), has the following 
notice of the place : — " There lies somewhere in the 
interior of Thina, a very great city, from which 
silk, either raw or spun or woven into cloth is 
carried overland to Barygaza through Baktria or 
by the Ganges to Limyrike . . . Its situation is 


under the Lesser Bear.*' Ptolemy has placed it 3 
degrees south of the equator ! ! 

Cap. 4. 
Position of the Island op Taprobane. 
[Map of Asia 12.] 

1. Opposite Cape K6iy, which is in India, 
is the projecting point of the Island of T a p r o- 
ban^, which was called formerly Simou- 
ndou, and now Sal ike. The inhabitants 
are commonly called Salai. Their heads are 
quite encircled with long luxuriant locks, like 
those of women. The country produces rice, 
honey, ginger, beryl, hyacinth"* and has mines 
of every sort — of gold and of silver and other 
metals. It breeds at the same time elephants 
and tigers. 

2. The point already referred to as lying 
opposite to Kory is called North Cape 
(Boreion Akron) and lies 126° 1 2*^ 30' 

3. The descriptive outline of the rest of the 
island is as follows : — 

After the North Cape which 

is situated in 126° 12° 30' 

comes Cape Galiba 124° 11° 30' 

Margana, a town 123° 30' 10° 20' 

^ In one of the temples, says Kosmos, is the great 
hyacinth, as larg^e as a pine-cone, the colour of fire and 
flashing from a distance, especially when catching the 
beams of the sun, a matchless sight. 


logana, atown 123° 20" 8° 50' 

Anarismoundon, a cape 122° 7° 45' 

Mouth of the River Soana... 122° 20" 6"' 15' 

Sources of the river 124° 30" 3° 

Sindokanda, a town 122° 5° 

Haven of Priapis 122° 3° 40' 

4. Anoubingara 121° 2° 40' 

Headland of Zeus 120° 30' 1° 

Prasodes Bay ,. 121° 2° 

Noubartha, a town 121°40' on the Line. 

Mouth of the river Azanos... 123° 20" 1° S. 

The sources of the river 126° 1° N. 

Odoka, atown 123° 2° S. 

Orneon, (Birds' Point) a 

headland 125° 2° 30" S. 

5. Dagana, a town 

sacred to the Moon 126° 2° S. 

Korkobara, a town 127° 20" 2° 20" S. 

Cape of Dionysos 130° 1° 30' S. 

Ketaion Cape 132° 30" 2° 20" S. 

Mouth of the river 

Barak^s 131° 30" 1° N. 

Sources of the river 128° 2° N. 

B6kana, a town 131° 1° 20' N. 

The haven of Mardos 

or Mardoulamue 131° 2° 20" N. 

6. Abaratha, a town ... 131° 3° 15" N. 
Haven of the Sun (Heliou 

limen) 130° 4° 

Great Coast (Aigialos 
Megas) 130° 4° 20" 



Prokouri, a town ..131° 6^20' 

The haven of Rizala 130° 20' 6° 30' 

Oxeia, a headland 130° . 7° 30' 

Mouth of the river Ganges 1 29° ?° 20' 

The sources of the river. . . 127° 7° 15' 

Spatana Haven 129° 8° 

7. Nagadiba or Naga- 

dina,'atown ....,, 129° 8° Sy 

PatiBay 128° 30' 9° 30' 

Anoubingara, a town 1 28° 20' 9° 40' 

Modouttou, a mart 128° . 11° 20' 

Mouth of the river Phasis 127° 1 1° 20' 

The sources of the river. . . 126° 8° 

Talakory (or Aakote,) a 

mart 126° 20' 11° 20' 

After which the North Cape, 

8. The notable mountains of the island are 
those called Q a lib a, from which flow the 
Phasis and the Ganges, and that called M a 1 a i a, 
from which flow the Soanas and the Azanos 
and the Barakes, and at the base of this range, 
towards the sea, are the feeding grounds of the 

9. The most northern parts of the Island are 
possessed by the G a 1 i b o i and the M o u d o u t- 
t o i, and below these the Anourogrammoi 
and the Nagadiboi, and below the Anouro- 
grammoi the S o a n o i, and below the Nagadiboi 
the Sennoi, and below these the Sando- 
k a n d a i, towards the west, and below these 
towards the feeding grounds of the elephants 

32 G 


ihe Bonmasanoi, and tke T a r a k & o i, w&9 
are towards the east, below whom are the 
Bokanoi and Diordouloi, and furthest 
south the Bhogandanoi, aad the Kagei* 

10. The inland towns in the island are 
these : — 

Anonrogrammon, the 

royal residence 124® la' S"" W 

Maagrammon^ the* me- 
tropolis 127^ 7®2(K 

Adeisamon ^ 129*^ 5*^ 

PodoukS 124® 3«40' 

Oulispada 126^20' 40' 

Nakadonba 128® 30' on the Line. 

11. In front of TaproBand Kes a gronp o€ 
islands which they say nnmber 1378. Those 
whose names are mentioned are the following: — 
Ouangalia (or Onangana) 120® 15' 11® 20' 

Kanathra : 121® 40' 11® 15' 

Aigidi6n 118® 8® 30' 

Omeon 119® 8® 30' 

Monakh^ 116® 4® 15' 

Ammind 117® 4® 30^ 

12. Karkos.. ,. 118® 40' S, 

Phil^kos 116® 30' 2® 40' S. 

Eir^n^, 120® 2®30'S. 

^alandadrona 121® 5° 30' S;. 

Abrana 125® 4® 20' S. 

Bassa 126® 6® 30' Sv 

Balaka... ..^ 129® 5® 30' S. 


AlaTaa ,... 131* 4^ S, 

Goumara 133° 1° 40' S, 

13. Zal»a....^,.« .^... 135® on the Line, 

Zibala .«..«..«.^-..r«..-^ -. 135® 4 15^^ N« 

Nagadiba....* 135^ 8° 30' 

Sousoimra 135*^ 11° 15' 

14. Let such then be the mode of describing 
in detail the complete clrctdt of all the pro- 
-rinces and satrajpies of the known world, and 
49ince we indicated in the outset of this com- 
pendium how the known portion of the earth 
should be delineated both on ihe sphere Jind in 
a projection on & plane suz^-aoe -exactly in the 
same manner and proportion as wha.t is traced 
en the solid sphere, and since it is convenient 
to accompany such descriptions of the world 
with u summary sTcetcii, exhibiting the whole 
in one comprehensive view, let me now. there- 
fore give such a sketch with due observance of 
the proper proportion. 

This island of Tsa proband has changed its 
name with notable frequency. In the Bdmdyana 
and other Sanskrit werksit is called Lank^, but 
this was An appellation imknown to the Greeks. 
They called it at first Antichthonos, being under 
the belief that it was a region iDelcooiging to the 
opposite poition of the werld (PHny, lib. "71,0. xxii). 
In the time of Alexander, when its situation was 
l>etter understood, it was called TaprobanS. Me- 
gasthenes mentions it under this name, and. re- 
marks that it was divided (into two) by a river, that 
its inhabitants were called Falaeogoni .and that it 


produced more gold and pearls of large size t^an 
India. From our author we learn Uiat ihe old name 
of the island was Simoundou, and that Taprobane, 
its next name, was obsolete in his time, being re- 
placed by Salike. The author of the P.eripl4s states, 
on the other hand, tiiat Taprobane was the old name 
of the island, and that in his time it was caUed 
Palai Simoundou. The section of his work however 
in which this statement occurs (§61) is allowed 
to be hopelessly corrupt. According to Pliny, 
Palaesimundus was the name of the cs^ital town, 
and also of the river on whose banks it stood. How 
long the island continued to be called Salike does 
not appear, but it was subsequently known under 
such names as Serendivus, Sirlediba, Serendib, 
Zeilan, and Sailan, frotn which the transition is 
easy to the name which it now bears, Ceylon. 

With regard to the origin or derivation of the 
majority of these names the most competent 
scholars have been divided in their opinions. Ac- 
cording to Lassen the term Palaiogonoi was select- 
ed by Megasthenes to designate the inhabitants 
of the island, as it ccmveyed the idea entertained 
of them by the Indians that they were R^kshasas, 
or giants, *the sons of the progenitors of the 
world.' To this it may be objected that Megas- 
thenes did not intend by the term to describe the 
inhabitants, but merely to give the name by which 
they were known, which was different from that 
of the island. Schwanbeck again suggested that 
the term might be a transliteration of Pali-jan&s, 
a Sanskrit compound, which he took to mean 
" men of the sacred doctrine " {Ind. Ant., vol. VI, 
p. 129, n.) But, as Piiaulxhas pointed out {Apollon^ 


of Tyana, p. 110), this is an appellation which 
could scarcely have been given to others than 
learned votaries of Buddhism, and which could 
scarcely be applicable to a people who were not 
even Buddhist till the reign of Aiioka, who was 
subsequent to Ohandragupta, at whose court 
Megasthen^s acquired his knowledge of India. 
Besides, it has been pointed out by Goldstiicker {he. 
n. 59) that Pali has not the meaning here attri- 
buted to it. He adds that the nearest approach 
he could find to Palaiogonoi ia—pdra ' on the other 
side of the river' and janda ' a people '; P&rajanas, 
therefore, * a people on the other side of the river.' 
Tennent, in conclusion, takes the word to be a 
Hellenized form of Pali-putra, *the sons of the 
P&H,' the first Prasian colonists of the island. A 
satisfactory explanation of P a 1 a i-S imoundou 
has not yet been hit on. That given by Lassen, 
Pali-Simanta, or Head of the Sacred Law, has been 
discredited. We come now to Taprobane. 
This is generally regarded as a transliteration of 
T&mraparni, the name which Vijaya, who, 
according to tradition, led the first Indian colony 
into Ceylon, gave to the place where he first landed, 
and which name was afterwards extended to the 
whole island. It is also the name of a river in 
Tinneveli, and it has, in consequence, been sup- 
posed that the colonists, already referred to, had 
been, for some time, settled on its banks before 
they removed to Ceylon. The word means * Copper- 
coloured leaf.' Its P&li form is Tambapanni (see 
Ind. Ant., Vol. XIII, pp. 33f.) and is found, as 
has been before noticed, in the inscription of 
Asoka on the Gim&r rock. Another name, applied 


to it by Brahmanical writers, is Dwipa-B&vana, 
i.e., ' tlie island of B4vana, whence perhaps Tapro- 
bane.' Salik4, Serendivas, and other sub- 
sequent names, are all considered to be connected 
etjmologicaUy with Simhala (colloquially Silam), 
the F&li form of Sthala, a derivative from aimha, 
*a lion/ i.e. * a hero' — the hero Vijaya. According 
to a different view these names are to be referred 
to the Javanese eela, * a precious stone/ but this 
explanation is rejected by Yule (Marco Polo, vol. II, 
p. 296, n. 6). For Salik^, Tennent suggests an 
Egyptian origin, Siela-keh, i.e., ' the land of Siela.' 
Little more was known in the west respecting the 
island beyond what Megasthenes had communicat- 
ed until the reign of the Emperor Claudius, when 
an embassy was sent to Rome by the Sinhalese 
monarch, who had received such astonishing 
accounts of the power and justice of the Roman 
people that he became desirous of enteiing into 
alliance with them. He had derived his knowledge 
of them from a castaway upon his island, the f reed- 
man of a Boman called Annius Flocamus. The 
embassy consisted of 4 members, of whom the 
chief was called Bachia, an appellation from which 
we may infer that he held the rank of a B4ja« 
They gave an interesting, if not a very accurate, 
account of their country, which has been preserved 
by Pliny (Nat Hist Hb. TI). Their friendly visit, 
operating conjointly with the discovery of the 
quick passage to and from the East by means of 
^e monsoon, gave a great impetus to commercial 
enterprise, and the rich marts, to which access had 
thus been opened, soon began to be frequented by 
the galleys of the West. Ptolemy, living in Alexan- 


dria, the great entrepot in those days of the Eastertt 
traffic, very probably acqmred from traders arriv- 
ing from Ceylon, his knowledge coneeming it, 
which is both wonderfully copious, and at the 
same time, fairly accurate, if we except his views 
of its magnitude, which like all his predecessors he 
vastly over-estimated. On the other hand, he has 
the merit of having determined properly its gene- 
ral form and outline, as well as its actual. position 
with reference to the adjoining continent, points on 
which the most vague and erroneous notions had 
prevailed up to his time, the author of the PeriplikB 
for instancedescribing the island as extendingso far 
westward that it almost adjoined Azandain Africa* 
The actual position of Ceylon is between 5° 55' 
and 9^ SV N. lat., and 79° 42f and 8P 55' B. long. 
Its extreme length from north to soui^ is 271^ 
miles, its gi*eatest width 137) miles, and its area 
about one-sixth smaller than that of Ireland. 
Ptolemy however made it extend i^rough no less 
than 15 degrees of latitude and 12 oi longitude. 
He thus brought it down more than two degrees 
BOTiih of the equator, while he carried its north- 
em extremity up to 12 J° N. lat. , nearly 3 degrees 
north of its true position. He has thus represented 
it as being 20 times larger than it really is. 
This extravagant over-estimate, which had its 
origin in the Mytiiological Geography of the Indian 
BrShmans, and which was adopted by the islanders 
themselves, as well as by the Greeks, was shared 
also by the Arab geographers Masil'di, Idrisi, and 
Abu'1-fida, and by such writers as Marco Polo. In 
consequence of these misrepresentations it came 
to be questioned at one time whether Ceylon or 


Sumatra was the Taprojbane of the Greeks, and 
Kant tLndertook to prove that it was Madagascar 
(Tennent's Ceylon, vol. I, p. 10 and n.). Ptolemy 
has so far departed from his usual practice that 
he gives some particulars respecting it, which 
lie out of the sphere of Geography, strictly so 
called. He is mistaken in stating that the tiger 
is found in Ceylon, but he has not fallen into 
error on any other point which he has noticed. 
It 'may be remarked that the natives still wear 
their hair in the effeminate manner which he has 
noticed. In describing the island geographically 
he begins at its northern extremity, proceeds 
southward down the western coast, and returns 
along the east coast to Point Pedro. " In his map 
he has laid down the position of eight promon- 
tories, the mouths of five rivers and four bays and 
harbours, and in the interior he had ascertained 
that there were thirteen provincial divisions, and 
nineteen towns, besides two emporia on the coast, 
five great estuaries, which he terms . lakes, two 
bays and two chains of mountains, one of them 
surrounding Adam's Peak, which he designates 
as Malaia^ the name by which the hills that 
environ it are known in the Mahawdmo." Ten- 
nent, from whom the foregoing summary has been 
quoted, observes in a foot-note (vol. I, p. 535) that 
Ptolemy distinguishes those indentations in the 
coast which he describes as hays {K6kfros) from the 
estuaries, to which he gives the epithet of lakes, 
(Xi/i^p) ;** of the former he particularises two, Pati 

^* Tennent here seems to have confonnded Xi/m^i^, a 
haven or oreek, with \ifivrj, a lake. The wordjs are, 
however, etymologioally oonnected. 


and Frasodes, ike position of which would nearly 
correspond with the Bay of Trinkonamalai and the 
harbour of Colombo — of the latter he enumerates 
five, and from their position thej seem *to repre- 
sent the peculiar estuaries formed by the con- 
joint influence of the rivers and the current^ and 
known to the Arabs by the name of *' gobbs." 

Ceylon is watered by numerous streams, some 
of which are of considerable size. The most 
important is the Mah&weligang&, which has its 
sources in the vicinity of Adam's Peak, and which, 
after separating into several branches, enters the 
ocean near Trinkonamalai. Ptolemy calls it the 
Ganges. He mentions four other rivers, the Soana, 
Azanos, Barakes and Phasis, which Tennent 
identifies with the Dedera-Oya, the Bentote, the 
Kambukgam and the Kangarayen respectively. 
Lassen, however [Ind. Alt., vol. Ill, p. 21), 
identifies the Azanos with the K&laganga which 
enters the sea a little farther north than the 
river of Bentote, and is a larger stream. 

The mountains named by Ptolemy are the 
Galiba in the north-west of the island, and the 
Malaia, by which he designates the mountain 
groups which occupy the interior of the island 
towards the south. He has correctly located the 
plains or feeding grounds of the elephants to the 
south-east of these mountains; malcki is the 
Tamil word for ** mountain." 

The places which he has named along the coast 
and in the interior have been identified, though 
in most cases doubtfully, by Tennent in his map 
of TaprobanS according to Ptolemy and Pliny, 
in vol. I. of his work, as follows :— 
3d a 


On the West Coast beginning from the north :— 

Margana with Mantote. 

logana with Aripo. 

Anaidsmoondou Cape with Kudramali Point, 
but Mannert with Kalpantjn (further south). 

Sindo Elanda with Chilau (ChUau from Salft- 
bhana — ^the Diving, i. e. Pearl Fishery.) 

Port of Priapis** with Negombo. . 

Cape of Zeus at Colombo., 

Prasodes Bay, with Colombo Bay. 

Noubartha with Barberyn. 

Odoka with Hikkodd. 

Cape Omeon (of Birds) with Point de Galle. 
On the South Coast : — 

Dagana with Dondra Head. 

Korkobaj'a with Tangalle. 
On the East Coast : 

Cape oi Dionysos, with Hambangtote. 

Cape Ketaion (Whale cape) with Elephant Bock^ 
(Bokana Yule identifies with Kambugam). 

Haven of Mardos with Arukgam Bay. 

Abaratha with Karativoe (but Yule with Apar- 
atote, which is better). 

Haven of the Sun with Batticalao. 

Bizala Haven with Yendeloos Bay. 

Oxeia Cape (Sharp point) with Foul Point. 

Spatana Haven with an indentation in Trin- 
konamalai Bay. 

Nagadiba or Nagadina with a site near the Bay. 

Pati Bay with Trinkonamalai Bay. 

Anoubingara with Kuchiavelli. 

Modouttou with Kokelay. 


This was no doubt a name ^ven by the Greeks. 


On the North Coast :— 

Mouth of the Fhasis. 

Talakory or Aakotd, with Tondi Manaar. Yulo 
places both Nagadiba and Modouttou on the 
north-west coast, identifying the hitter with 

With respect to places in the interior of the 
island Tennent says (vol. I, p. 5S6, n. 2) : ** His 
(Ptolemy's) Maagrammon would appear on a 
first glance to be Mahftgftm, but as he calls it the 
metropolis, and places it beside the great river, it 
is evidently Bintenne, whose ancient name was 
" Mahayangana " or " Mahftwelligdm." His A n u- 
rogrammum, which he calls /Sao-iXctop "the 
royal residence," is obviously Anurftdhapura, the 
city founded by Anurftdha 500 years before 
Ptolemy {Mahawdnso, pp. 50-65). The province 
of the Moudouttoiin Ptolemy's list has a close 
resemblance in name, though not in position, to 
Mantote ; the people of Beyagamkorle still 
occupy the country assigned by him to the 
Bhogandanoi — his Nagadiboiare identical 
with the N&gadiva of the Mahawdnao ; and the 
islet to which he has given the name of 6 a s s a, 
occupies nearly the position of the Basses, which it 
has been the custom to believe were so-called by 
the Portuguese, — ** Baxos" or ** Baixos" ** Sunken 
Rocks." The Bhogandanoi Were located in 
the south-west of the island. The sea, which 
stretched thence towards Malaka, appears to have 
at one time borne their name, as it was called by 
the Arab navigators " the sea of Horkand." The 
group of islands lying before Ceylon is no doubt 
that of the Maldives. 



ifiaving How examined m detail tlie whole of 
Ptolemy's Indian Geogi'aphy, I annex as a suitable 
Appendix his description of the countries adjacent 
to India. The reader will thus be presented with 
his Geography in its entirety of Central and 
South-Eastem Asia. In the notes I have adverted 
only to the more salient points* 

BaoK VI, Cap. 9. 
Position of Hyreania. 

[Mfli2> of AsiSf 7.] 

1. Hyrtaniais botinded on the nortt hy 
that part of the Hyrtanian sea which extends 
from tde extreme point of the boundfafy line 
with Media as far as the uK)atIi of the river 
0x08 which lies iD....^ 100* 43° ^' 

2. In which dmanon occttP these town* : — 

Saramann^,. a town 94° 15' 40° 30^ 

Mouth of the Maxei-a 97* 20^ 

The Sotfrces of this riVer ... 98* 

Mouth of the Sokanda 97° 20^ 

Mouth of the river Oxos .^. I00° 

3. On the west by tie part of M S d i a al- 
ready mentioned as far as Mount !£or&nos [in 
which part of Media isi 

Saramann^.. 94° 15' 40° 30'} 

4. QH the south by Parthia, along the 
side of it described as passing through the range 
of Koronos, and on the east by M ar g i a a e> 

41° 30^ 
38° 20^ 
43° 5' 




tbrongli the tnoUntainotts regioli which conil6cti 
the extremitieEl l^eferred to. 

6i The maritime ports of Ilyrkania arO 
inhabited by the M a x e r a i, and the A s t a 
b ^ n o i and below the Maxerai by the It h r 4 n 
d o i, after whom corned the country adjacent to 
the Koronod range^ A r s i t i s^ and below the 
AstabSnoi is the coHntiy called S i r a^ 

6. The cities in the interior are said to be 
these i — 

BarangS 99^ 42^ 

Adrapsa 98*^30' 41^30' 

Kasapd 99^30' 40° 30^ 

Abarbina 97^ 40° 10" 

Sorba 98'^ 40^30' 

7. Sinaka 100° 39° 40' 

Amaroasa 96^ 39° 55" 

Hyrkania, the metropolis.... 98° 50' 40° 

SakS (or Sale) 94° 15' 39° 30' 

Asmouma ,.... 97° 30' 39° 30' 

Maisoka (or Mausoka) 99° 39° 30' 

8. And an island in the 

sea near it called Talka . , . . . . 95° 42° 

The name of Hyrkania is preserred to this 
day in that of Giirkan or Jorjan, a town lying to 
the east of AsterAbad. Its boundaries have 
varied at different periods of history. Speaking 
generally, it corresponds with the modem Mazan* 
deran and Aster&b&d. Its northern frontier waa 
formed by the Kaspian, which was sometimes called 
after it-^the Hyrkanian Sea. The river 6xos, 


wliicli is called by tHe natires an its banks the 
Amu-daryft, and by Persian writers the Jihtm, 
falls now into the Sea of Aral, bnt as we learn 
from onr anthor as well as from other ancient 
Writers it was in former times an affluent of the 
Kaspian, a fact confirmed by modem explora- 
tions. Motlnt Koronos was the eastern portion 
of the lofty mountain chain called the Elburz, 
which runs along the southern shores of the 
Kaspian. The Biver M a x d r a is mentioned by 
Pliny (lib. VI, C. xlv, sec. 18) who calls it the 
Maxeras. It has been rariously identified, as with 
the Tejin, the Gurgan, the Atrek and others. 
The metropolis of Hyrkania is called by Ammia- 
nus Marcellinus (c. xxiii, sec. 6) Hyrkana, 
which IB probably the Gurkan already mentioned. 

Cap. 10. 

Position op Margiane. 

[Afop oj Asia 7.] 

Margian^ is bounded on the west by 
Byrkania) along the side which has been al- 
ready traced, and on the north by a part of 
S k y t h i a extending from the mouths of the 
river Oxos as far as the division towards 
Baktriane, which lies in 103®— 43^ and on 
the south by part of A r e i a along the parallel 
of latitude running from the boundary towards 
Hyrkania and Partliia through the S a r i p h i 
range, as far as the extreme point lying 109° — 
39°, and on the east by Baktriane along 
the mountainous region which connects the 


said extremities. A considei'able stream, the 
M a rg OS, flows through the country, and its 

sources lie in 105^ 39° 

while it falls into the 6xos in 102° 43° 30'. 

2. The parts of it towards the river Ozos 
are possessed by the Derbikkai, called also 
the Derkeboi, and below them the M a s s a- 
g e t a i, after whom the P a r n o i and the 
Daai, below whom occurs the desert of 
M a r g i a n a, and more to the east than are 
the Tapouroi. 

3. The cities of it are — 

Ai-iaka 103° 43° 

Sina (or S^na) 102° 30' 42° 20' 

Aratha 103° 30' 42° 30' 

Argadina 101° 20' 41° 40' 

lasonion 103° 30' 41° 30' 

"4. There unites with the River Margos, 
another stream flowing from the Sariphi range 

of which the sources lie 103° 39° 

Rh6a 102° 40° 50' 

Antiokheia MargianS 100° 40° 20' 

Gouriane 104° 40° 

Nisaia or Nigaia 105° 39° 10' 

* * In early periods," says Wilson {Ariana Antiqua, 
p. 148), ''Margiana seems to have been unknown 
as a distinct province, and was, no doubt, in 
part at least, comprised within the limits of Parthia. 
In the days of the later geographers, it had 
undergone the very reverse relation, and had, to 
all appearance^ extended its boundaries so as to 


include great part of the original Parthia. It is 
evident from Strabo's notice of the latter (lib. XI, 
c. ix) that there was left little of it except the 
name ; and in Ptolemy no part of Parthia appears 
above the mountains." Strabo says of it (lib. XI, 
c. x) " Antiokhos Sot^r admired its fertility, he 
enclosed a circle of 1,500 stadia with a wall, and 
founded a city, Antiokheia. The soil is well adapt- 
ed to vines. They say that a vine stem has been 
frequently seen there which would require two 
men to girth it, and bunches of grapes two cubits 
in size." Pliny writes somewhat to the same 
effect. He says (Ub. VI, c. xvi) : " Next comes 
Maiigiane, noted for its sunny skies; it is the 
only vine-bearing district in all these parts, and 
it is shut in on all sides by pleasant hiUs. It 
has a circuit of 1,500 stadia, and is difficult of 
approach on account of sandy deserts, which 
extend for 120 miles. It lies confronting a 
tract of country in Parthia, in which Alexander 
had built Alexandria, a city, which after its 
destruction by the barbarians, Antiokhos, the son 
of Seleucus, rebuilt on the same site. The river 
Margus which amalgamates with the Zothale, 
flows through its midst. It was named Syriana, 
but Antiokhos preferred to have it called Antio- 
kheia. It is 80 stadia in circumference. To this 
place Orodes conducted the Romans who were 
taken prisoners when Crassus was defeated." 
This ancient city is represented now by Merv. 
The river Margus is that now called the Murgh-Ab 
or Meru-rftd. It rises in the mountains of the 
Haz&ras (which are a spur of the Paropanisos and 
the Sariphi montes of our author), and loses itself 


in the s^ds about 50 miles noirtli-west of the 
city, though in ancient times it appears to have 
poured its waters into the Oxos. 

The tribes that peopled Hyrkania and Margiana 
and the other regions that lay to the eastward 
of the Kaspian were for the most part of Skythian 
origin, and some of them were nomadic. They 
are described by the ancient writers as brave and 
hardy warriors, but of repulsive aspect and man- 
ners, and addicted to inhuman practices. Ptolemy 
names five as belonging to Margiana — the 
Derbikkai, Massagetai, Pamoi, Daai and Ta- 

The Derbikes are mentioned by Strabo (lib. 
XI, c, xi, sec. ?), who gives this account of them. 
" The Derbikes worship the eai*th. They neither 
sacrifice nor eat the female of any animal. Pei*- 
sons who attain the age of above 70 years are 
put to death by them, and their neai^est relations 
eat their flesh. Old women are strangled and then 
buried. Those who die under 70 years of age 
are not eateiij biit are only buried." 

The Massagetai are referred to afterwards 
(c. xiii, sec. 3) as a tribe of nomadic Sakai, 
belonging to the neighbourhood of the river 
Askatangkas* They are mentioned by Herodotos 
(lib. I, c. cciv.) who says that they inhabited a great 
portion of the vast plain that extended eastward 
from the Kaspian. He then relates how Cyrus 
lost his life in a bloody fight against them and 
their queen Tomyiis. Alexander came into colli- 
sion with their wandering hordes during the 
campaign of Sogdiana as Arrian relates {Anab, 
lib. IV, cc. xvi, xvii). 

34 o 


As regards the cnigin of their name it is referred 
by Beal (/. B. A, 8., N.S., vol. XVI, pp. 257, 279) to 
maiza — * greater* (in Moeso- Gothic) and Yue-ti (or 
chi). He thus reverts to the old theory of Ilemusat 
and Klaproth, that the Yue-ti were Getae, and this 
notwithstanding the objection of Saint- Martin 
stated in Les Huns Blancs, p. 37, n. 1. The old 
sound of Yue he observes was Get, correspondent 
with the Greek fonn GetaL In calling atten- 
tion to the Moeso- Gothic words maiza (greater) 
and minniza (less) he suggests that " we have 
here the origin of the names Massagetae, and the 
Mins, the Ta Yue-chi (gi'eat Yue-chi) and the Sian 
Yue-chi (Uttle Yue-chi)." 

The Parnoi, according to Strabo, were a 
branch of the Dahai (lib. XI, c. vii, sec. 1) called 
by Herodotos (lib. I, c. lii) the Daoi, and by our 
author and Stephanos of Byzantium the Daai. 
Strabo (lib. XI, c. viii, 2) says of them : " Most of 
the Skythians beginning from the Kaspian Sea, are 
called DahaiSkythai, and those situated more 
towards the east, Massagetai and Sakai, the rest 
have the common appellation of Skythians, but 
each separate tribe has its peculiar name. All, or 
the greatei" part of them, are nomadic." Virgil 
{Aen, lib. VIII, 1. 728) applies to the Dahae 
the epithet indomiti. It is all but certain that 
they have left traces of their name in the 
province of Dahest^n, adjoining to Aster4bad, as 
this position was within the limits of their migra- 
tory range. In the name Daae, Bahae or Ta-hia 
(the Chinese form) it is commonly inferred that 
we have the term Tajik, that is Persian, for there 
is good reason to place Persians even in Trans- 


oxiana long hetor6 the barbarous tribes of the 
Kaspian plains were heard *of (See Wilson's 
Avian. Antiq., p. 141). 

The Tapouroi appear to be the same as 
the Tapyroi mentioned by Strabo as occupying 
the country between the Hyrkanoi and the 
Areioi. Their position, however, varied at various 

N i s a i a or Nigaia (the Nesaia of Strabo) has 
been identified by Wilson (Avian, Antiq., pp. 142, 
148) with the modem Nissa, a small town or 
village on the north of the Elburz mountains, 
between Aster&b&d and Meshd. 

Cap. 11. 

Position op Baktriane. 

1. Baktriane is bounded on the west by 
Margiand along the side already described, on 
the north and east by Sogdiane, along the rest 
of the course of the River Ozos, and on the 
south by the rest of Areia, extending from the 
extreme point towards Margian^ — 

the position of which is 109° 39° 

and by the Paropanisadai along the parallel 
thence prolonged, through where the range of 
Paropanisos diverges towards the sources of the 
6x08 which lie in 119° 30' 39° 

2. The following rivers which fall into the 
Oxos flow through Baktriane :— 

The river Okhos, whose 
sources lie 110° 39° 


and the Dargamanes, whose 

sources lie 116° aO' 36° 2(/ 

and the Zariaspis, whose 

sources lie 113° 39° 

and the Artamis, whose 

sources lie ,. 114° ^9" 

and the Dargoidos, whose 

sources lie , 116° 39° 

and the point where this 

jaine the 6xos lies in... ,,. H7° 30' 44° 

3. Of the other tributaries the Artamis and 

the Zariaspis unite in 113° ^ 40° 40' 

before falling into the Oxos 

in ,,... 112° 30' 44° 

4. The Dargamanfe and the Okhos also 

unite in 109° 40° 30' 

before falling into the 6xos 

in 109° 44° 

5. Of the Paropanisos range, the western 

part is situated in 111° 30' 39' 

and [the Eastern] in 119° 30' 39^ 

6. The parts ofBaktrian^ in the north 


and towards the River Oxos are inhabited by 
the Salaterai and the Zariaspai, and to 
the south of these up towards the Salaterai the 
Khomaroi, and below these the K 6 m o i, 
then the Akinakai, then the Tambyzoi, 
and below the Zariaspai the Tokharoi, a 
great people, and below them the Marykaioi, 
and the S k o r d a i, and the O u a r n o i 



(Varnoi), and still below those the Sabadioi, 
and the Oreisitoi, and the A m a r e i s. 

7. The towns of Baktrian6 towards the 
river Oxos are the following : — 

Khai^kharta- '. 111° 44° 

Zari(a)spa or Kharispa 115° 44° 

Khoana 117° 42° 

Sourogana 117° 30' 40° aC 

Phratou 119° 39° 20' 

8. And near the other rivers these : — 

Alikhorda 107° 43° SC 

Khomara 106° 30' 43° 30' 

Konriandra 109° 30' 42° 10' 

Kauaris 111° 20° 43° 

Astakana 112° 42° 20' 

Ebonsmouanassa or Tosmou- 

anassa 108° 30' 41° 20' 

Menapia 113° 41° 20' 

Enkratidia 115° 42° 

9. Baktra, the king's re- 
sidence (Balkh) 116° 41° 

Estobara 109° 30' 45° 20' 

Marakanda (Samarkand) ... 112° 39° 15' 

Marakodra 115° 20^ 39° 20' 

The boundaries of Baktra orBaktriana 
varied at different periods of history, and were 
never perhaps at any time fixed with much preci- 
sion. According to Strabo it was the principal part 
of Ariana, and was separated from Sogdiana on the 
east and north-east by the Oxos, from Areia on 
the south by the chain of Paropanisos, and on 


the west from Margiana by a desert region. A 
description of Baktnana, wliich Bumes, in his 
work on Bokhara, corroborates as very accurate, is 
given by Curtius (lib. VII, o. iv) and is to this 
effect : " The nature of the Baktrian territory is 
varied, and presents striking contrasts. In one 
place it is well- wooded, and bears vines which 
yield grapes of great size and sweetness. The soil 
is rich and well- watered — ^and where such a genial 
soil is found com is grown, while lands with an 
inferior soil are used for the pasturage of cattle. 
To this fertile tract succeeds another much more 
extensive, which is nothing but a wild waste of 
sand parched with drought, alike without in- 
habitant and without herbage. The winds, more- 
over, which blow hither from the Pontic Sea, 
sweep before them the sand that covers the plain, 
»nd this, when it gathers into heaps, looks, when 
seen from a distance, like a collection of great 
hills ; whereby aU traces of the road that for- 
merly existed are completely obliterated. Those, 
therefore, who cross these plains, watch the stars 
by night as sailors do at sea, and direct their 
course by their guidance. In fact they almost 
see better under the shadow of night than in the 
glare of sunshine. They are, consequently, unable 
to find their way in the day-time, since there is 
110 track visible which they can follow, for the 
brightness of the luminaries above is shrouded in 
darkness. Should now the wind which rises 
from the sea overtake them, the Sjauds with 
which it is laden would completely overwhelm 
them. Nevertheless in all the more favoured loca- 
lities the number of men and of horses that are 


there generated is exceedingly great. Baktra 
itself, the capital city of that region, is situated 
under mount Faropauiao8< The river Bactrus 
passes by its walls: and gave the city and the 
region their name*" This description is in agree- 
ment with the general character of the country 
from Balkh to -Bokhara, in which oases of the 
most productive soil alternate with wastes of 

Baktra figures very early in history. Its capital 
indeed, Baktra (now Balkh) is one of the oldest 
cities in the woiid. The Baktrian Walls is one 
of the places which Euripides {Bakkhai, 1. 15) 
represents Dionysos to have visited in the course 
of his eastern peregrinations. I^inUs, as We leartl 
through Ktesias, marched into Baktriana with a 
vast army and, with the assistance of Semiramis« 
took its capital. In the time of Darius it was a 
satrapy of the Persian empire and paid a tribute 
of 360 talents. Alexander the Great, when 
marching in pursuit of Bessus, passed through 
Baktria and, crossing the Oxos, proceeded as far 
as Marakanda (Samarkand). Having subjugated 
the regions lying in that direction, he returned to 
Baktra and there spent the winter before starting 
to invade India. Some years after the conqueror's 
death Seleukos reduced Baktria, and annexed it 
to his other dominions. It was wrested, however, 
from the hands of the third prince of his line about 
the year 256 B.C. oi* perhaps later, by Antiokhoa 
Theos or Theodotas, who made Baktria an inde- 
pendent kingdom. His successors were ambitious 
and enterprising, and appear to have extended 
their authority along the downward course of the 


Indus even to the ocean, and southward along tii& 
coast as fai* as the mouth of the Narmadft. The 
names of these kings have been recovered from 
their coins found in great numbers both in 
India and in Afghanistan. This Graeko-Baktriah 
empire, after having subsisted for about two 
centuries and a half) was finally overthrown by 
the invasion of different* hordes of the Sakai, 
named, as Strabo informs us, the Asioi, Pasianoi, 
Tokharoi and Sakarauloi.'* These Sakai yielded 
in their turn to barbarians of their own kindred 
or at least of theii* own type, the Skythians, who 
gave their name to the Indus valley and the 
regions adjoining the Gulf of Khambhat. Among 
the most notable Indo-Skythian kings were 
Kadphises and Kanerkes who reigned at the end 
of the first and the beginning of the second 
century of our sera and, therefore, not very long 
before the time of Ptolemy. Between the Indo- 
Skythian and Muhammadan peiiods was inker- 
posed the predominancy of Persia in the regions 
of which we have been speaking. 

Ptolemy mentions five rivers which fall into the 
xos: the Okhos, Dargamanes, Zariaspis, Arta- 
mis, and Dargoidos, of which the Zaria^is and 
Artamis unite before reaching the Oxos. Ptole- 
my's account cannot he reconciled with the existing 
hydrography of the country . The Dargamanes 
is called by AmmianUs (lib. XXIII, c. vi) the Orga- 

^ The Wu-8un (of Chinese history) are apparently to be 
identified with the Asii or Asiani, who, according to 
Strabo occupied the npper waters of the laxartes, and 
who are classed as nomadcs with the Tokh^ri and 
Sakarauli (? Sara-Kauli, i.e., Sarikulis). — Kingsmill, in 
J. R. A. S., N. S., vol. XIV, p. 79. 


iftenes. The A r t a m i s, Wilson thinks, may be 
the river now^ called the Dakash {Ariana Antiqua, 
p. 162) and the Dargamanes, the present riv^er 
of Ghori or Kunduz which is a tributary of the 
Okhos and not of the Oxos as in Ptolemy. The 
O k h o 8 itself has not been identified with cer- 
tainty. According to Kinneir it is the Tezen or 
Tejend which, rising in Sarakhs, and receiving 
many confluents, falls into the Kaspian in N. L. 
33° 41'. According to Elphinstone it is the river 
of Herat, either now lost in the sand or going to 
the Oxos {Ariana Antiqtia, p. 146). Bunbury 
(vol. II, p. 28i!) points out that in Strabo the 
Okhos is an independent river, emptying into the 
Kaspian. The Okhos of Artemidoros, he says, may 
be certainly identified with the Attrek, whose course, 
till lately, was very imperfectly known. 

Ptolemy gives a list of thirteen tribes which 
inhabited Baktriane. Their names are obscure, 
and are scarcely mentioned elsewhere.*' 

In the list of towns few known names occur. The 
most notable are Baktra, Marakanda, Eukratidia 
and Zariaspa. B a k t r a, as has been already stated, 
is the modern Balkh. Heeren {Asiatic Nations, 
2nd edit., vol. I, p. 424), writes of it in these terms : 
"The city of Baktra must be regarded as the 
commercial entrepot of Eastern Asia: its name 
belongs to a people who never cease to afford 

»' Prof. Beal (/. R, A. 8., N. S., Vol. XVI, p. 253), 
connects the name of the Tokharoi^ with Tu-ho-lo the 
name of a country or kingdom Tukhara, frequently men- 
tioned by Hiuen Tsiang. The middle symbol ho, he 
says, represents the rough aspirate, and we should thus 
get Tahi'a or Tuxra, from which would come the Greek 

35 6 


matter for historical details, from the time they 
are first mentioned. Not only does Baktra con- 
stantly appear as a city of wealth and importance 
in every age of the Persian empire, but it 
is continually interwoven in the traditions of 
the East with the accounts of Semiramis and 
other conquerors. It stood on the borders of the 
gold country, * in the road of the confluence of 
nations,' according to an expression of the Zend- 
avesta ; and the conjecture that in this part of 
the world the human race made its first advance 
in civilisation, seems highly probable." The name 
of Balkh is from the Sanskrit name of the 
people of Baktra, the Bahlikas. Marakanda 
is Samarkand. It was the capital of Sogdiana, 
but Ptolemy places it in Baktriane, and consider- 
ably to the south of Baktra, although its actual 
latitude is almost 3 degrees to the north. It was 
one of the cities of Sogdiana which Alexander 
destroyed. Its circumference was estimated at 
64 stadia, or about 7 miles. The name has been 
interpreted to mean " warlike province." E u k r a- 
t i d i a received its name from the Graeko-Baktrian 
king, Eukratid^s, by whom it was founded. Its 
site cannot be identified. Pliny makes Zariaspa 
the same as Baktra, but this must be a mistake. 
No satisfactory site has been as yet assigned to it. 

Cap. 12. 

Position op the Sogdianoi. 

The Sogdianoi are bounded on the west 

by that part of Sky thia which extends from the 

section of the Oxos which is towards BaktrianA 

and Margian^ through the Oxeian mountains 


as far as the section of the river laxartes, which 
lies in 110° E. 49° N. ; on the north likewise bj a 
part of Skjthia along the section of the laxartes 
extended thenoe as far as the limit where its 
course bends, which lies in 120° E. 48° 30' N. 
On the east by the Sakai along the (bending) 
of the laxartes as far as the sources of the 
bending which lie in 125° E. 43° N., and*by the 
line prolonged from the Sakai to an extremd 
point which lies in 125° E. 38° 30' N., and on 
the east and the south and again on the west by 
Baktrian^ along the section of the Oxos already 
mentioned and by the Kaukasian mountains 
especially so-called, and the adjoining line 
and the limits as stated, and the sources of th» 

2. The mountains called the Sogdian 
extend between the two rivers, and have their 

extremities lying in 111° 47° 

and 122° 46° 30' 

3. From these mountains a good many 
nameless rivers flow in contrary directions to 
meet these two rivers, and. of these nameless 
rivers one forms the Oxeian Lake, the middle 
of which lies in 111° E. 45° N., and other two 
streams descend from the same hilly regions as 
the laxartes — the regions in question are called 
the Highlands of the K6m^dai. Each of these 
streams falls into the laxartes ; one of them 
is called D d m o s and 

its sources lie in 124° 43° 


Its junction with the river 

Iaxarte& occnrsF in 123^ 47** 

The other is the Ba »k a t i s 

whose sorrrces lie in 123? 4&* 

Its junction with the river 

laxartes occurs in 121^ 47^3(K 

4. The country towards the Oxeian inouff- 
tains is possessed b^r the Paskai^ smd the 
parts towards the most northern scetion of the- 
laxartes by the I a t i ai, and the Tokharof,^ 
below wltoBi are the Angaloif th«n alon^ 
the Sogdian mountains the Ox y d rA rtg^k a i 
and the Drybaktai, and the Kandarof, 
and below the mountains the Mardy^noi, 
and along the Oxos the Oxeianoi and the 
Khorasmioi, and farther east than these 
the Drepsianoi, and adjoining both the 
rivers, and still further east than the above 
the Anieseis along the laxartes, and the 
Kirrhadai (or Kirrhodeeis) along the Oxos, 
and between the Kaukasos Range and Imaos 
the country called Ouandabanda, 

5. Towns of the Sogdianoi in the high- 
lands along the laxartes are these : — 

Kyreskhata... 124^ 43° 40' 

Along the Oxos : — 

Oxeiana 117° 30' 44° 20' 

Marouka 117° 15' 43° 40' 

Kholbesina 121° 43° 

6. Between the rivers and higher up — 


Trybaktm 112^ 15' 

Alexandreia Oxerian^ 113° 44'' 2V 

Indikomordana \ 115° 44° 20' 

Drepsa (or Rhepsa) the 

Metropolis 120° 45° 

Alexandreia Eskhat^ (i.e. 

Ultima) ..,. 122° 41° 

S o g d i a n a w^as divided from Baktriana by 
the rirer Oxos and extended northward from 
thence bo the river laxarbes. The Sakai lay along 
the eastern frontier and Sky t bier tribe* aVwig the 
western. The name exists to this day, being 
preserved in Soghd which designates the country 
lying along the river Kohik from Bokhara east- 
ward to Samarkand. The records of Alexander's 
expedition give much information regarding this 
country, for the Makedoaian troops were engaged 
for the better part of three years in effecting its 

In connexion with Sogdiana, Ptolemy mentions 
four mountain ranges — the Kaukasian, the 
Sogdian, the mountain district of the K 6 m d- 
d a i, and I m a o s. Kaukasos was the general name 
applied by the Makedonians to the great chain 
which extended along the northern frontiers of 
Afghanistan, and which was regarded as a pro- 
longation of the real Kaukasos. Ptolemy uses it 
hero in a specific sense to designate that part 
of the chain which formed the eastern continua" 
tion of the Paropanisos towards Imaos. Imaos 
is the meridian chain which intersects the Kait- 
kasos, and is now called Bolor T&gh. Ptolemy 
places it about 8 degrees too far eastward. The 


Sogdian Mountains, placed by Ptolemy between 
the lazartes and Oxoa, towards their sources, 
are the Thian Shan. The K 6 m S d a i, who gave 
their name to the third range, were, according to 
Ptolemy, the inhabitants of the hill-country which 
lay to the east of Baktriana and up whose 
valley lay the route of the caravans from Baktra, 
bound for Serika across Imaus or the Thsuhg' 
lung. Cunningham has identified them with the- 
Kiu-mi-tho (Kumidha) of Hiuen Tsiang. Their 
mountain district is that called Muz-t&gh. 

The rivers mentioned in connexion with 
Sogdiana are the 6xos, and the laxartes, with its 
two tributaries, the Baskatis and the DSmos. 
The Oxos takes its rise in the Pamir*' Lake, 
called the Sari-Kul (or Yellow Lake), at a distance 
of fully 300 miles to the south of the lazartes. 
It is fed on its north bank by many smaller 
streams which run due south from the Pamfr 
uplands, breaking the S.W. face of that region 
into a series of valleys, which, though rugged, are 
of exuberant fertility. Its course then lies for 

>" The Pamir plateau between Badakshan and Yarkand 
connects several chains of mountains, viz. the Hindu 
Kush in the S.W. the Kuen-luen in the E., the Karar 
Korum in the Bolor, the Thian-sh&n chain in the north, 
which runs from Tirak Dawan and Ming-yol to the 
Western Farghana Pass. This plateau is called BAm-i' 
dvmMA or Roof of the World. With regard to the name 
Pamir Sir H. Bawlinson says : *' My own conjecture is that 
the name of Pamtr, or F&mir, as it is always written hy 
the Arabs, is derived from the Fani {(bavvoi), who, accor- 
ding to Strabo bounded the Greek kingdom of Baktria 
to the E. (XI. 14) and whose name is also preserved in 
F&n-tfiii, the F&n-Lake, &c. Fdmir for F&n-m!r would 
then be a compound like Kashmir, Aj-mir, Jessel-mir, &o. 
signifying *the lake country of the F&-ni.'* (J. R. 0. flL 
XLII.p 189, n.).* 


hundreds of miles through arid and saline stepp^a 
till before reaching the sea of Aral it is dissipated 
into a network of canals, both natural and artifi- 
cial. Its delta, which would otherwise have re- 
mained a desert, has thus been converted into a 
fruitful garden, capable of supporting a teeming 
population, and it was one of the very earliest 
seats of civilization,'* The deflexion of the waters 
of the Oxos into the Aral, as Sir H. Rawlinson 
points out, has been caused in modem times not 
by any upheaval of the surface of the Turcoman 
desert, but by the simple accidents of fluvial 
action in an alluvial soil. The name of the river, 
is in Sanskrit Vahshu, Mongolian, Bakshu, Tibe- 
tan Pahshu Chinese Po-thsu, Arabic and Persian 
Vahhsh-an or dh — ^fi^om Persian vah = * pure,' or 
Sanskrit Vah = * to flow.' The region embracing the 
head- waters of the Oxos appears to have been the 
scene of the primaeval Aryan Paradise. The four 
rivers thereof, as named by the Brahmans, were the 
Sita, the Alakananda, the Yakshu, and the Bhadro 
= respectively, according to Wilson to the Hoang- 
ho, the Ganges, the Oxos, and the Oby. Accord- 
ing to the Buddhists the rivers were the Gangep, 
the Indus, the Oxos, and the Sita, all of which 
they derived from a great central lake in the 
plateau of Pamir, called A-neou-ta = Kara-kul or 
Sarik-kul Lake. 
The laxartes is now called the Syr-darya or 

^' '^AbuBihan says that the Solar Calendar of Khwd- 
rasm was the most perfect scheme for the measurement 
of time with which he was acquainted. Also that the 
KhwArasmians dated originally from an epoch anterior 
by 980 years to the aera of the Seleucidae=134 B.C." 
(See Quarterly Review , No. 240, Art. on Central Asia). 


Yellow River. T?he ancients sometimes called it 
the Araxes, but, according to D* Anville, this is but 
an appellative common to it with the Amil or Oxo8> 
the Armenian Aras and the Rha or Volga. The 
Yjiame laxartes was not properly a Greek word but 
was borrowed from the barbarians by whom> as 
Arrian states {Awib. lib. lit. c. ixx), it was called 
theOrxantes. It was probably derived from the 
Sanskrit root hshaVf ** to flow*' with a Semitic 
feminine ending, and this etymology would explain 
the modem form of 8irr. See /. B. O. 8. XLII. 
p. 492, n. The laxartes rises in the high plateau 
Bouth of Lake Issyk-kul in the Thian Shan. Its 
course is first to westward through the valley of 
Khokan, where it receives numerous tributaries. 
It then bifurcates, the more northern branch re- 
taining the name of Syr-darya. This flows towards 
the north-west, and after a course of 1150 miles 
from its source enters the Sea of Aral. Ptolemy 
however, like all the other classical writers, makes 
it enter the Kaspian sea. Humboldt accounts 
for this apparent error by adducing fa<its which 
go to show that the tract between the Aral and 
the Kaspian was once the bed of an united aud con- 
tinuous sea, and that the Kaspian of the present 
day is the small residue of a once mighty Aralo- 
Kaspian Sea. Ammiauus Marcellinus (lib. XXIII, 
c. vi), describing Central Asia in the upper course of 
the laxartes which falls into the Kaspian, speaks 
of two rivers, the Araxates and Dymas (probably 
the Demos of Ptolemy) which, rushing impetuously 
down- from the mountains aud passing into a level 
plaiu, form therein what is called the Oxian lake, 
which is spread over a vast area. This is the 


earliest intimation of the Sea of Aral. (See Smitli^s 
Diet of Anc. Geog. s. v.). Bunbury, however, says 
{TOl. II, pp. 641-2) : " Nothing but the unwilling- 
ness of modern writers to admit that the ancientA 
were unacquainted with so important a feature in 
the geography of Central Asia as the Sea of 
Aral could have led them to suppose it repre- 
sented by the Oxiana Palus of Ptolemy. While 
that author distinctly describes both the Jaxartea 
and the Oxus as flowing into the Caspian Sea, he 
speaks of a range of mountains called the Sog- 
dian Mountains, which extend between the two 
rivers, from which flow several nameless streams 
into those two, one of which forms the Oxian lake. 
This statement exactly tallies with the fact that 
the Polytimetos or river of Soghd, which rises 
in the mountains in question, does not flow into 
the Oxus, but forms a small stagnant lake 
called Kara-kul or Denghiz ; and there seems no 
doubt this was the lake meanl} by Ptolemy. It is 
true that Ammianus Marcellinus, in his descrip» 
tion of these regions, which is very vague and 
inaccurate, but is based for the most part upon 
Ptolemy, terras it a large and widespread lake, 
but this is probably nothing more than a rhetorical 
flourish." The laxartes was regarded as the 
boundary towards the east of the Persian Empire, 
which it separated from the nomadic Skythians. 
The soldiers of Alexander believed it to be the 
same as the Tanais or Don. 

In the list of the tribes of Sogdiana some 

names occur which are very like Indian, the £[an- 

daroi,who may be the Gandh&ras, the Mardy^noi, 

the Madras, the Takhoroi, the Takurs, and th« 

36 Q 


Kirrhadai (or Eirrhodeeis) the Eir&ta. The nanio 
of the Khorasmioi has been preserved to the 
present day in that of Khwl^razm, one of the 
designations of the Khanate of Khiva. The 
position of the Khorasmioi may be therefore 
assigned to the regions south of the Sea of Aral, 
which is sometimes called after them the Sea of 
Khw&razm. The Drepsianoi had their seats 
on the borders of Baktria, as Brepsa, one of 
their cities and the capital of the country, may 
be identified with Andar&b, which was a Baktrian 
town. It is called by Strabo Adrapsa and Darapsa— 
(lib. XI, c. xi, 2» and lib. XY, c. ii, 10) and Drapsaka 
by Arrian — {Andb. lib. Ill, c. 89). Bunbury 
(vol. I, p. 427, n. 3) remarks : " The Drepsa of 
Ptolemy, though doubtless the same namie, can- 
not be the same place (as the Drapsaka of Arrian, 
Athah, lib. Ill, c. zxix.) as that author places it in 
Sogdiana, considerably to the north of Marakanda." 
Ptolemy, however, as I have already pointed out, 
places Marakanda to the south of Baktra. 
Kingsmill (J. B, A, 8., N. S., vol. XIV, p. 82) 
identifies Darapsa with the Lam-shi-ch'eng of the 
Chinese historians. It was the capital of their Ta- 
hia (Tokh&ra — Baktria) which was situated about 
2000 li south-west of Ta-wan (Yarkand), to the 
south of the Kwai-shui (Oxos). The original form 
of the name was probably, he says, Darampsa. 
In Ta-wan he finds the Phrynoi of Strabo. The 
region between Kaukasos and Imaos, Ptolemy calls 
Yandabanda, a name of which, as Wilson 
conjectures, traces are to be found in the name 
of Badakshan. 
With regard to the towns Mr. Yaux- remarks. 


(Smith's Diet. s. v. Sogdiana) : " The historians 
of Alexander's maroh leave us to suppose that 
Sogdiana abounded with large towns, but many 
of these, as Prof. Wilson has remarked, were pro- 
bably little more than forts erected along the 
lines of the great rivers to defend the country 
from the incursions of the barbarous tribes to its 
N. and E. Yet these writers must have had good 
opportunity of estimating the force of these 
places, as Alexander appears to h>ve been the best 
part of three years in this and the adjoining province 
of Baktriana. The principal towns, of which the 
names have been handed down to us, were K y r e s- 
khataorKyropolis on the laxartes (Steph. 
Byz. 9, v.; Curt. lib. YI, c. vi) Gaza (Ghaz or 
Ghazni, Ibn Haukal, p. 270); Alexandreia 
Ultima (Arrian, lib. Ill, c. xxx ; Curt. I. c; Am. 
Marc, lib. XXIII, c. vi) doubtless in the neighbour- 
hood, if not on the site of the present Khojend ; 
Alexandreia Oxiana (Steph. Byz. s, v,); 
Nautaka (Arrian, An, lib. Ill, c. xxviii; lib. lY* 
c. xviii) in the neighbourhood of Karshi orNaksheb. 
Brankhidae, a place traditionally said to have 
been colonized by a Greek population ; and M a r- 
ginia (Curt., lib. YII, c. x, 15) probably the 
present Marghinan." 

Cap. 13. 

Position of the Sakai. 

[Map of Asia 7.] 

1. The Sakai are bounded on the west by 
the Sogdianoi along their eastern side already 
described, on the north by Skythia along tho 


line parallel to the river laxartes as far as the 
limit of the country which lies in 130° E. 49° N, 
on the east in like manner bj Skythia along* 
the meridian lines prolonged from thence and 
through the adjacent range of mountains called 
Askatangkas as far as the station at Mount 
Imaos, whence traders start on their journey to 
S6ra which lies in 140° E. 43° N., and through 
Mount Imaos as it ascends to the north as far as 
the limit of the country which lies in 143° E. 3 5° N"., 
and on the south by Imaos itself along the 
line adjoining the limits that have been 

2. The country of the S a k a i is inhabited 
by nomads. They have no towns, but dwell in 
woods and caves. Among the Sakai is the 
mountain district, already mentioned, of the 
Kom^dai, of which the ascent from the 

Sogdianoi lies in 125° 43° 

And the parts towards the val- 

fey of the KomMai lie in 130° 39^ 

And the so-called Stone Tower 
lies in 135° 43° 

3 . * The tribes of the Sakai, along the laxartes, 
are the K a r a t a i and the K o m a r o i, and the 
people who have all the mountain region are 
the K 6 m 6 d a i, and the people along the rang© 
of Askatangka the Massagetai; and the 
people between are the Grynaioi Skythai 
and the T o 6 r n a i, below whom, along Mount 
Imaos, are the B y 1 1 a ir 


In the name of the mountain range on the 
east of the Sakai, A s k a-t a n g k-a S| the middle 
syllable represents the Turkish word tdgh^^ 
* mountain.' The tribe of the K a r a t a i, which was 
seated along the banks of the laxartes, bears a 
name of common application, chie6y to members 
of the Mongol family — that of Karait. The name 
of the Massagetai, Latham has suggested, may 
have arisen out of the common name Mioaidgh, but 
Beal, as already stated, refers it to the Moeso-gothic 
" maiza " and *' Yue-chi — Getes." The B y 1 1 a i are 
the people of what is now called Little Tibet and 
also Baltist&n. 

Cap. 14. 

Position of Skythia within Imaos. 

[Map of Asia 7.] 

1. Skythia within Imaos is bounded on 
the west by Sarmatia in Asia along the side 
already traced, on the north by an unknown 
land, on the east by Mount Imaos ascending to 
the north pretty nearly along the meridian of 
the starting-place already mentioned as far as 

the unknown land l^O"" 63°, 

on the south and also on the east by the Sakai 
and the Sogdianoi and by Margin^ along their 
meridians already mentioned as far as the 
Hyrkanian Sea at tlie mouth of the Oxos, and 
also by the part of the Hyrkanian Sea lying 
between the north of the Oxos and the river 
Rha according to such an outline. 


2. The bend of the River Rha which marks 
the boundary of Sarmatia and 

Skythia 85° 54° 

with the mouth of the river 

Rha which lies in 87° 30' 48° 5(y 

Mouth of the river Rhym- 

mos 91° 48° 46' 

Mouth of the river Daix ... 94° 48° 45,' 

Mouth of the river laxartes 97° 48° 

Mouth of the river lastos ... 100° 47° 20' 

Mouth of the river Polyti- 

m^tos 103° 45° 30' 

Aspabota, a town 102° 44° 

after which comes the mouth of the Oxos. 

3. The mountains of Skythia within Imaos 
are the more eastern parts of the Hyperborean 
hills and the mountains called 

Alana^ whose extremities 

lie 105° 69° 

and 118° 69° 30' 

4. And the Rymmik mountains whose ex- 
tremities lie.. 90° 64° 

and 99° 47° 30' 

from which flow the Rymmos and some other 
streams that discharge into the River Rhjl, 
uniting with the Da'ix river. 

6. And the Norosson range, of which the 

extremities lie * 97° 63° 30' 

and 106° 62° 30' 

and from this range flow the Daix and some 
other tributaries of the laxartes. 


G. And the range of mountains called 
Aspiaia whose extremities lie 111° 55° 30' 

and 117° 52° 30' 

and from these some streams flow into the 
Biver laxartes. 

7. And the mountains called Tapoura whose 

extremities lie 120° 56° 

and. 125° 49° 

from which also some streams flow into the 

8. In addition to these in the depth of the 
region of the streams are the Syeba mountains 

whose extremities lie 121° 58° 

and 132° 62° 

and the mountains called the Anarea whose 

extremities lie 130° 56° 

and 137° 50° 

after which is the bend in the direction of 
Imaos continuing it towards the north. 

9. All the territory of this Skythia in the 
north, adjoining the unknown regions, is in- 
habited by the people commonly called the 
Alanoi Skythai and the SouobSnoi 
and the Alanorsoi, and the country below 
these by the Saitianoi and the Massaioi 
and the S y 6 b o i, and along Imaos on the 
outer side the Tektosakes, and near the 
most eastern sources of the river Rha the 
Rhoboskoi below whom the A s m a n o i. 

10. Then the Paniardoi, below whom, 
more towards the river, the country of K a n o- 


d i p B a» and below it the K o r a x o i, then 
the O r g a s o i, after whom as far as the sea 
the E r y m m o i, to east of yrhom are the 
A s i o t a i, then the A o r s o i, after whom are 
the laxartai, a great race seated along their 
homonymous river as far as to where it bends 
towards the Tapoara Mountains, and again 
below the Saitanioi are the Mologenoi, below 
whom, as far as the Rymmik range, are the 

11. And below the Massaioi and the Alana 
Mountains are the Z a r a t a i and the S a s o n e s, 
and further east than the Rymmik Mountains 
are the Tybiatai, after whom, below the 
Zaratai, are the Tabienoi and the 1 a s t a i 
and the Makhait^goi along the range of 
Norosson, after whom are the Norosbeis 
and the Norossoi, and below these the 
Kakhagai Skythai along the country of 
the laxartai. 

12. Further west than the Aspisia range 
are the Aspisioi Skythai, and further 
east the Galaktophagoi Skythai, and 
in like manner the parts farther east than the 
Tapoura and Syeba ranges are inhabited by the 
Tap o ure oi. 

13. The slopes and summits of the Anarea 
Mountains and Mount Askatangkas are inhabit- 
ed by the homonymous Anareoi Skythai 
below the Alanorsoi, and the Askatangkai 


S k y t h a i furtlier east than the Taponreoi) and 
as far as Monnt Imaos. 

14. But the parts between the Taponra 
Mountains and the slope towards the mouth of 
the lazartes and the seacoast between the two 
rivers are possessed by the Ariakai, along 
the laxartes and below these the N a mo s t a i, 
then the Sagaraukai, and along the river 
Oxos the B h i b i i, who have a town 
Dauaba 104° 46^ 

The country of the Skyths is spread over a 
vast area in the east of Europe and in Western 
and Central Asia. The knowledge of the Skyths 
by the Greeks dates from the earliest period 
of their literature, for in Homer {Iliad, lib, 
XIII, 1. 4) we find mention made of the Galakto- 
phagoi (milk- eaters) and the Hippemologoi (mare- 
milkers) which must have been Skythic tribes, 
since the milking of mares is a practice distinctive 
of the Skyths. Ptolemy's division of Skythia into 
within and beyond Imaos is peculiar to himself, 
and may have been suggested by his division of 
India into within and beyond the Granges. Imaos, 
as has already been pointed out is the Bolor chain, 
which has been for ages the boundary between 
Turkist&n and China. Ptolemy, however, placed 
Imaos too far to the east, 8^ further than the 
meridian of the piincipal source of the Ganges. 
The cause of this mistake, as a writer in Smith's 
Dictionary points out, arose from the circumstance 
that the data upon which Ptolemy came to his con- 
clusion were selected from two different sources. 
The Greeks first became acquainted with the 
37 Q 


Komedorum Monies when they passed the Indian 
Kaukasos between Kabul and Balkh, and advanced 
over the plateau of BSimij&n along the west slopes 
of Bolor, where Alexander found in the tribe of 
the Sibae the descendants of Herakles, just as 
Marco Polo and Bumes met with people who 
boasted that they had sprung from the Make- 
donian conquerors. The north of Bolor was 
known from the route of the traffic of the Seres. 
The combination of notations obtained from such 
different sources wacs imperfectly made, and hence 
the error in longitude. This section of Skythia 
comprised Elhiva, the country of the Kosaks, 
Ferghina, Tashkend, and the parts about the 

The rivers mentioned in connexion with Skjrthia 
within Imaos are the Oxos, laxartes, BhsL, Bhym- 
mos, Daix, lastos and Polytimetos. The B h a is 
the Yolga, which is sometimes called the Bhau 
by the Bussians who live in its neighbourhood. 
Ptolemy appears to be the first Greek writer who 
mentions it. The Bhymmos isa small stream 
between the Bh& and the Ural river called the Naryn- 
chara. The D ai'x is the Isik or Ural river. The 
lastos was identified by Humboldt with the 
Eazil-darya, which disappeared in the course of last 
century, but the dry bed of which can be traced in 
the barren wastes of Kizil-koum in W. Turkest&n. 
With regard to the Polytimetos, Wilson says 
{Avian. Antiq. p. 168); "There can be no hesita- 
tion in recognizing the identity of the Polytimetes 
and the Zaraf shM, or river of Samarkand, called 
also the Kohik, or more correctly the river of 
the Kohak ; being so termed from its passing by 


a rising ground, a Koli-ak, a 'little liill' or 
* hillock/ which lies to the east of the city. Accord- 
ing to Strabo, this river traversed Sogdiana 
and was lost in the sands. Gurtius describes it aa 
entering a cavern and continuing its course under- 
ground. The river actually terminates in a small 
lake to the south of Bokhara, the Dangiz, but in 
the dry weather the supply of water is too scanty 
to force its way to the lake, and it is dis- 
persed and evaporated in the sands. What the 
original appellation may have been does not ap- 
pear, but the denominations given by the Greeka 
and Persians ' the much-honoured ' or * the gold- 
shedding' staream convey the same idea, and inti- 
mate the benefits it confers upon the region 
which it waters," Ptolemy is wide astray in 
making it enter the Kaspian. 

The mountains enumerated are the Alana^ 
lUiymmika, Norosson, Aspisia^TapourarSyeba, and 
Anarea. By the A 1 a n a Mountains, which lay to 
the east of the Hyperboreans, it has been supposed 
that Ptolemy designated the northern part of the 
Ural Chain. If so, he has aroneously given their 
directi(»i as from west to east. The B h y m m i k 
mountains were probably another branch of that 
great meridian chain which consists of several 
ranges which run nearly parall^. The Noros- 
son maybe taken as Ptolemy's designation for 
the southern portion of this chain. The As- 
pi s i a and T ap o ur a mountains lay to the north 
of the laxartes. The latter, which are placed 
three degrees further east than the Aspisia, may be 
•the western part of the Altai. The S y ^ b a 
stretched still farther eastward with an inclina- 


tion northward. To the southward of them were 
the An area, which may be placed near the 
sources of the Obi and the Irtish, forming one of 
the western branches of the Altai. Ptolemy errone- 
ously prolongs the chain of Imaos to these high 

Ptolemy has named no fewer than 38 tribes be- 
longing to this division of Skythia. Of these the 
best known ate the A 1 a n i, who belonged alsQ to 
Europe, where they occupied a great portion of 
Southern Russia. At the time when Arrian the 
historian was Governor of Elappadokia under 
Hadrian, the Asiatic Alani attacked his province, 
but were repeUed. He subsequently wrote a 
work on the tactics to be observed against the 
Alani {cKra^is kot 'AXavS>v) of which some fragments 
remain. The seats of the Alani were in the north 
of Skythia and adjacent to the unknown land, 
which may be taken to mean the regions stretch- 
ing northward beyond Lake Balkash. The posi- 
tion of the different tribes is fixed with sufficient 
clearness in the text. These tribes were essenti- 
ally nomadic, pastoral and migratory — whence in 
Ptolemy's description of their country towns are 
singularly conspicuous by theii* absence. 

Cap. 15. 
The position of Skythia betond Imaos. 

[Map of Asia, 8.] 

1. Skythia beyond Mount Imaos is 
bounded on the west by Skythia within Imaos, 
and the Sakai along the whole curvature of the 


monntains towards the north, and on the north 
by the unknown land, and on the east by Serika 
in a straight line whereof the extremities 

lie in , 150° 63° 

and 160° 35° 

and on the south by a part of India beyond the 
Ganges along the parallel of latitude which 
cuts the southern extremity of the line jast 

2. In this division is situated the western 
part of the Auxakian Mountains, of which the 

extremities lie 149° 49° 

and 165° 54° 

and the western part of the mountains 

called Kasia, whose extremities lie in 152° 41° 

and 162° 44° 

and also the western portion of Emodos, 

whose extremities lie in 1 53° 36° 

and... 165° 36° 

and towards the Auxakians, the source 

of the River Oikhard^ lying in 1 53° 5 1° 

3. The northern parts of this Skythia are 
possessed by the Abioi Skythai, and the 
parts below them by the Hippophagoi 
Skythai, after whom the territory of A u x a- 
k i t i s extends onward, and below this again, 
at the starting place already mentioned, the 
K a s i a n land, below which are the K h a t a i 
Skythai, and then succeeds the A k h a s a 
land, and below it along the Emoda the K h a- 
raunaioi Skythai. 


4. The towns in this division are these : — • 

Auxakia 143° 49^40' 

Issedon Skythike 150'' 49° 30' 

Khaurana 150° 37° 15' 

Soita 145° 35° 20' 

Skythia beyond Imaos embraced Ladakh, Tibet, 
Chinese Tartary and Mongolia. Its mountains 
were the Auxakian and Kasian chains, both 
of which extended into Serike, and £ m 6 d o s. 
The Auxakians may have formed a part of the 
Altai, and the Kasians, which Ptolemy places five 
degrees further south, are certainly the mountains 
of K^shgar. The E m 6 d o » are the Himalayas. 

The only river named in this division is the 
Oikhardes, which has its sources in three 
different ranges, the Auxakian, the Asmiraean 
and the Kasian. According to a writer in Smith's 
Dictionary the Oikhardes "may be considered 
to represent the river formed by the union of the 
streams of Elhotan, Yarkand, Elashgar and Ushi, 
and which flows close to the hills at the base 
of the Thian-shan. Saint-Martin again inclines 
to think CEchardes may be a designation of 
the Indus, while still flowing northward from its 
sources among the Himalayas. " Skardo," he says, 
{Etude, p. 420) " the capital of the Balti, bears 
to the name of the Oikhardes (Chardi in Amm. 
Marc. 2) a resemblance with which one is struck. 
If the identification is well founded, the river 
Oichardes will be the portion of the Indus which 
traverses Balti and washes the walls of Skardo." 

In the north of the division Ptolemy places the 
AbioiSkythai. Homer, along with the Galak- 


topbagoi and Hippemolgoi, mentions the Abioi. 
Some think that the term in the passage designates 
a distinct tribe of Skythians, but others take it to be 
a common adjective, characterizing the Skythians 
in general as very scantily supplied with the 
means of subsistence. On the latter supposition 
the general term must in the course of time have 
become a specific appellation. Of the four towns 
which Ptolemy assigns to the division, one bears 
a well-known name, IssSdon, which he calls 
SkythikS, to distinguish it from Issedon in 
Serike. The name of the Issedones occurs very 
early in Greek literature, as they are referred to by 
the Spartan poet Alkman, who flourished between 
671 and 631 B. 0. He calls them Assedo nes 
Frag, 94, ed. Welcker). They are mentioned also 
by Hekataios of Miletos. In very remote times 
they were driven from the steppes over which 
they wandered by the Arimaspians. They then 
drove out the Skythians, who in turn drove out 
the Kimmerians. Traces of these migrations are 
found in the poem of Aristeas of Prokonnesos, 
who is fabled to have made a pilgrimage to the 
land of the Issedones. Their position has been 
assigned to the east of Ichin, in the steppe of the 
<;entral horde of the Kirghiz, and that of the 
Arimaspi on the northern declivity of the Altai. 
(Smith's Diet, s. v.) This position is not in 
accordance with Ptolemy's indications. Herodotos, 
while rejecting the story of the Arimaspians 
and the gnffins that guarded their gold, admits 
at the same time that by far the greatest quantity 
of gold came from the north of Europe, in which 
he included the tracts along the Ural, and Altai 


ranges. The abundance of gold among the 
Skjthians on the Enxine is attested by the 
contents of their tombs, which have been opened 
in modem times. (See Bunbury, vol. I, p. 200.) 

Regarding Ptolemy's Skythian geography, 
Bnnbury says (voL II. p. 597) : ** It must be admit- 
ted that Ptolemy's knowledge of the regions 
on either side of the Imaos was of the vaguest 
possible character. Eastward of the Bh& (Volga), 
which he regarded as the limit between Asiatic 
Sarmatia and Skythia, and norfch of the laxartes, 
which he describes like all previous writers as 
falling into the Kaspian-^he had, properly 
speaking, no geographical knowledge whatever. 
Nothing had reached him beyond the names of 
tribes reported at second-hand, and frequently 
derived from different authorities, who would 
apply different appellations to the same tribe, or 
extend the same name to one or more of the 
wandering hordes, who were thinly dispersed over 
this vast extent of territory. Among the names 
thus accumulated, a compilation that is probably 
as worthless as that of Pliny, notwithstanding its 
greater pretensions to geographical accuracy, we 
find some that undoubtedly represent populations 
really existing in Ptolemy's time, such as the 
Alani, the Aorsi, &c., associated with others that 
were merely poetical or traditional, such as the 
Abii, Galaktophagi and Hippophagi, while the 
Issedones, who were placed by Herodofcos imme- 
diately east of the Tanais, are strangely transferred 
by Ptolemy to the far East, on the very borders 
of Serika ; and he has even the name of a toivn 
which he calls Issedon Serika, and to which he 


assigns a position in longitude 22° east of Mount 
tmaos, and not less than 46° east of Baktra. In 
one essential point, as kas been already pointed 
Otkt, Ptolenly's conception of Skythia differed from 
tkat of all preceding geographers, that instead of 
regarding it as bounded on the north and east by 
the sea, and consequently of comparatively limited 
extent, he considered it as extending without 
limit in both directions, and bounded only by * the 
unknown land,' or^ in other words, limited only by 
his own knowledge." 

Cap. 16. 

Position of Sebike". 
[Map of Asia, 8]. 
S erike is bounded on the west by S ky t h i a, 
beyond Mount Imaos, along the line already 
mentioned, on the north by the unknown land 
along the same pai*allel as that through Thule, 
and on the east, likewise by the unknown land 
along the meridian of which the extremities 

lie 180° 63° 

and 180° 55° 

and on the south by the rest of India beyond 
the Ganges through the same parallel as far as 

the extremity lying 173° 55 

and also by the Sinai, through the line prolonged 
till it reaches the already mentioned extremity 
towards the unknown land. 

2. Serik^ is girdled by the mountains called 
Anniba, whose extremities lie ...153° 60° 

ana 171° 56° 

38 o 



and by the eastern part of the Auxakians, 

of which the extremity lies 165° 54® 

and by the mountains called the Asmiraia 

whose extremities lie 167° 47° 30' 

and 174° 47° 30' 

and by the eastern part of the Kasia range, 

whose extremities lie 162° 44° 

and 171° 40° 

and by Mount Thagouron whose 

centre lies 170° 43° 

and also by the eastern portion of the moun- 
tains called Emoda and Serika, whose extremity 

lies 165° 36° 

and by the range called Ottorokorrhas, whose 

extremities lie 169° 36° 

and 176° 38° 

3. There flow througb the far greatest por- 
tion of Serik^ two rivers, the Oikhardes, one of 
whose sources is placed with the Auxakioi, and 
tbe other which is placed in the Asmiraian 

mountains lies in 174° 47° 30' 

and where it bends towards the Kasia 

range 160° 48° 30' 

but the source in them lies. ........ 161° 44° 15' 

and tbe other river is called the Bautisos, and 
this has one of its sources in the Kasia range 

in 160° 43° 

another in O ttorokorrha 1 76° 39° 

and it bends towards the Emoda inl 68° 39° 
and its source in these lies. 160° S7°. 

4. The most northern parts of Serike are 


inhabited by tribes of cannibals, below whom 
is the nation of the A n n i b o i, who occupy the 
slopes and sammits of the homonymous moun- 
tains. Between these and the Auxakioi 
is the nation of the S y z y g e s, below whom 
are the D a m n a i, then as far as the river 
Oikhardes the P i a 1 a i (or Piaddai), and below 
the river the homonymous Oikhardai. 

5. And again farther east than the Anniboi 
are the Gar^inaioi and the Rhabannai 
or Rhabbanaioi, and below the country of 
Asmiraia, above th© ho-monymous moun- 
tains. Beyond these mountains as far as the 
Kasia range the Issedcnes, a great race, 
and further east than these the Throanoi, 
and below these the It h a g o u r o i, to the 
east of the homonymous mountains, below the 
Issedones, the Aspakarai, and still below 
those the B a t a i, and furthest south along 
the Emoda and Serika ranges the O 1 1 o r o- 
k o r r h a i. 

6. The cities in S er i k e are thus named : — 

Damna 156^ 51° 20' 

Piala (or Piadda) 160'=' 49° 40' 

Asmiraia 170° 48° 

Throana 174° 40' 47° 40' 

7. Issedon Serike 162^ 45° 

Aspakara (or Aspakaia) 162° 30' 41° 40' 

Drosakhe (or Rhosakla) 167° 40' 42° 30' 

Paliana ,162° 30' 41° 

Abragana 163° 30' 39° 30' 


8. Thogara 171^20' 39^40' 

Daxata 174^ 39° 30' 

Orosana 162'' 37° 30' 

Ottorokorrha * 16*5° 37^ 15' 

Solana 169° 37° 30' 

Sera metropolis 177^ 38° 35' 

The chapter which Ptolemy has devoted to 
S e r i k ^ has giveii rise to more abortive theories 
and unprofitable controversies than any other part 
of his woik on Geography. The position of 
Serikd itself has been very variously determined, 
having been found by different writers in one or 
other of the many countries that intervene be- 
tween Easte]*n Turkistan in the north and the 
province of Pegu in the south. It is now how- 
ever generally admitted that by Serik^ was meant 
the more northern parts of China, or those which 
travellers and tradera reached by land. At the 
same time it is not to be supposed that the names 
which Ptolemy in his map h-as spread over that 
vHst region wfere in reality names of places whose 
real positions were to be found so very f ai* east- 
ward. On the contrary, most of the names are 
traceable to Sanskrit sources and applicable to 
places either in £!asmir or in the regions imme- 
diately adjoining. This view was first advanced 
by Saint-Martin, in his dissertation on the Serike 
of Ptolemy {Etude, pp. 411 ff.) where he has 
discussed the subject with all his wonted acute- 
ness and fulness of learning, 1 may translate here 
his remarks on the points that are most promi- 
nent : " Air the nomenclature," he says (p. 414!), 
" except sonre names at the extreme points north 


and easpt, Is crertainly of Saiiskiit di^igiil. ..... To 

the south of the moitntauls, in the Panj4b, 
Ptolemy indicates under the general name of 
Kaspiraei an esLtension genuinely histoiioal of the 
Kasmiriau empire, with a detailed nomenclature 
which ought to rest Upon informations of the 1st 
century of oui* sera; whilst to the north of the 
great chain we have nothing more than names 
thrown at hazard in an immense space where our 
means of actual comparison show us prodigious 
displacements. This difference is explained by 
the very nature of the case. The Br^hmans, who 
had alone been able to furnish the greater part 
of the information carried from India, by the 
Greeks regarding this remotest of all countries, 
had not themselves, as one can see from their 
books, anything but the most imperfect notions. 
Some names of tribes, of rivers, and of mountains, 
without details or relative positions — ^this is all the 
Sanskrit poems contain respecting these high 
valleys of the North. It is also all that the tables 
of Ptolemy give, with the exception of the purely 
arbitrary addition of graduations. It is but 
recently that we ourselves have become a little 
better acquainted with these countries which are 
so difficult of access. We must not require from 
the ancients information which they could not 
have had, and it is of importance also that we 
should guard against a natural propensity which 
disposes us to attribute to all that antiquity has 
transmitted to us an authority that we do not 
accord without check to our best explorers. If 
the meagre nomenclature inscnbed by Ptolemy 
on his map, of the countries situated beyond 


(tliat is to the east) of Iinaos, cannot lead to a 
regular correspondence with our existing notions, 
that which one can recognize, suffices nevertheless 
to determine and circumscribe Its general position. 
Without wishing to ciarry into this more pre- 
cision than is consistent with the nature of the 
indications, we may say, that the indications, 
taken collectively, place us«in the midst of the 
Alpine region, whence radiate in different direc- 
tions the Himalaya, the Hindu-Koh and the 
Bolor chain— enormous elevations enveloped in 
an immense girdle of eternal snows, and whose 
cold valleys belong to different families of 
pastoral tribes. Kasmir, a privileged oasis amidst 
these rugged mountains, appertains itself to 
this region which traverses more to the north 
the Tibetan portion of the Indus (above the point 
where the ancients placed the sources of the In- 
dus) and whence run to the west the Oxos and 
laxartes. With Ptolemy the name of Imaos 
(the Greek transcription of the usual form of 
the name of Himalaya) is applied to the central 
chain from the region of the sources of the 
Ganges (where lise also the Indus and its 
greatest affluent, the oatadru or Satlaj) to beyond 
the sources of the laxartes. The general direc- 
tion of this gi'eat axis is from south to north, 
saving a bend to the south-east from Elasmir 
to the sources of the Ganges ; it is only on paint- 
ing from this last point that the Himalaya runs 
directly to the east, and it is there also that with 
Ptolemy the name of Emodos begins, which 
designates the Eastern Himalaya. Now it is 
on Imaos itself or in the vicinity of this grand 


Bystem of motmtaiiis to the north of ottr Paiij4b 
and to the east of the ralleys of the SUndu-Koh 
and of the upper Oxos that there come to be placed, 
in a space from- 6 to 7 degrees at most from south 
to north, and less perhaps than that in the matter 
of the longitudes, all the names which can be 
identified on the map where Ptolemy has wished 
to represent, in giving them an extension of nearly 
40 degrees from west to east, the region which 
he calls Skythia beyond Imaos and Serika. One 
designation is there immediately recognizable 
among all the others — that of K a s i a. Ptolemy 
indicates the situation of the couutry of Kasia 
towards the bending of Imaos to the east above 
the sources of the Oxos, although he carries 
his Montes Kasii very far away from that towards 
the east ; but we are sufficiently aware before- 
hand that here, more than in any other part of 
the Tables, we have only to attend to the no- 
menclature, and to leave the notations altogether 
out of account. The name of the Ehasa has 
been from time immemorial one of the appella- 
tions the most spread through all the Him&layan 
range. To keep to the western parts of the chain, 
where the indication of Ptolemy places us, we 
thei*e find Eliasa mentioned from the heroic ages 
of India, not only in the Itihdsas or legendary 
stories of the Mahdhhdrata, .hut also in the law 
book of Manu, where their name is read by the side 
of that of the D a r a d a, another people well known, 
which borders in fact on the Khasa of the north. 
The Ehasa figure also in the Buddhist Chronicles 
of Ceylon, among the people subdued by Asoka 
in the upper Pan jab, and we find them mentioned 


I in more than 40 places of the Kasmir Chronicle 
I among the chief mountain tribes that border on 
I Kaimtr. Baber knows also that a people of the 
\ name of Khas is indigenous to the high valleys 
>in the neighbourhood of the Eastern Hindti-Koh ; 
md, with every reason, we attach to this indigen- 
»UB people the oiigin of the name of K&shgar, which 
twice I'eproduced in the geo^^phy of these 
liigh regions. Khasagiri in Sanskrit, or, ac- 
cording to a form more approaching the Zend, 
Khasaghalri, signifies properly the mountains of 
the Khasa. The Akhasa Khora, near the Kasia 
regio, is surely connected with the same 
nationality. The Aspakarai, with a place of 
the same name ( Aspakara ) near the Kasii Montes, 
have no correspondence actually known in these 
high valleys, but the form of the name connects 
it with the Sanskrit or Iranian nomenclature. 
Beside the Aspakarai, the B a t a i are found in the 

Bautta of the Bdjatarangini In the 

10th century of our sera, the Chief of Ghilghit took 
the title of Bh&tsh&h or Shah of the Bh&t. The 
Balti, that we next name, recall a people, men- 
tioned by Ptolemy in this high region, the Byltai. 
The accounts possessed by Ptolemy had made him 
well acquainted with the general situation of the 
Byltai in the neighbourhood of the Imaos, but he 
is either ill informed or has ill applied his 
information as to their exact position, which he 
indicates as being to the west of the great chain 
of Bolor and not to the east of it, where they were 
really to be found. The B a m a n a and the 
Dasamana, two people of the north, which the 
Mahdbhdrata and the Pauranik lists mention 


along with the China, appear to us not to differ 
from the Bhabannae and the Damnai of Ptolemy's 
table." Saint' Martin gives in the sequel a few 
other identifications — that of the Throanoi 
(whose name should be read Phrounoi, or rather 
Phaunoi as in Strabo) with the Phuna of the 
Lalitavistara (p. 122) — of the Kharaunaioi 
with the Kajana, whose language proves them to 
be Daradas, and of the Ithagouroi with the 
Dangors, Dhagars or Dakhars, who must at one time 
have been the predominant tribe of the Daradas. 
The country called Asmiraia he takes, without 
hesitation, to be Kasmir itself. As regards the 
name Ottorokorrha, applied by Ptolemy to a 
town and a people and a range of mountains, it is 
traced without difficulty to the Sanskrit — Uttara- 
kuru, i.e., the Kuru of the north which figures in 
Indian mythology as an earthly paradise sheltered 
on every side by an encircling rampart of lofty 
mountains, and remarkable for the longevity of 
its inhabitants, who lived to be 1000 and 10,000 
years old. Ptolemy was not aware that this 
was but an imaginary region, and so gave it a 
place within the domain of real geography. The 
land of the Hyperboreans is a western repetition 
of the Uttarakuru of Kasmtr. 

Cap. 17. 

Position of Areia. 

[Majp of Asia 9.] 

Areia is bounded on the north by Margiane 
and by a part of Baktriane along its southern 
side, as already exhibited. On the west by 
39 o 


Parthia and by the Karmanian desert along 
their eastern meridians that have been defined, 
on the south by Drangian^ along the line which, 
beginning from the said extremity towards 
Karmania, and enrving towards the north, tnrns 
through Mount Bagoos towards the east on to 

the extreme point which lies ; . 1 1 1° 34° 

the position where the mountain curves 

is 105° 32° 

The boundary on the east is formed by the 
Paropanisadai along the line adjoining the 
extremities already mentioned through the 
western parts of Paropanisos; the position 
may be indicated at three different points, the 

southern 111° 36° 

the northern 111° 3(y 39° 

and the most eastern 119° 30^ 39° 

2 , A notable river flo ws through this country 
called the Areias, of which the sources that 

are in Paropanisos, lie 111° 38° 15' 

and those that are in the Sariphoi..ll8° 33° 20' 
The part along the lake called Areia, which is 
below these mountains, lies in ...108° 40' 36° 

3. The northern parts of Areia are possessed 
by the N i s a i o i and the Astauenoi or 
Astabenoi, but those along the frontier of 
Parthia and the Karmanian desert by the 
Masdoranoior Mazoranoi, and those along 
the frontier of Drangiane by the K a s e i r 6- 
t a i, and those along the Paropanisadai by the 
Parautoi, below whom are the Ob a r e i s 


and intermediately the Drakhamai, below 
whom the Aitymandroi, then the B o r- 
goi, below whom is the country called 

4. The towns and villages in A r fe i a are 
these : — 

Dista 102° 30' 38° 15' 

Nabaris 105° 4C' 38° 20' 

Taua 109° 38° 45^ 

Angara 102° 38° 

Bitaxa 103° 40' 38° 

Sarmagana 105° 20' 38° 10' 

Siphare ......107° 15' 38° 15' 

Rhaugara ....109° 30' 38° 10' 

5. Zamoukhana ! 102° 37° 

Ambrodax 103° 30' 37° 30' 

Bogadia 104° 15' 37° 40' 

Ouarpna (Varpna) 105° 30' 37° 

Godana 110° 30' 37° 30' 

Phoraua 110° 37° 

Khatriskb^ 103° 36° 20' 

Khaurina 104° 36° 20' 

6. Orthiana 105° 15' 36' 20' 

Taukiana 106° 10' 36^ 

Astanda 107° 40' 36^ 

Artikandna 109° 20' 36° 10' 

Alexandreia of the Areians...llO° 36° 

Babarsana or Kabarsana 103° 20' 35° 20 

Kapoutana 104° 30' 35° 30' 




7. Areia, a city 105^ 35^ 

Kaske...., 107° 20' 35^20' 

Soteira ...., 108*^ 40' 35° 30' 

Ortikand 109° 20' 35° 30' 

Nisibis IIP 35° 20' 

Parakanake , 105° 30' 34° 20' 

Sariga 106*40' 34° 40' 

8. Darkama 111° 34° 20' 

Kotake 107° 30' 33° 40' 

Tribazina 106° 33° 

Astasana 105° 33° 

Zimyra rl02° 30' 33° 15' 

Areia was a smal]*pi^nce included in A liana, 
a district of wide extent^ which comprehended 
nearly the whole o£ ancient Persia. The smaller 
district has sometimes been confounded with the 
larger, of which it formed a part« The names of 
both are connected with the well-known . Indian 
word drya, * noble' or ' excellent.' According to 
Sti*abo, Aria was 2,000 stadia in length and only 
300 stadia in breadth. " If," says Wilson {Ariana 
Antiq,, p. 150) ** these measurements be correct, 
we must contract the limits of Alia much more 
than has been usually done; and Aria will be 
restricted to. the tract from about Meshd to the 
neighbourhood of Herat, a position well enough 
reconcilable with much that Strabo relates of 
Aria, its similarity to Margiana in character and 
productions, its mountains and well- watered valleys 
in which the vine flourished, its position as much to 
the north as to the south of the chain of Tam-us 
or Alburz, and its being bounded by Hyrkania, 


Margialid, anj Bttktmifflk an the 1101^11, aOfdDfatl' 
giana on the south." 

Mount Bagoos, on its south-east •hotiet, 
has been identified with the Gh4r moibitain^, 
TheMontesSariphiareibeHazdras. The rirer 
A r e i a B, hy which Aria is traversed^ is the JBari 
R A d or rirer of Herat which, rising at Oba 
in the Paropanisaft luottntaifiS/ and hairing rtttt 
westerly past Herat, is at ilo great distance 
lost in the sands. That it was so lost is stated 
both by Strabo and Arrian< Ptolemy makes 
it terminate kk a taker; afid hence, Bennell 
carried it soitth into the Lake of Seist^, called 
by Ptolemy the Areian lake. It receives the Ferrah* 
BQd, a stream which pasee^ Terteth or Farah, 
a town which has been identified with much pro- 
bability with the Fhra mentioned by Isidoros in 
his Mans. Parth., sec. 16< It receives also the 
Etymander(now theHelmand) which gave its name 
to one of the Areian tribes named by Ptolemy. 

He has enumerated no fewer than 35 towns be- 
longing to this small province, a long list which it 
is not possible to verify, but a number of small 
towns, as Wilson paints out, occur on the road from 
Meshd t<j Herat and thence towards Qaitdah^r or 
IQbul, and some of these may be represented ia 
the Table under forms moi-e or less altered. The 
capital of Areia,accorduig to Strabo and Arrian,wafiF 
Artakoana (v. 11. Artakakna, Artakana) and this i» 
no doubt the Artikaudnaof Ptolemy, which he 
places on the banks of the Areian lake about two- 
thirds of a degree north -west of his Alexandreia of 
the Areians. The identification of this Alexandreia 
is uncertain; most probably it was Herat, or some 


place in its nedghboui^liood. Herat is called by 
oriental writers Hera, a form under which the 
Areia <rf the ancients is readily to be recognized. 
Ptolemy has a city of this name, and Wilson 
(Ariana Antiqna^ p. 152), is of opinion that " Arta- 
koana, Alexandria and Aria are aggregated in 
Herat." With reference to Alexai^dria he quotes 
a memorial verse current among the inhabitants 
of Herat : " It is said that Hari was founded by 
Lohrasp, extended by Gushtasp, improved by 
Bahman and completed by Alexander." The 
name of Soteira indicates that its founder was 
Antiokhos Soter. 

Cap. 18. 

Position of the Paeopanisadai. 
[Map of Asia 9.] 

1. The Paropanisadai are bounded on 
the west by Areia along the aforesaid side, on the 
north by the part of Baktriand as described, on 
the east by a part of India along the meridian 
line prolonged from the sources of the river 
Oxos, through the Kaukasian mountains as far 
as a terminating point which 

lies in 119° 30' 39° 

and on the south by Arakhosia along the line 
connecting the extreme points already deter- 

2. The following rivers enter the country— 
the D a r g a m a n e s, which belongs to Bak- 
triane, the position of the sources of which has 


been already stated ; and the river which falls 

into the K 6 a, of which the 

sources lie 115° 34° 30'. 

3. The northern parts are possessed by the 
B 6 1 i t a i, and the western by the A r i s t o- 
p h y 1 o i, and below them the P a r s i o i, and 
the southern parts by the Parsyetai, and 
the eastern by the Ambautai. 

4. The towns and villages of the P a r o- 
panisadai are these : — 

Parsiana 118° 30' 38° 45' 

Barzaura 114° 37° 30' 

Artoarta 116° 30' 37° 30' 

Baborana 118° 37° 10' 

Katisa 118° 40' 37° 30' 

Niphanda 119° 37° 

Drastoka ... 116° 36° 30' 

Gazaka or Gaudzaka 118° 30' 36° 15' 

5. Naulibis 117° 35° 30' 

Parsia 113° 30' 35° 

Lokhama 118° 34^ 

Daroakana 118° 30' 34° 20' 

Karoura, called also Ortospana.l 18° 35° 

Tarbakana 114° 20' 33° 40/ 

Bagarda 116° 40' 33° 40' 

Argouda 118° 45' 33° 30' 

The tribes for which Paropanisadai was a 
collective name were located along the southern and 
eastern sides of the Hindu -Kush, which Ptolemy 
calls the Kaukasos, and of which his Paropanisos 
formed a part. In the tribe which he calls the 


B^litaiwc may perhaps kave tlie Kabolitae, or 
people of Kabul, and in the Ambaiitai the Am- 
bashtha of Sanskrit. The Parsjetai have also 
a Sanskrit name — * mountaineers/ from parvata, 
* a mountain,' so also the Parautoi of Areia. 
The principal cities of the Paropanisadai were 
Naulibis and Karoura or Ortospana. 
Karoura is also written asKaboura and in this form 
makes a near approach to Kabul, with which it has 
been identified. With regard to the other name of 
this place, Ortospana, Cunningham {Aric. Geog. of 
Ind., p. 35) says ; " I would identify it with Kabul 
itself, with its Bala Hisar, or * high fort,' which 
I take to be a Persian translation of Ortospana or 
Urddhasthfilna, that is, high place or lofty city." 
Ptolemy mentions two rivers that crossed the 
country of the Paropanisadai — the Dargamanes 
from Baktriana that flowed northward to join the 
Ozos, which Wilson {Ariana Antiqua, p. 160) takes 
to be either the Dehas or the Goii river. 11 it 
was the Dehas, then the other river which 
Ptolemydoes not name, but which he makes to be 
a tributary of the K 6 a, may be the Sarkh&b or 
Gori river, which, however, does not join the Koa 
but flows northward to join the Oxos. Panini 
mentions Parsusthina, the country of the Parsus, 
a warlike tribe in this reign, which may corres- 
pond to Ptolemy's Parsioi or Parsyetai.*'' The 
following places have been identified : — 

Parsiana with Panjshir ; Barzaura with 
Baz&rak; Baborana with Parw&n; Dras- 
t o k a with Istargarh ; P a r s i a (capital of the 

*• See BeaPa Bud. Rec. of Wn. Count, vol. II, p. 285n. 



Parsii) with Farzali, and Lokharna with Logajh 
south of Kdbul. 

Cap. 19. 

Position of.Drangianb. 

[Map of Asia 9.] 

Drangiane is bounded, on the west 
and north by Areia along the line already 
described as passing through Mount Bagoos, and 
on the east by Arakhosia along the meridian 
line drawn from an extreme point lying in the 
country of the Areioi and that of the Paropa- 
nisadai to another extreme point, of which the 

position is in 111° 30' 28' 

and on the south by a part of Gedrosia along 
the line joining the extreme points already 
determined, passing through the Baitian 

2. There flows through the country a river 
which branches off from the A r a b i s of which 
the sources lie 109° 32^30' 

3. The parts towards Areia are possessed by 
the D a r a n d a i, and those towards Arakhosia 
by the Baktrioi, the country intermediate 
is called Tataken6. 

4. The towns and villages of Drangiand 
are said to be these : — 

Prophthasia 110° 32° 20' 

Rhouda 106° 30' 31° 30' 

40 a 


Inna 109° 31° 30' 

Arikada 110° 20' 31° 20' 

6. Asta 117°, 30' 30° 40' 

Xarxiar^ 106° 20' 29° 15' 

Nostana ,..,.108° 29° 40' 

Pharazana 110° 30° 

Bigis 111° 29°40' 

Ariaspe 108° 40' 28° 40' 

Arana 111° 28° 15' 

Drangiane corresponds in general position 
and extent with the province now called Seistan. 
The inhabitants were called Drangai, Zarangae, 
Zarangoi, Zarangaioi and Sarangai. The name, 
according to Bumouf, was derired from the 
Zend word, zara/yo, * a lake,' a word which is 
retained in the name by which Ptolemy's Areian 
lake is now known — Lake Zarah. The district was 
mountainous towards Arakhosia, which formed 
its eastern frontier, but in the west, towards 
Karmania, it consisted chiefly of sandy wastes. 
On the south it was separated from Gedrosia by the 
Haitian mountains, iixoae now called the Washati. 
Ptolemy says it was watered by a river derived 
from the Arabis, but this is a gross error, for the 
Arabis, which is now called the Purali, flows from 
the Haitian mountains in an opposite direction from 
Drangiana. Ptolemy has probably confounded the 
Arabis with the Etymander or Helmand rivei* which, 
as has already been noticed, falls into Lake Zarah. 

Ptolemy has portioned out the province among 
three tribes, the Darandai (Drangai?) on the 
north, the Haktrioi to the south-east, and the 
people of Tataken^ between them. 


The capital was PropLtHaBia whicli was 
distant, according to Eratosthenes, 1500 or 1600 
stadia from Alexandria Areion (Herat). Wilson 
therefore fixes its site at a place called Feshawa- 
run, which is distant from Herat 183 miles, and 
where theixj were relics found of a very large city. 
This place lies between Dtcshak and Phra, i.e, 
Farah, a little to the north of the lake. These 
ruins are not, however, of ancient date, and it i* 
better therefore to identify Prophthasia with 
Farah which represents Phra or Phrada, and 
Phrada, according to Stephanos of Byzantium, was 
the name of the city which was called by 
Alexander Prophthasia (Bunbury, vol. I, pr 488). 
Dashak, the actual capital of Seist&n, is probably 
the Zarang of the early Muhammadan writers 
which was evidently by its name connected with 
Drangiana. In the Persian cuneiform inscription 
at Behistun the country is called Zasaka, as 
Rawlinson has pointed out (see Smith's DiC' 
tionary, s. v. IJrangiana). . The place of next 
importance to the capital was A r i a s p e, which 
An'ian places on the Etymander (^wa&., lib.IVr 
c. vii). The people were called Ariaspai at first, 
or Agriaspai, but afterwards Euergetai, — a title 
which they had earned by assisting Cyrus at a 
time when he had been reduced to great straits. 

Cap. 20. 

Position op Arakh6sia. 

Arakhdsia is bounded on the west by 

Drangian^, on the north by the Paropanisadai, 

along the sides already determined, on the east 

by the part of India lying along the meridian 


line extended from the boundary towards the 
Paropanisadai as far as an extreme point 

lying 119^ 28° 

and on the south by the rest of Gedrosia 
along the line joining the extreme points 
already determined through the Baitian range. 

2. A river enters this country which branch- 
es off from the Indus of which the sources 

lie in 114° 32° 30' 

and the divarication (eVrpoTr^) 

in 121° 30' 27° 30' 

and the part at the lake formed by it which 

is called Arakhotos KrdaS (fountain) — 

lies in 115° 28° 40' 

3. The people possessing the north parts of 
the country are the Parsy^tai, and those 
below them the S y d r o i, after whom are the 
Bhoploutai and the E 6 r 1 1 a i. 

4 The towns and villages ofArakh6sia 
are said to be these : — 

07.ola (or Axola) 114° 15' 32° 15' 

Phoklis 118° 15' 32° 10' 

Arikaka 113° 31° 20' 

Alexandreia 114° 31° 20' 

Rhizana 115° 31° 30' 

Arbaka 118° 31° 20' 

Sigara 113° 15' 30° 

Khoaspa 115° 15' 30° 10' 

5. Arakhdtos 118° 30° 20-^ 

Asiake 112° 20' 29° 20' 

GammaW 116° 20' 29° 20' 


Malian^ 118^ 29*20' 

Dammana 113° 28° 20' 

Arakhosia comprised a considerable portion 
of Eastern Afghanistan. It extended westward 
beyond tbe meridian of Qandahdr and its eastern 
frontier was skii-ted by the Indus. On the north 
it stretched to the mountains of Ghfir, the 
western section of the Hindu -Knsh, and on 
the south to Gedrosia from which it was sepa- 
rated by the Baitian mountains, a branch of the 
Brahui range. The name has been derived from 
Haraqiati, the Persian form of the Sanskrit 
Saras vati, a name frequently given to rivers (being 
a compound of ear as, * flowing water,' and the 
affix vati) and applied among others to the river 
of Arakhosia. The province was rich and popu- 
lous, and what added greatly to its importance, 
it was traversed by one of the main routes by 
which Persia communicated with India. The 
principal river was that now called the Helmand 
which, rising near the Koh-i-b^b^ range west of 
K&bul, pursues a course with a general direction to 
the south-west, and which, after receiving from 
the neighbourhood of Qandahdr the Argand-S,b 
with its affluents, the Tamak and the Arghasan, 
flows into the lake of Zarah. Ptolemy mentions 
only one river of Arakhosia and this, in his map, is 
' represented as rising in the Paryetai mountains 
(the Hazaras) and flowing into a lake from which 
it issues to fall into the Indus about 3J degrees 
below its junction with the combined rivers of the 
Panjab. This lake, which, he says, is called Ara- 
khotos Krene, he places at a distance of not less 
than 7 degrees from his Areian lake. In the text 


he says tHat the river is an arm of the Indus, a 
statement for which it is difficult to find a reason. 
The capital of Arakhosia was Arakhotos, 
said by Stephanos of Byzantium to have been 
founded by Semiramis. Regarding its identifi- 
cation Mr. Vaux (Smith's Dictionary, s. v.) says : 
*' Some difference of opinion has existed as to the 
exact position of this town, and what modeini city 
or ruins can be identified with the ancient capital ? 
M. Court has identified some ruins on the Arghasan 
river, 4 parasangs from Qandah^r, on the road to 
Shikarpur, with those of Arakhofcos, but these Prof. 
Wilson considers to be too much to the S.E. 
Rawlinson (Jour, Geog, fifoc, vol. XII, p. 113) 
thinks that he has found them at a place now 
called Ulin Bobat. He states that the most 
ancient name of the city, Kophen, mentioned by 
Stephanos and Pliny, has given rise to the territo- 
rial designation of Kipin, applied by the Chinese 
to the surrounding country. The ruins are of a 
very remarkable character, and the measurements 
of Strabo, Pliny, and Ptolemy are, he considers, 
decisive as to the identity of the site. Stephanos 
has apparently contrasted two cities — Arakhosia, 
which he says is not far from the Massagetae, and 
Arakh6tas, which he calls a town of India. Sir 
H. BawKnson believes the contiguity of the 
Massagetae and Arakhosia, may be explained by 
the supposition that by Massagetae, Stephanos 
meant the Sakai, who colonized the Haz&ra 
mountains on their way from the Hindu-Kush to 
Sakastan or Seist4n." Another account of the 
origin of the name Seist&n is that it is a corrup- 
tion of the word Saghistan, i. e., the country of 


the saghis, a kind of wood which abounds in the 
province and is used as fuel. Arakhosia, according 
to Isidoros of Kharax, was called by the Farthians 
" White India." 

Cap. 21. 

Position of Gedrosia. 

Gedr6sia is bounded on the west by 
Karmania along the meridian line, already de- 
termined as far as the sea, and on the north by 
Di^ngiane and Arakhosia along the separate 
meridian lines passing through these countries, 
and on the east by part of India along the river 
Indus following the line prolonged from the 
boundary towards Arakhosia to its termination 

at the sea in 109° 20° 

and on the south by a part of the Indian Ocean. 
It is thus described through its circuit. 

% After the extremity towards Karmania 
the mouth of the River Arabis 105° 20° 15' 

the sources of the river 110° 2 7° 30' 

the divarication of the river 

entering Drangian^ 107° 30' 25° 

Rhagiraua, a city 100° 20° 

Women's Haven (Gynaikon 

lim^n) 107° 20° 15' 

Koiamba 108° 20° 

Rhizana.... 108° 20' 20° 15' 

After which the extreme point 
at the sea already men- 
tioned 109° 20° 


3. Through Gedrosia run the mountains 
called the Arbita, whose extreme points 

lie in 160^ (107 ?) 22° 

and 113° 26° 30' 

from these mountains some rivers join the 
Indus and the source of one of these 

lies 111° 25° 30' 

and also there are some streams flowing through 
Gedrosia, that descend from the Baitian range. 

4. The maritime parts are possessed by the 
villages of the A r b i t a i, and the parts along 
Karamania by the Parsidai (or Parsirai), 
and the parts along Arakhosia by the M a u s a r- 
n a i o i, all the interior of the country is called 
Paraden^, and below it Parisiene, after 
which the i>arts towards the Indus river are 
possessed by the R h a m n a i. 

5. The towns and villages of Gedrosia 
are accounted to be these : — 

Kouni 110° 27° 

Badara 113° 27° 

Mousarna 115° 27° 30' 

Kottobara 118° 27° 30' 

Soxestra or Sokstra 118° 30' 25° 45' 

Oskana 115° 26° 

Parsis, the Metropolis 106° 30' 23° 30' 

Omiza 110° 23° 30' 

Arbis, acity 105° 22° 30' 

6. The islands adjacent to Gedrosia are — 

Asthaia 105° 18° 

Kodan^ (107?) 160° 30' 17^ 



Gedrosia corresponds to the modem Baludi- 
ist&n. Its coast line extended from the mouth of 
the Indus to Cape Jask near the Straits, which 
open into the Persian Gulf. Ptolemy however 
assigned the greater portion of this coast to 
Xarmania which according to his view must 
liave begun somewhere near Cape Passence. 
Arrian restricted the name of Gedrosia to the 
interior of the country, and assigned the maritime 
districts beginning from the Indus to the Arabics, 
*he Oreitai and the Ikhthyophagoi in succession. 
The ancient and the modem names of the pr6 vince. 
Major Mockler tries to identify in his paper in the 
Jour. B. As. Soc, N. S., vol. XI. pp. 129-154. 

The people that possessed the maritime region 
immediately adjoining the Indus were called the 
A r b i ta i or A r a b i e s. In one of their harbours 
the fleet of Nearkhos at the outset of his memor- 
able voyage was detained for 24 days waiting till 
the monsoon should subside. This harbour was 
found to be both safe and commodious, and was 
•called by Nearkhos the Port of Alexander, It is 
now Karachi, the great emporium for the commerce 
of the Indus. The name of the people was applied 
also to a chain of mountains and to a river, the 
Arabis, now called the Purali, which falls into 
the Bay of Sonmiyani. Ptolemy's Arabis, how- 
ever, lay nearer Karmania, and may be taken 
to be the Bhasul, which demarcated the western 
frontier of the Oreitai, and to the east of which 
the district is stiU known by the name of Arbu^ 
Ptolemy does not mention the Oreitai, but seems 
to have included their territory in that of the 
41 a 


The B h a m n a i are pla<^ed in Ptolemy's map in 
the northern part of the province and towards the 
river Indus. This race appears to have been one 
that was widely diffused, and one of its branches, 
as has been stated, was loeated among the 

The Farsidai, who bordered on Karmania, 
are mentioned in the Peripl'&s (c. xxxvii) and also 
in Arrian's Indika. (c. xxvi) where they are called 
Pasirees. They gave their names to a range of 
mountains which Ptolemy makes the boundary 
between G^droeia and Karmania, and also to a 
town, Parsisr which formed the capital of the 
whole province. 

Of the other towns enumerated only one is men- 
tioned in Arrian's Indika, Gynaikon LimSn^ 
or women's haven, the port of Morontobara, near 
Cape Monze, the last point of the Pab range of 
mountains* The haven was so named because 
the district aronnd had, like Carthage, a woman 
for its first sovereign* 

The names of the two towns Badara and 
Mousarna occur twice in Ptolemy, here as 
inland towns of Gedrosia, and elsewhere as seaport 
towns of Karmania. Major Mockler, who personally 
examined the Makran coast from Gwadar to Cape 
Jask, and has thereby been enabled to correct some 
of the current identifications, has shown that 
Gwadar and Badara are identical. Badara appears 
in the Indika of Arrian as Bama. 

I here subjoin, for comparison, a passage from 
Ammianus Marcellinus which traverses the ground 
covered by Ptolemy's description of Central and 
Eaatern Asia. Ammianus wrote about the middle 


of the fourth century of our aara, and was a well in- 
formed writer, and careful in his statement of fact^< 
The extract is from the 23rd Book of his History : — 

Ammianus Marcelmnus — Book XXIII. 

•* If you advance from Karmania into the interior 
(of Asia) you reach the Hyrkanians, who border 
on the sea which bears their name. Here, as the 
poorness o£ the soil kills the seeds committed to 
it, the inhabitants care but little for agriculture. 
They live by hunting game,, which is beyond 
measure varied and abundant. Tigers show them- 
selves here in thousands, and many other wild 
beasts besides. I bear in mind that I have already 
described the nature of the contrivances by which 
these animals are caught. It must not be sup- 
posed, however, that the people never put hands 
to the plough, for where the soil is found richer 
than usual the fields are covered with crops. In 
places, moreover, that are adapted for being plant- 
ed-out, gardens of- fruit-trees are not wanting, 
and the sea also supplies many with the means of 
livelihood. Two rivers flow through the country 
whose names are familiar to all, the O x u s and 
M a X e r a. Tigers at times, when pressed by hun- 
ger on their own side of these rivers, swim over to 
the opposite side and, before the alarm can be raised, 
ravage all the neighbourhood where they land. 
Amidst the smaller townships there exist also cities 
of great power, two on the sea-board, S o c u n d a 
and Saramanna, and the others inland — 
Azmorna and Solen, andHyrkana, which 
rank above the others. The country next to this 
people on the north is said to be inhabited by the 


Abii, a most pions race of men, accnstotned t» 
despise all things mortal, and whom Jupiter (a» 
Homer with his over- fondness for fabl& singi) looks- 
down upon from the summits of Mount Ida. The 
seats immediately beyond the Hyrkanians form the 
dominions of the Margiani, who are nearly on 
all sides round hemmed in by high hills, and conse- 
quently shut out from the sea. Thc»>gh their 
territory is for the most part sterile,, from; the 
deficiency of water,, they have nevertheless some 
towns, and of these the more notable are Jasonion 
and Antiochia and Nisasa. The adpining region 
belongs to the Baktriani, a nation hitherto 
addicted to war and very powerful, and always 
troublesome to their neighbours, the PerBians,^ 
before that people had reduced all the sorrounding 
states to submission, and absorbed them into their 
own name and nationality. In old times, however, 
even Ar^akes himself found the kings who ruled 
in Baktriana formidable foes to contend with. 
Most parts of the country are» like Margiana, far 
distant from the sea, but the soil is productive, 
and the cattle that are pastured on the plains and 
hill-sides, are compact of structure, with limbs 
both stout and strong, as may be judged from 
the camels which were brought from thence by 
Mithridates and seen by the Romans during the 
siege of Cyzicus, when they saw this species of 
animal for the first time. A great many tribes, 
among which the Tochari are the most dis^ 
tinguished, obey the Baktrians^ Their country ia 
watered, like Italy, by numerous rivers, and of 
these the Artemis and Zariaspes after their 
union, and In like manner th combined Q c h u a 


and Orchomanes, swell wibh their confluent 
waters the vast stream of the Oxos. Here also 
cities arc to he found, and these are laved hy dif-* 
ferent rivers. The more important of them are 
Ohatra and Charte and Alicodra and Astacia and 
Menapila, and B a k t r a itself, which is hoth the 
capital and the name of the nation. The people, who 
live at the very foot of the mountains, are called 
the Sogdii, through whose country flow two 
rivers of great navigable capacity, the Araxates 
and Dymas, which rushing impetuously down 
from the mountains and passing into a level plain > 
form a lake of vast extent, called the O xi a n. Here, 
among other towns, Alexandria, and Kyreschata, 
and Drepsa the Metropolis, are well known to fame. 
Contiguous to the Sogdians are the S a c a e, an un^ 
civilized people, inhabiting rugged tracts that yield 
nothing beyond pasture for cattle, and that are, 
therefore, unadorned with cities. They lie under 
Mounts A s k a n i m ia and K o m e d u s. Beyond 
the valleys at the foot of these mountains and the 
village which they call Lithinon Pyrgon 
(Stone Tower) lies the very long road by which 
traders pursue their jonrney who start from this 
point to reach the Seres. In the parts around 
are the declivities by which the mountains called 
Imaus and the Tapourian range, sink down to the 
level of the plains. The Skythians are located 
within the Persian territories, being conterminous 
with the Asiatic Sarmatians, and touching 
the furthest frontier of the A I a n i. They live, as 
it were, a sort of secluded life, and are reared in 
solitude, being scattered over districts that lie far 
apart» and that yield for the sustenance of life a 


mean and scanty fare. The tribes which inhabit 
these tracts are various, bat it would be superfluous 
for me to enumerate them, hastening as I am to 
a different subject. One fact must, however, be 
stated, that there are in these communities which 
are almost shut oat from the rest of mankind by 
the inhospitable nature of their country, some men 
gentle and pious, as for instance, the Jaxartes 
and the Galaktophagi, mentioned by the poet 
Homer in this verse : 

T\aKTo<lmy<jiv afil(aPT€ diKaiOTdratv avBpaytnav. 

" Among the many rivers of Skythia which either 
fall naturally into larger ones, or glide onward to 
reach at last the sea, the Roemnusisof renown, 
and the Jaxartes and the T a 1 i c u s, but of cities 
they are not known to have more than but three, 
Aspabota and Chauriana and Saga. 

'^ Beyond these places in the two Skythias and 
on their eastern side lie the Seres, who are girt 
in by a continuous circle of lofty mountain-peaks, 
and whose territory is noted for its vast extent 
and fertility. On the west they have the Sky- 
thians for their next neighbours, and on the 
north and east they adjoin solitudes covered 
Over with snow, and on the south extend as far 
as India and the Ganges. The mountains refer- 
red to are called Anuiva and Nazavicium and 
Asmira and Emodon and Opurocara. Through 
this plain which, as we have said, is cinctured 
on all sides by steep declivities, and through 
regions of vast extent, flow two famous rivers, the 
CEchardes and the Bautisus, with a slower 
current. The country is diversified in its character, 
here expanding into open plains, and there rising 


in gentle undulations. Hence it is marvelloasly 
fruitful and well- wooded, and teeming with cattle. 
Various tribes inhabit the most fertile districts, and 
of these the Alitrophagi and A n n i b i and 
S i z y g e s and C h a r d i are exposed to blasts from 
the north and to frosts, while the Rabannaeand 
A s m i r a e and Essedones, who outshine all the 
other tribes, look towards the rising sun. Next to 
these, on their western side, are the Athagorae 
and the Aspacarae. The B e t a e, again, are 
situated towards the lofty mountains fringing the 
south, and are famed for their cities which, though 
few in number are distinguished for their size and 
wealth ; the largest of them being A s m i r a, and 
Essedon and Asparata and Sera, which are 
beautiful cities and of great celebrity. The Seres 
themselves lead tranquil lives, and are averse to 
arms and war, and since people whose temper is 
thus sedate and peaceful relish their ease, they 
give no trouble to any of their neighbours. They 
enjoy a climate at once agreeable and salubrious ; 
the sky is clear and the prevailing winds are 
wonderfully mild and genial. The country is 
well-shaded with woods, and from the trees the 
inhabitants gather a product which they make 
into what may be called fleeces by repeatedly 
besprinkling it with water. The material thus 
formed by saturating the soft down with moisture 
is exquisitely fine, and when combed out and spun 
into woof is woven into silk, an article of dress 
formerly worn only by the great, but now 
without any distinction even by the very poorest.** 

*^ It was a notion long prevalent that silk was combed 
from the leaves of trees. Thus Virgil {Qeorg. II, 121) 



The Seres themselves Kve in the most frugal 
maimer, more so indeed than any other people in 
the world. They seek after a life as free aa 
possible from all disquiet, and shun intercourse 
with the rest of mankind. So when strangers 
cross the river into their country to buy their 
silks or other commodities, they exchange no 
words with them, but merely intimate by their looks 
the value of the goods offered for sale; and so 
abstemious are they that they buy not any foreign 
products. Beyond the Seres live the A r i a n i, ex- 
posed to the blasts of the north wind. Through 
their country flows a navigable river called the 
Arias, which forms a vast lake bearing the same 
name. This same Aria has numerous towns, 
among which Bitana Sarmatina, and Sotera and 
Nisibis and Alexandria are the most notable. If 
you sail from Alexandria down the river to the 
Caspian Sea the distance is 1,500 stadia. 

Immediately adjoining these places are the P a- 
ropanisatae, who look on the east towards the 
Indians and on the west towards Caucasus, lying 
themselves towards the slopes of the mountains. 
The River Ortogordomaris, which is larger than 
any of the others, and rises among the Baktriani, 
flows through their territory. They too, have some 
towns, of which the more celebrated are Agazaca 
and Naulibus and Ortopana, from which the navi- 

*' Velleraque ut foliia depectant tenuia Sere?.'* 'Strabo 
(XV, i, 20) describes silk as carded off the bark of certain 
trees. Pausanias, who wrote about 180 A.D. is the first 
classical author who writes with some degree of correct- 
ness about silk and the silk-worm, Conf , P. Mela, i, 2, 
3 ; iii, 7, 1 ; Pliny, VI, 17, 20 ; Prop, i, 14, 22 ; SoL 50 ; 
Isid. Orig. xix, 17, 6 ; ib. 27. 5. 


gation along the coast to the borders of Media in 
the immediate neighbourhood of the Caspian 
Oates extends to 2,200 stadia. Contiguous to the 
Paropanisatae just named are the Drangiani, 
seated quite close to the hills and watered by a 
river called the Arabian, because it rises in 
Arabia. Among their other to^ms they have two 
to boast of in particular, Prophthasia and Ariaspe, 
which are both opulent and famous. After these, 
and directly confronting them, Arachosia 
comes into view, which on its right side faces the 
Indians. It is watered by a stream of copious 
volume derived from the Indus, that greatest of 
rivers, after which the adjacent regions have been 
named. This stream, which is less than the 
Indus, forms the lake called Arachotoscrene. 
The province, among other important cities, has 
Alexandria and Arbaca and Choaspa. In the very 
interior of Persia is Gedrosia, which on the 
right touches the Indian frontier. It is watered 
by several streams, of which the Artabius is the 
most considerable. Where it is inhabited by the 
Barbitani the mountains sink down to the 
plains. A number of rivers issue from their very 
base to join the Indus, and these all lose their 
names when absorbed into that mightier stream. 
Here too, besides the islands there are cities, of 
which Sedratyra and Gunaikon Limen (Women's 
haven) are considered to be superior to the others. 
But we must bring this description here to an 
end, lest in entering into a minute account of tho 
seaboard on the extremities of Persia we should 
stray too far from the proper argument," 

42 a 


1. On the latitude of Byzantium and of 
Tasli-Kurgli4n— (p. 14). 

Ptolemy, like Hipparkhos and all the ancients 
except Strabo, erroneously took the latitude of 
Byzantium (41° 1') to be the same as that of 
Marseilles (43° 180- The latitude of T&sh- 
kurghan in the Pamtr is 37° 46' and its longi- 
tude 75° 10' B.; the latitude of Tashkend is 
42° 58', and that of Och or Ush (near which 
there is a monument called at this day the Takht- 
i-Suleiman, * Throne of Soliman,' which Heeren 
took to be the veritable stone tower of Ptolemy) 
is 40° ly. 

2. On Kouroula — (pp. 22, 63, and 64). 
Lieut.-Oolonel Branfill (Names of Places in 

Tanjore, p. 8), thinks this may be represented 
by Kurla or Koralai-gorla on the East Coast . 
" There is," he points out, " (rorZap&lem near 
Nizfimpattanam. (Qf, Vingorla, South Concan, 
Malabar Coast)." 

3. Argaric Gulf and Argeiron (pp. 22, 59, and 

Branfill in the work cited (pp. 8 and 9) says :— • 
** Arrankarai (pronounced nowadays Atrankarai), 
at the mouth of the Vagai looks very like the 
ancient 'Argari/ and * Sinus Argalicus ' (Tule), 
the Argaric Gulf . . Ayx<tpov looks like Anaikarai, 
the ancient name of Adam's Bridge, so called by 
the Tamils as being the bridge or causeway par 

excellence In the middle ages, before 

PSmban was separated from the mainland by the 


storm that breached the famous causeway, there 
is said to have be^i a great city, remams of 
which are still to be seen on the spit of sand 
opposite to P&mban. " Ay xeipov in Nobbe's editiost 
appears aa Apyetpov. 

4. On Thelkheir— '(pp. 63 and 64). 

BranfiU (p. 12), would identify this with ChicU 
ambaram— " the town between the VeUar and Kol* 

• • • 

ladam {Coleroon) rivers, .... from chit = wis- 
dom, and ambara, horizon, sky; = Heaven of 
Wisdom. Tillai, or Tillaivanam is the former 
name of this place, and it is familiarly known a» 
Tillai even now amongst the natives. May not 
this be the ancient Thellyr and ©^Xxeip of Pto>- 
lemy and the ancient geographers P But perhaps 
Telltir (near Vandavasi) may be it." Tillai, he 
points out (p. 30), is a tree with milky sap. 

5. On Orthoura — (pp. 64 and 184). 

Bran fill (pp. 7 and 8), identifying this, says :— 
** Orattiftr (pronounced OratthAru)is found repeat- 
edly in this (Kaveri Delta) and the adjacent 
districts, and may represent the * Orthura ' of 
J ancient geographers, for which Colonel Yule's Map 
^^j O/^'i^^^.' > ^^ Ancient India gives Ureiyour, and Professor 
: ,^ 1 ■ . ' Lassen's Wadiur." 
^ *-'- '' ' ' \. 6. On Arkatos— (p. 64), 

^ '• . ' / BranfiU, who takes this to designate a place 

and not a king, says (p. 11) : — " Arkad or Aru- 
kadu = six forests ; the abode of six Rishis in old 
times. There are several places of this name in 
Tanjore and S. Arcot, besides the town of * Arcot' 
neai* * Vellore' (ApKarov jSao-iXctop Scopa). One of 
these would correspond better than that with 
Harkatu of Ibn Batuta^ who reached it the first 


evening of his march inland after landing from 
Ceylon, apparently on the shalloTV coast of Madura 
or Tanjore (fourteenth century)." 

7. On the River Adamas — (p. 71). 

Professor Y. Ball, in his Presidential Address 
to the Royal Geological Society of Ireland (read 
March 19, 1883), says :— " The Adamas River of 
Ptolemy, according to Lassen's analysis of the 
data, was not identical with the Mahanadi, as I 
have suggested in my * Economic (xeology ' (p. 30), 
but with the Subanrikha, which is, however, so 
far as we know, not a diamond-bearing river, 
nor does it at any part of its course traverse rocks 
of the age of those which contain the matrix in 
other parts of India. This Adamas River was 
separated from the Mahanadi by the Tyndis and 
Dosaron ; the latter, according to Lassen, taking 
its rise in the country of Kokkonaga (i.e. Chutia 
Nagpur), and to which the chief town Dosara 
(the modem Doesa) gave its name. But, according 
to this view, the Dosaron must have been identical 
with the modem Brahmini, which in that poiHiion 
of its course called the Sunk (or Koel), included a 
diamond locality. I cannot regard this identifica- 
tion as satisfactory, as it does not account for 
the Tyndis intervening between the Dosaron and 
Mahanadi, since, as a matter of fact, the Brahmini 
and Mahanadi are confluent at their mouths. 
Lasften, however, identifies the Dosaron with the 
Baituraee, and the Tyndis with the Brahmini. 
This destroys the force of his remark, as to the 
origin of the name of the former, since at its 
nearest point it is many miles distant from 



8. On Mount Sardonyx — (p. 77). 
Professor Ball in the address above cited, says :— 
The sardonyx mines of Ptolemy are probably 

identical with the famous camelian and agate 
mines of Bajpipla, or, rather, afi it should be 
called, Batanpur." 

9. On Talara— <p. 90). 

Branfill suggests the identification of this with 
TeMr or Till&rampattu (p. 8). 

10. On Pounnata— (p. 180). 

" PunMu, Punnadu, or Punn&ta, as it is variously 
written, seems also to be indicated by the Pan- 
nuta in Lassen's Map of Ancient India according 
to Ptolemy, and by the Paunata of Colonel Yule's 
Map of Ancient India, nhi beryllus" This place is 
about 70 miles to the south-east of Seringapa- 

11. On Arembour— (pp. 180, 182). 

BranfiU — (p. 8), identifies this with Arambailkr. 

12. On Abour— (p. 184). 

Branfill (p. 11), identifies this with " AvAr, 
cow-villa, a decayed town, Smiles S.W. of Kamba- 
konam, with a temple and a long legend about a 
cow (a). May not this be the ancient Abur of 
the Map of Ancient India in Smith's Classical 
Atlas ? Colonel Yule suggests Amboor, but this 
Avtir seems nearer, and if not this there are several 
places in S. Arcot named Amtir." 

13. On Argyre— (p. 196). 

Professor Ball says: — "There are no silver 
mines in Arakan, and considering the geological 
structure* of the country, it is almost certain 
there never were any. I have been recently in- 
formed by General Sir A. Phayre that Argyre is 


probably a transliteration of an ancient Burmese 
name for Arakan. It seems likely therefore tbat 
it was from putting a Greek interpretation to this 
name that the story of the silver-mines owed its 

14. On the Golden Khersonese — (p. 197). 
"Gold," says Mr. Colqnhoun {Amongst the 

ShanSf p. 2), " has been for centuries washed from 
the beds of the Irrawadi, Sitang, Salween, Mekong, 
and Yang-tsi-kiang rivers." The gold-reefs of 
Southern India which have of late attracted so 
much notice, are, he .points out, but outcrops of 
the formation which extends on the surface 
for thousands of square miles in the Golden 
Peninsula. ^ 

15. On the Loadstone rocks ^. 242). 
Professor Ball thinks these rocks may possibly 

be identified with certain hiU-ranges in Southern 
India which mainly consist of magnetic iron 
{JSconomic Geology of India, p. 37). 

16. On the sandy deserts of Baktria (p. 270). 
In the Proceedings of the Royal Geographical 

Society for April last will be found a description 
of the Kara-kum sands, by M. Paul Lessar, who 
divides them into three classes. The burhans which 
form his 3rd class are of the nature described by 
Curtius. "The dand is wholly of a diifting 
nature; the slightest puff of wind effaces the 
fresh track of a caravan." He notices a place in 
the Khanate of Bokhara where whole caravans 
have been buried. 

17. On the river 6chos (p. 273). 

** What hitherto has been taken for the dry bed 
of the Ochus is not the bed of a river, but merely 


a natural furrow between sand-hills . Thus the bed 
<rf the Ochus has still to be discorered." Proceed- 
ings of the Royal Geog. Socy. for April 1885. 

18. On the Avestic names of rivers, &c. in 
Afghanistan — (pp. 305-19). 

In the Ist chapter of the Vendidad the names 
are given of the sixteen lands said to have been 
created by Ahura Mazda. Of these the following 
nine have been thus identified by Darmesteter in 
his translation of the Zend-Avesta, Sacred Books 
of the East, Yol. IV. p. 2) :— 
Zend name. Old P^sian. Qxeek. Modem. 

Sughdha Suguda Sogdiane (Samarkand) 
Mouru Margu Margiane Merv 

B&khdhi Bakhtri Baktra Balkh 

Haroyu Haraiva Areia Hari-Rdd 

Vehrkana Yarkana Hyrkania Jorjan 
Harahvaiti Harauvati Arakhotos Hardt 
HaetumaTit Etymandros Helmend 

Ragha Raga Rhagai Rai 

Haptahitidu Hindavas Indoi (Pafijab) 

Some of these and other names are examined in 
an article in The Academy (May 16, 1885, No. 
680), signed by Auriel Stein, from which the 
following particulars are gathered : " We recog- 
nize the 'powerful, faithful Mourva' as the 
modem Merv, the * beautiful Bdkhdhi ' as Balkh, 
Hara^a as Her&t, the mountain Vditigaesa as the 
Badhges of recent notoriety. The river Harah- 
vaiti (Sansk. Sarasvatl) has been known in sue- 
cessive ages as Arakhotos and Arghand-&b ; but 
more important for Avestic geography is the 
large stream of which it is a tributary, the 
•bountiful, glorious HaUumant; the Etyman- 


dros and Hermandns of classic authors, the 
modem HelmancL' " A passage is quoted from the 
Avesta where eight additional rivers seem to be 
named. " At its foot (the mountain Ushidao's, i.e. 
the Koh-i-Baba and Siah-ICoh's) gushes and flows 
forth the Hvdstra and the Hvaspa, the Fradatha 
and the beautiful JSvarevanhaiti and Ustavaiti the 
mighty, and TJrisadha^ rich of pastures, and the 
Erexi and ZarenwniaitV* The HvaHra Stein 
thinks may be the KhSish-Rtld, and the Hvaspa 
the Khusp&s-Riid, both of which come from 
the south slope of the SiSih-Xoh and reach the 
eastern basin of the lagune where the lower 
course of the Helmand is lost. " In B^usp&s,*' 
he adds, **a place on the upper course of the 
Khusp&s-RM, we may recognize the town Khoaspa 
mentioned by Ptolemy in Arakhosia. The name 
hvaSpa means ** haying good horses," and seems 
to have been a favourite designation for rivers in 
Iran. Besides the famous Khoaspes near Susa, 
we hear of another Khoaspes, a tributary of the 
Kab(il River." In K&sh, a town on the Khash- 
fiftd may be recognized the station called Oosata 
by the Anonymous Ravennas. The Fradatha is 
Pliny's Ophradus {i.e, 6 ^pddos of the Greek 
original) and now the Far&h-E(id. The Proph- 
thasia of Ptolemy and Stephanos of Byzantium 
is a literal rendeMg of fradathay which in com- 
mon use as neuter means (literally " proficiency"), 
"progress," "increase." The Havrenanihaiti is 
the Pharnacutis of Pliny and now the HarrAt- 
RM, which like the Farah-Riid enters the lake 
of Seist&n. Farnahvati has been suggested aa 
the original and native form of Phamacotis. 
43 a 


19. On the Griffins or Gryphons — (p. 295). 

Professor Ball in a paper published in the 
Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 2nd Ser., 
Vol. II. No. 6, pp. 312-13 (Pol. Lit. and Antiq.) 
says : *• In the account which Photios gives of 
the Griffins, if we exclude from it the word birds, 
and for feathers read hair, we have a tolei*ably 
accurate description of the hairy black-and-tan 
coloured Thibetan mastiffs, which are now, as they 
were doubtless formerly, the custodians of the 
dwellings of the Thibetans, those of gold-miners, 
as well as of others. They attracted the special 
attention of Marco Polo» as well as of many other 
travellers in Thibet, and for a recent account of 
them reference may be made to Capt. Gill's 
* Miver of Golden Sand.' " 



Page 8, n. 5, for Nolle read Nobhe. 

y, 14i, n. 12, after T&sb-Kargh&n insert its 
Lat. 37° 46' (long. 75° 4'). 
20, n. for [IXXXIXl] read [IXXlXJ]. 

25, for censure in last line but one read 

51, 1. 20, for Kandionoi read Pandionoi. 

63, 1. 16, for outlet read outset 

64, 1. 13, omit the before Kolkboi. 

68, 1. 15, for GHldHi read Gftdflr. 

70, 1. 27, Katikardama sbonld begin the 
line after. 

71, 1. 18, after Dosaron instead of tbe 
dasb insert the sign of equality (=?) 
and so after " Adamas" in tbe next 
line, and after *' Ganges" in line 21. 

75, Section 21 sbould bave been immedi- 
ately followed by tbe next 4 sections 
wbicb appear on p. 78. 

76, 1. 16, for * punishment' ot the 'gods' 
read ' punishment of the gbds' 

80, 1. 21, for ]^iksbavant read Biksbavat. 

81, 1. 29, for Bidasis read Bibasis. 

87, 1. 7, for tbe comma after tbe bracket 
put periodr, 

,, 88, 1. 26, for Bbonadis read Bbouadis. 




Page 124, The sections 47-60 should have heeo 
placed after the motice of lomousa oo 
p. 126. 

„ 140, 1. 29, after * second group' iaseTt(8ection& 
* 57 and 58). 

„ 140, last line, after * fourth group/ insert 
(section 61). 

fy 141, 1. 15, after ' sixth group' insert {sectiovk 



Abaratha 24^, 258 

Abarbina 261 

Abhlras (Ahirs) \40 

Abioi Skythai..293-6,323 

Abiria 36, 136, 140 

Abour 184-5 

Abragana 299 

Abranals 250 

Achin 240 

Adamas, R.70, 71, 80, 104 

Adam's Peak 256 

Adarima 180 

Adeisamon 250 

Adeisathra...80, 133, 161 

Adeisathroi 164-6 

Adeisatliron.78,79, 80, 159 
Adisdara ... 131, 133, 161 

Adrapsa 261 

Adris or Bbonadis E. 81, 


Aganagara 202,215 

Aganagora m.... 212 

Ag^ , 154 


Agara 15^ 

Agathou daimonos 

Is 236, 238 

Aghadip 216 

Agimoitha , 225 

Aginnatai 236-7 

Agisymba 13 nil, 15 

Agrmagara 154 

Abichhatra 133, 161 

Abi-om 128 

Aigidion, Is 250 

Mm 53,54,180 

AirrbadcH 191 

Aibhiopians 245 

Aitymandroi 307. 

Ajmir 129, 149 

Aj<!ijia 114 

Akadra 202-3 

Akadrai 245 

Akesines, B 89 

Akhasa 293 

Akinakai 268 

Akour 183 

Alaba, Is 251 

Alana, Mts 286, 291 




Alanorsoi 287 

Alanoi Skythai 287, 292, 

Alexandreia in Ara- 

khosia 316 

Alexandreia Areion.. 307, 

309-10, 328 
Alexandreia Eskhate 277, 

Alexandria Opiane... 112 
Alexandreia Oxeiane 277 

Alikhorda 269,325 

Alingar, R 87, 106 

Alishang, B 87 

AUosygnS 66, 68 

Alo^ 180 

Alor 145, 152 

Alosanga 225, 231 

Altai, Mts 292, 295 

Al-w&kin or Lnkin. lOn 
Amakatis or Ama- 

kastis 124, 127 

Amarakanbaka ...... 99 

Amarapur 230 

Amareis •••• 269 

Amarousa • • 261 

Ambaslitlia 312 

Ambastai ...159, 161, 245 

Ambastes, B 244 

Ambautai ..311-312 

Ambrodax 307 

Ammine, Is. .••• 250 

Anamba, Is 241 

Anara 159 

Anarea, Mts....287-8, 292 
Anarismonndon, 0. 248, 


And&m&n, Is 237 

Andarab 282 

Andhela, R 98 

Andomatis, R 98 

Andrapana 136, 141 

Anniba, Mts... .297-8, 326 

Anieseis 276 

Anikhai 131 

Anina 225 

Aninakha 132, 221-2 

Anoubingara ...249, 258 
Anourogrammoi. 249-5 0» 


Antakbara 156 

Antibole, R. 73-5, 191-2 
(Merv) ...17,263-4,324 

Anupsbahr 175 

Annrftdhapura ...155, 259 

Aomos .•••• 105, 143 

Aorsoi ••• 288 

Aparatote • 258 

Aparjtai 116 

Apokopa, Mts 75-6 



Arabitai 159 

Arakan 196,205 

Arakhosia. 34, 315-19, 329 




Arakhotos, 20n, 34, 316-18 
ArakbotoB Krdne. 316-17* 


Aral, sea of 279-82 

Arana 314 

Aratha 263 

Aravali, Mts 76,94 

Araxates, B 325 

Arazes, B 280 

Arbaka 316,329 

Arbis 320 

Arbita, Mts 95,320 

Arbitai or Arables ... 32 1 
Arbuda or Abu, Mt. 76, 


Ardba-gang^, B 65 

Ardone 124,128 

Areia 305-10, 328 

Areian Lake. 306, 314,328 

Areias, R 306,328 

Arembour 180, 182 

Argadina 263 

Argalou 60 

Argand&b, R 317 

ArgaricGulf 22 

Argeiroa 59 

Argouda 311 

Argyra 196 

Ariaka 263 

Ariakai 289 

Ariak^ 175,179 

Ariake Sadinon 39 

Ariasp^ 314-15,329 



Arikada 314 

Arikaka 316 

Arimaspians 295 

Aripo 258 

Arisabion • 225 

Arispara 124, 126 

Aristobatbra 142 

Aristopbylai 311 

Arjikiya, R 85 

Arkad 162 

Arkand-db, R 34 

Arkatos 64, 162 

Arkbinara 225 

Ai'magara 45, 48 

Aromata (Cape Giiar- 

dafui) 27 

Aror 83, 151 

Arouamoi (Arvar- 

noi) 65-6, 185 

Area 118 

Arsagalitae 118 

Arsitis 261 

Artakoana 309 

Artamis, R. 268, 273, 324 

Artikaudna 307, 309 

Artoarta ...136,141,311 

Arukgam Bay 258 

Asanabara 225 

Asiake 316 

Asigramma 142, 143 

Asikni, R 85, 89 

Asinda 149 

Aaiy^ ••••••••• 125 




Asioi 272 

Asiotai 288 

Askatangkas, B. 265, 

284-5, 288 

Asmanoi 287 

Asmiraia, Mts. 298, 305, 


Asmouma 261 

Aspathis 164 

Aspak&rai...299, 304, 327 

Aspabota 286, 326 

Aspisia, Mts.... 287-8, 291 

Aspithra 244-5 

AssakSnoi Ill 

Asta 314 

Astab^noi 306 

Astakana 269, 325 

Astakapra ....148, 150 

Astasana 308 

Asthagoura 167 

Astauda 307 

AstauSnoi or AstabS- 

noi 306 

Asthaia, Is 320 

Astrassos 124, 126 

Atak 118, 142 

Atbenogonron ...... 225 

Athens , 120 

Atrasa 126 

Atrek, R 262, 273 

Attaba,R 198, 208-9 

Audb •• 229 

Augaloi 276 


Augara 307 

Auxakia 294 

Auxakian, Mts. 293-4, 298 
Auzoamis or Azumis 149 

Avanti 154 

Ayodbya 166,228-9 

Azania (Ajan) 76 

Azanos, R. ... 248-9, 257 

Azika 142 

Azmoma 323 

Babarsana or Kabar- 

sana 307 

Baborana 311-12 

Badaksb&n 12 n9, 83 

B&dami 171 

Badara 320, 322 

Badiamaioi 167, 171 


R.) 20 

B&g or Bagm^ndlS 47 

Bagarda 311 

Bagoos 306, 309 

Bahruj 42 

Baital 159 

Baithana 79, 175-6 

Baitian, Mts. ... 314, 317, 


Bakarei 49,52 

Baktra 18, 271-2, 278, 325 




BaktrianS ...267.74,324-5 

Baktrioi 313 

Balaka, Is 250 

Balantipjrgon ...164, 166 

Balasor 72 

Baleopatam 45 

Bali, Is 241 

Balima 142 

Balita 55 

Balkh 269, 274 

Balonga 202 

Balongka 226 

Baltipatna 39,45 

Bambhara 148 

Bammala 53, 55 

Bammogoura 154 

Banagara ......... 136, 141 

Banaouasei 176, 179 

B&n&ras 129, 228 

Bandobene 87 

B&ndogarli 166 

Bania 145 

Banna or Banu 141 

Barabanga, B 74 

Barago, 197 

Barake 36, 187-8 

Barakes, B. ...248-9, 257 

Barakoura 191, 195 

Barange 261 

Barbarei 148 

Barbarikon 148 

Barborana •• 112 

Barcelor 50 

44 a 


Bardamana 185 

Bardaotis... 163 

Bard&wad 165 

Bardaxema 33, 37 

BardhwAn 174 

Bardia •• 37 

Barenkora(or Baren- 

athra) 226 

Bans, B49, 53, 78, 103,180 

Barna 322 

Barona, B 69 

Barousai, Is.... 236, 238-9 

Barrhai 222-4 

Barjgaza. 38, 40, 49, 77, 


Barzaura 311-12 

Basan&rai 222-3 

Baskatis, B 275 

Bassa, Is 250, 259 

Bassein 44, 197 

Batai 299, 304, 327 

Batoi 63, 183-4 

Batanagara 124, 127 

Bataiigkai8ara...l28, 130 
Batrakheian Sea ... 246 

Batticalao 258 

Bautisos, B. ... 298, 326 

Bazakata, Is 236-7 

Bear, Mt. (Ouxenton). 100 

Becare 52 

Bedasta, B 89 

Begram 112 

Beias, B 90 




Benagonron 171 

Benda or Binda. 89, 41, 

103, 175 

Bentote, R 257 

B^pur '50 

B^pyrrhos, Mts..l02, 204, 

208, 221 
B^rabai 196-7 

Bettig6,Mt 59, 78 

Beseidai 217 

Besmeid r,.... 148 

Besynga, R 196, 205 

Besyngeitai 196, 219 

Bettigoi 159,160, 166 

Bhadar, R 37 

Bhadr&vati 163 

BMndak 166 

Bhanzas 223 

Bliar4od 163 

Bharech 216 

Bharocli 38, 153 

BHars orBliors • 224 

Bliatnair 127 

Bhanlingi •••.... 168 

Bhatmagar 87, 150 

Bhils 160 

Bhilsa. 122 

Bhima, R 41 

Bhiwandi, R 42 

Bhojapto 163 

Bhota 192, 206 

Bibasis, R 190 

Bidaspes,R....81, 89, 109 

Biderifl 180 

Bigis 314 

BilMri.'. 167 

Binagara 145, 151 

Binteime 259 

Biolingai orBolingai. 163 

Bisauli 131 

Bitaxa ..,. 307 

Bogadia 807 

Bodhptlr 151 

Bokana 248, 258 

Bokanoi 250 

Bokh.d»i4 .•.•••.^•••.... 85 

BoHtai i81M2 

Bolor, Mts 35, 802 

Bombay •^ 43-4 

Bonis 142,145 

Boraita 212, 214, 216 

Borgoi r. 807 


Cape) 247-9 

Boriban 167 

Boudaia 150,151 

Boukepbala 124 

Bonmasauoi 250 

Bx^hmanab&d 152 

Brakhmanai Magoi. 167, 

Brahmaputra, R. 192, 

206, 209 
Brakbm«...51, 167, 170-1 
Brahmini, R 71 




Bramagara 48, 50 

Bramma r» 244 

Bridama 163-4 

Budhia 151 

Bungpasoi •• 203 

Burma 198 

Byltai.35, 284-5, 294, 304 
B jzanteioa • # ^. . * ^45, 47 


Calcutta >. 73 

Oalingon, *• 62 

Oalinipaxa r.^.... 228 

C anarj Islands 4 ii4 

Cantabra or Cantaba, 

R 90 

Oapitalia, Mt 76 

Cartana »..»•... 113 

Obalacoory 61 

Cbampft ...9 n7, 203, 209 

Gbandan, B ....• 98 

Chandrabati 136 

Chandrabliaga, B..89, 90 

Chandur 155 

Cbantibon 203 

Ohaturgr&ma {Cbit- 

tagong) ,...193-5 

Obaul 42-3 

Chedi 166 

Cheduba, Is 236 


Cbenab, R 69 

CHchalapoura 147n 

Chilan 258 

Cliimi;aai 43 

Ohma 9n6 

Ohola or Cli6ra ...65, 162 

Ohutia N&gyur 168 

Ooel 58 

Colois Indorum 57 

Colombo 257-8 

Caliaeum, C 61 

Oomorin,C. ...55,62, 78 

Cottara 55 

Cuddalore 65 

Cyrus, E Ill 


D&ai 263, 266 

Dabasai(Damassai P).221, 


Dagana 248, 258 

Daibal 45 

Daidala 124 

Daitikhai 130 

Daix, R 286, 290 

Dakhaura 217 

Damassa or Dobassa, 

Mt 204-6,208, 221 

Damirike 49 

Dammana 317 




DAnmsfl 299, 305 

Pamuda, E 100 

Pangajas 211 

Dangors or Dagors.. 118, 

Daradrae...83, 105-7, 306 

Darandai 313 

Dargamenes, R..268, 272, 


Bargoidos, R 268 

Darkama 308 

Daroakana 311 

Dai^amana ..*.... 304 

Dasana or Doana ... 226 

Dasamas 71 

Pashak. 316 

Pauaoa... ..r<cr.r«i.4rr. 2o9 

PaulataMd 177 

Paxata 300 

Pedera-Oya, R 267 

Peldi...l22, 128, 130, 222 

Pekra 217 

Pemos, R 276, 325 

Peopali 176 

Perbikkai 263, 266 

P^vagana 150 

P^vagadh • 177 

Pewaliya 149 

Phangars 211 

Phar 154 

Pliaranikofca 187 

Pharmodaya, R ...... . 100 

PMmrorPdrur ... 177 


Piamond Point 74 

Piamouna, R 96, 98 

Pilawar 126 

Pildana 165 

Pindugal 184 

Pionysopolis 112-13 

Pionysos, C 248, 258 

Piordouloi 260 

Pista 307 

Poanai 222-4 

Poanas, R.... 202-3, 208-9 

Poblana 165 

PondraHead 258 

PoriaB, R..202, 209, 234-5 

Posarene 171-3 

Poesa 172 

Posaron, R...70-1, 80, 104 

Pounga 39, 42 

Praband or Pera- 

band 141 

Prakhamai 307 

Prangiane ...313-15, 329 

Prastoka 311-12 

Prepsa (or Rbepsa). 277, 

282, 326 

Prepsianoi 276, 282 

PrilophyUitai 160, 168, 

Pr6saklie(or Rhosakla) 


Prybaktai 276 

Pudbal 128 

Pugad 42 




Dumura, B 234-5 

Dw&rak& 188 

Dyardanes, H 209 


Eboasmouanassa ... 269 

Eikour 184 

Eiren^,Is 250 

Ekbatana '. 17 

Elangkou or Elang- 

kor 53, 54 

Elburg,Mts 262 

Eldana 225 

EUasing 231 

Elura 177 

Embolima 142 

Emodos, Mt. ...293-4, 302, 


Empelathra 135 

Eoritai 316 

Epitatisa 151 

Erarasa 124,129, 228 

Erod or Yirodu 182 

Erranoboas, "R 98 

ErrbenyBis, R 97 

Erymmoi 288 

Estobara 269 

Etymander, R.34, 309, 315 

Enaspla, R 87 

Eiiergetai 315 

Eukratidia 269, 274 


Eufchymedia 122-4 

Ezata 196 


Paizabfid f 229 

Farzah 313 

Ferro, Ib 4n4 

Foul Point 258 

Fu-nan 9 n6 

Gagafimira 124, 129 

Gabalata 118 

Galaktophagoi Sky- 
tbai... 228-9, 295-6, 326 

GaUba 247 

Galiba,Mts 249, 257 

Galle, Point de 258 

Gumaliba 175-6 

GammakS 316 

Gandaki, R.102, 135, 206, 


Gandarai 115, 116 

Gandaritis 87 

Gandava, B 95 

Gandbara 115 

Ganganoi 210 

Gangaridai ...172-4, 233 
Gang^ Regia, 172-3, 215-6 
Ganges, R. (of Cey- 
lon) 249, 258 




Ganges, coarse of ... 79 
Gauges, moutlis of .72, 73, 

GangeSttribntaries of .97-8 

Gangetic Golf 24, 63 

Ganj4m 70 

Garamaioi 17 

Garamantes 13 nil 

Gaiinaioi (or Khara- 

unaioi) 299, 305 

Garo Hills 235 

Guroia, B 88 

Gaticara, G lOn 

GaurorG4ara 215 

Gauri, R 87 

Gazakaor Gandzaka. 811 
Gedrosia. 34, 319-22, 329 
GMghra or Ghogra, 

R. 98,99 

Gh&ra, B 86 

Ghats, Eastern 79 

GMts, Western ...78-81 

Ghilghit 118 

Giiir&ja 129 

Ghoda-bandar 44 

Ghorband, B 112 

Ghoreg&on 44 

GhorisorGur Ill 

GbAr, Mts 309 

Gim&r, Mt 37 

Goa or Gova 181 

Goaris, B. ... 39, 41, 103 
Godana 307 


God&vari, 62,68 

Godarari, B....41, 66, 234 

Gomal, B 95 

Gomati, B 86 

Gonds 160 

GbngHris 174 

Gorakhpto 99 

G6rya 112-13 

Goryaia\".....88, 105, 110 

Gorys 87 

Gonmara, Is 251 

Grouraios, B 110-11 

GonrianS 263 

GoTerdhan 129 

Great Cape 202,204 

Great Gulf ..202, 204, 244 
Green Sea... 189, 191,246 
Grynaioi Skythai. 35, 284 

Gudalur 65 

Gudur 68 

Gujarat. 36,38 

Giindi 150 

Gurkan (or Jorjan). 112, 


Gwa 197 

Gwadar 322 

Gynaikon Lim^n.319,322, 



Haidardibad 144, 152 

Hajipdr 218 

Hala, Mts 95 




Halsi 181 

Hambangtote, 258 

Hang-chow lOn 

Hangol 182 

Hanoi 9n6 

Hardw&r or. Awartta. 130, 


Hari-RAd, R 309 

Haslitna^ar >,. 117 

Hastakayapra 150 

Hastinapura. 72, 122, 212 

Hastimalla 174 

Haump 154 

Havila 107 

Hayakshetra 166 

Haz&ras, Mt 309 

Hekatompjlos ••.17, 18n 
Helioulimen ...248,258 
Hellespont, parallel of .14, 

15, 18 nl5 
Helmtmd, R. .34, 309, 317 

Heorta 210 

HeptanSsia 187-8 

Herat (Areia) 19n, 111, 
308-10, 315 

Hesydms, R 91 

Hierapolis 11, 17 

Hindu-kosli 35 

Hippokoura. 39, 44, 176, 


HippSmolgoi 295 

Hippophagoi, Sky- 
thai 293,296 


HmAbi ..199 

H6nan-fu (SSra) 19n 

Horatae 140, 149 

Horkand, sea of 259 

HnghH, R 73 

Hydasp^s, R. ... 89, 125 
Hydraotes, R. ... 90, 123 

Hypanis, R 90 

Hyperborean, Mts.... 286 
Hyphasis or Hypasis, R. 

90, 91-2 
Hyrkania.l7, 260-2, 323-4 


labadios. Is. . 191, 239-41 

lasonion 263,324 

Bstai 288 

latioi 276 

lastos, R 286, 290 

latour ', 185 

laxartai 288, 326 

laxartes, R. 275, 279-81, 


Iberingai 221, 223 

Ikarta 185 

Imaos, Mt.l9, 35, 289-90, 


Indabara 124, 128 

IndS 175 

Indikomordana 277 

Indoi 222 




Indoskjtliia ... 136, 140 

Indoprathai 221-2 

Indrapratha ... 122, 128 
Indus, changes of 

coarse of 84n 

Indus, mouths of. 33, 37, 

Indus, origin of name 

of 81, 82 

Indus, sources of. 81, 83, 

Indus, tributaries of. 81, 

85, 86 
Indus, valley of the 137 

Inna •• 314 

lobares, R 98 

logana 248, 268 

lomusa 126 

Ir^wadi, R 198-9 

Islands of the Blest 4 n4, 

10, 28 
Issedon Skythike. . 294-6 

Issedones 299, 327 

Istargarh 312 

Ithagouros 118,299, 305 
Ivemia (Ireland) ... 14 


Jagdalak 113 

Jajhar 129 

Jajhpur 72 


JalAl&Ud 114 

JalalpOr 125 

J&landhara 110 

Jamma 126 

Jd.mnak ...... 60, 72, 99 

Java, Is 239-41 

Jayagadh 57 

Jelasor, R 101 

Jhelam, R 89,109 

Jibal KhushnAmi, Is. 238 

Ji-nan 6 n9 

Jorampur 162 

Jubunak, R 102 

Juna-gadh 37 

Junnar 177 


Kabul 147n, 311 

Kabul, R 84,86 

Kachh, Gulf of 36 

Kadalundi 50 

• • • 

Kadap& 186 

Kadranj, sea of 200 

KailAsa, Mt 83 

Kai'nas, R 98 

Kaineitai, Is 48 

Kaisana 112 

Kakobai 222-3 

K&kamukha 172 

K&kula 236 




K&la^angft, B 257 

Xalah 200 

JTa^laikarias ,.48, 51 

£Ialaka-serai 121 

Kalandradona, Is. ... 250 

Kalikat 49 

Kalimir, C-..-^^....., 60-2 

Kalinadi 215 

Kalinadi, R 134 

E!alinga 233 

Kalingai 68,81 

KaliouT 184 

jvaiiacLa ...««..*..••••• Xoo 

KalHena 40, 57 

Kalliga 185 

KaUjgerifl 176, 179 

KaUigikon, C. ...59,60-2 

Kalpe 21 

Kaly&n 160,179 

Kaly&na ...43,57 

Kamah, B 86 

KamanS 38, 39 

Kamara 67 

Kamb&yat 42 

Kamberikhon, B. ... 72 

Kamboja, 204 

Kambukgam, B 257 

Kambyson, B...71, 72, 73 

Kamigara 151-2 

Kamilla 232 

Kampana, B Ill 

Kaiiagara..^31, 134, 227 

Kanarak 70 

45 o 


Kanaris .,.., ,., 269 

Kanathra, Is. ., 250 

Kandaloi 159 

Kandaroi 276, 281 

Kandipatna 185 

Kanatti 63 

Kangarayen, B , 257 

'Kangra 110 

Kanhagiri , 179 

Kannagara .,., 69, 70 

Kannetri 64 

Kanogiza...l34, 224, 227-8 

Kanodipsa 287-8 

Kanouj 134,227-8 

Kant 134 

Kantala , 160 

Kanthi, Gulf of 33,36,186, 

Kanyakubja ... 134, 227 

KapiflenS 106, 113 

Kapoutana 307 

Kar&cbi .146, 321 

Karagam 182 

KaraUis 21 

Karatai 35, 284-5 

Kareoi 57,64, 183 

Karig^ 185-6 

Karikal 64 

Karikardama 172 

Karkalla 146 

Karkos. Is 250 

Karmaphuli, B. .194, 235 
Ajai*ixiai*a *.* »*•>••• ••«.«• xcMi 




Karnagarh 172 

Kamasonagarli 172 

Kamul 163 

Karoura (Kabul), 34, 180> 

182, 311-12 

Kartasina 171-2 

Kartiiiaga 171-2 

Karur ....50,65 

KasapS 261 

Kaseirotai 306 

K&shgar 304 

K&fit 228 

Kasia 803 

Kasia, Mts. ...293-4, 298 

Kb&U 308 

KaSmtr 89, 108-9, 302 

Kaspapyros 116 

Kaspatyros 108 

Kaspeira 124, 128 

Kaspeiria 105-8, 124-6, 

Kaspian Gates, 17, 18, 20n 

Eassida 225-8 

Kastra 171 

KatabSda,B 191, 194 

Katak 70-1 

Kathaians 123, 157 

K&thi4vad 167 

Kathis 157-8 

Eatikardama 69-70 

Katisa 311 

Kattaks 157 

Eattaour 157 


Ejittigara ... 9 n7, 11 n7, 

Kaiika808,Mt8...277, 311 

Kans&mbt 72 

Kan[Sikl,B 102, 205 

K&T&i, R 60,65,79 

Kayeripattam 65 

Kayal 58 

Ka7&iiaorKoliAna,B. 98 

Kelydna 212, 214 

Kennery, Is 44 

KerangS 185 

Kesarwa > „ 131 

Eesho 9n7 

Ketaion,C 248,258 

Khaberis 63, 65 

KbabSros, B 63, 65 

Kbaibar Pass 113 

KhalinS, Is 236, 238 

Kbalkitis 222 

Kban-fa lOn 

Xharakbarta 269 

Eliaraunaioi Skythai 


Kbariphron 33, 36 

Kbaia 303 

Kbatai Skythai 293 

Khatriaioi 141, 156-7 

Khatris 159 

Kbatriskbe..., 307 

Eliatirana 394, 326 

Xhanrina... ««.••••••••• 307 

Khedft 181 




Khetars 157 

Khersonese, The Golden 

24, '27, 190, 197-8, 208, 

Khersonesns of the 

Pirates 45,47-8 

Khitai or Eathay. 9 n 6 

Khiva 282, 290 

Khoana 269 

Khoaspa 316, 329 

Khoaspes, K.86, 115, 128 

Kho^s, R 87 

Khojend 282 

Kholbesina 276 

Khomara 269 

Khomaroi •• 268 

Khonnamagara 124, 126 

Khorasmioi 276, 282 

Khrendoi 261 

Khryse • 69 

Khrysoanas, B. 198-9, 

Khwarasm... 279 n, 282 

Khyendwen, R 235 

Kianchi 9n7 

Kimara 225 

Kindia 131, 134 

Kipin or Kophen ... 318 

Kir&ta 192, 282 

Kirrh&dai 276, 282 

Kirrhadia 219-221 

Kizibdarya, R 290 

Kleisobara 9 


Koa, R. 81, 86, 87, 93, 96, 


Koangka 132, 13& 

KodanS, Is 320 

Koddura 66,68 

Kodrana 136,141 

Kognabanda 158 

Kognandoua ...124, 126 
Kohik, R. ...35, 277, 291 

Koiamba 319 

Koimbatur Gap. . « . . . 78 

Kokala 70 

KokanAr 179 

Kokelay 258 

Kokkonagara. 226, 235-^. 


Kokkonagai 171-2 

Kola or Kula-taik 198 n 

Kolaka 142, 146 

Kolhapur 177 

K6H 198,200 

Kolindoia 183 

Kolis 61 

KolkhicGulf 57 

Kolkhoi 57-8, 78 

Kolmandia 47 

Komari, 29,53 

Komaroi 36,284 

Komedai. 18, 35, 104, 275, 

278, 284 

Komoi 268 

Kondopalle 68 

Kondota »••#••• 212 




Konkan r 45 

Xonta 130 

KontakoBsyla 66, 68 

Ko-panto 12 n 9 

Koph^ or Eopli^, B. 86, 


Korangkaloi 217 

Korank&ra 217 

^Korazoi ....r r«... 288 

Korcour ..••• 180 

Koreoura .r....r,.... 49 

Korindiour 188 

Koringa 68 

Korkobajra ......248,258 

Koronos, Mt 260-2 

Kortatha 202 

Korotingkala ...185» 187 

Kory, Is 187 

Kory, 0. 22. 26 n, 69, 60, 


Korygaza 212, 216-7 

Kosa 158 

Kosala ..99,135 

Kosamba 70,72 

Kotake 308 

Kotaur • 55 

Kottiara ...53, 54, 55 

KottiariB, B 245-6 

Kottis 66,67 

Kottobara 69 

Kottobari. (in Gkdro- 

sia) 320 

Eottonarike 50,188 


Konba 180 

Koudoutai 222 

Koumaraka, B 74 

KoTtni 320 

Kourellotir 180-1 

Kouriandra 269 

KoTiraporeina...t.»... 135 

KouroTda 22,63,64 

Krangantlr 50-58 

Krislma, B.... ...41, 63, 66 

Krishnapatam 67 

Krokaia^Is 146 

KubM, B 86 

Kuchiavelli 258 

Knda 46 

Kudraniali, Pt 258 

Kulburga * 177 

Kiilinda 110 

Ktiluta 110 

Kim&r or E&mah, B. 86, 


Kirram, B. 141 

Kurumbars .^....... 162 

Kunda 130 

Kusbans • 138 

Kusinagara 135 

Kylindrine 105,109 

Eyreskbata 276, 283, 325 

Labokla ... 122, 124, 126 
Lahore 122,123,126 




Lambatai 104, 106 

Lameta 167 

LamgMn 106, 141, 213 

Landai, R: 87,110 

Lankd. (Ceylon) 251 

L&rdSsa « 153 

Lariagara 225 

Larik^ 38, 152-3, 157 

Lasyppa 226 

Latini or Lavant, B. 37, 


Lepcbhas 224 

Lestai or Bobbers' 

Cotmtry 202 

LeTike,Is 57,187-8 

Liganeira .*....... 124, 126 

Ingor 203 

limyrikS 49,180 

Logarh 313 

Lob&war 127 

Lokhama 311,313 

Lobkot 122 

Lombard 33,37 

Lo-yang 19n 

Maagrammon ...250, 259 

Macco-Oalingae 233 

Macbin 9n 7 

Madagascar, Is , 256 

Madang-arb 47 

Madby-a-desa ..• 77 

Mbdra 123,157 


Madur& or Matbura 60, 
122, 126, 129, 184 

Madura, Is 241 

Magaris 171 

Magbada ..119, 169 

Magnetic Bocks ...242-4 

Magona, B 97 

Magonr 184 

Mababan, Mt 143 

Mab&nadi, B. 71, 161, 169, 


Mabdnanda 215 

Mabarasbtra 39 

Mab&weliganga, B... 257 

Mabendra, Mt 69, 76 

Mabt..... 136 

Maiandros,Mt. 204-5, 208 

Mais, R 104 

Maisolia ...66, 67, 68, 185 

Maisolos, B 66, 103 

Maisoka or Mausoka. 261 

Malaia, Mt 249,256 

Malaita 163-4 

Malaka, straits of ... 200 
Malamantus, B. ..... . 88 

Malanga 67, 185-6 

Malaya, Mt 75, 78 

MltldA 216 

Maleiba ^„ 164 

Maleo, C 38 

MaleonKolon, 0. ...198-9 

Maliane 317 

Malipalla 175-6 




M&lkh^ ; 179 

MaUi 169 

Maltonn 165 

Manada, R. ...69, 71, 103 

Man&rGxilf 57 

Manarat, B 67 

Manarppa or Manali- 

arpha 66, 67 

Mandagara 45, 47, 57 

Mandalai ...132-3,167-8 
Mandara, Mt. ...110,205 

Manekir 156 

Mangalin ...46, 48, 50, 54 

Mangaruth 46 . 

Mangrol •• 37 

Maniaiiia or Mania- 

taia 225 

MnTii' lrliai 132 

Maniolai, Is. 237, 239, 

Hanneyeh ••.........• 132 

Maatittour 183 

Mantote 258-9 

Maponra ..•.;..«• 70 

Maraikanda (Samar- 

kaQd) 269, 274 

Marakodra 269 

Mardos or Mardou- 

lamn^ 248, 268 

Mardyenoi 276 

Mareoura or Mat- 

thoura 226, 235 

Margana 247, 258 


Margara 130 

Marghinan 283 

Margiane 262-7, 324 

Marges, R. ....-.*... 263-4 

Marhara 130 

Marouka 276 

Maronndai 212.-4 

Martaban lOn 

Martaban, gnlf of ... 197 

MaradvridM,E 85 

Marykaioi 268 

Masdoranoi or Mazo- 

ranoi 306 

Massagetai 35, 263, 265-6, 

Massaioi •••..».•••••••• 287 

MaBtanonr 180-1 

Masulipattam ...... 68 

Matlak 74" 

Mausamaioi 320 

Maxera, B,„ 260, 262 

Maxerai 261 

Mega,R., 72, 74 

Mehatnu, B 68 

Mekong, R 203, 209 

Melange 65, 67 

Melizeigara ..••• 57, 187 

Melkynda 52-4 

Menapia 269, 325 

Mendela ••••• 183 

Menonthias, Is 189 

Meru, Mti 110 

Metliora • 98 




Milizegyris 57 

Minagara 70,72,159 

Minnagar 139, 152 

Mine 266 

Miraj ..• 180 

Mirzaptir 78,134 

Mithankot ...94, 143, 144 

ModogoiiUa 176, 179 

Modoura. 124, 128, 183-4 
Modouttou ... 249, 258-9 

Mohana, R •••• 97 

MologSnoi w 288 

MonakliS, Is 260 

Monedes • 212 

Monoglosson 33, 37 

M6pliis,R 38, 103-4 

Morounda 180-82 

Mousama 320, 322 

MoiisopallS 180 

Mouziris . 48, 51, 54, 242 

MAdgal 179 

Mimd&s 212 

Muranda 106 

Miirgli-&b or Meru- 

rAd, R 264 

Muyiri-kodu 51 


Naagramma 151 

Nabaris 307 

Nadnbandagar 135 

N&forTeken&f,R.... 195 
Nagadiba, Is 251 


Naga diba orNagadiiia249i 


Nagapatam 64 

Nagara 112-13 

Nagarouris 175 

Nageiroi 250 

Nagor 64 

Nakadouba 250 

Namados or -es, R. 38, 102 

Namostai 289 

Nanagoima, B. 45, 48, 

103, 159 

Nangalogai 221,223 

Nangbenhar (Naga- 

ra-bara) 113-14 

Nanigaina 69, 70 

Nanigeris 187-8 

Naosbera 151 

N&ra, R 94,145 

NarmadA or Narbadft, B. 


Naroulla 180-1 

Nartenb 230 

Nasika 152,156 

NaiiHbi 117 

Naulibis 311,328 

Nausari 39 

Nausaripa....r 33, 39 

Navi-bandar 37 

Negombo 258 

Negrais, 63,197 

iSfelisiiram 54 

Nelkynda 52, 60 





Neudros, R 90 

Nigranigramma 156 

Nikaia 89,126 

Nikama 63,64 

Nikobar,Is 239 

NilAb 117 

Nilgiri, Mt8 79 

Niphanda 311 

Niranjana, B.,... 97 

Nisaia or Nigaia. 263, 267, 


Nisaioi 306,309 

Nisibia 308,328 

Nissa 267 

Nitra 45,48 

NoroBSon, Mts. ...286, 291 

Nostana 314 

Noubartha 248, 258 

^ygdosora • 159 

Nysa 105 


Obareis 306 

Odoka 248,258 

Odombarae 149 

Oidanes, R 209 

Oikhardes, B. 293-4, 298- 

6kbo8, R...267, 272-3, 324 

Olokhoira 180-1 

Omenogara 175-6 

Omiza 320 


Opbir 40,140 

Opian^ 20n, 112 

Opotoura 168 

Orbadar-i or -on 149 

Orcbomanes, R 324 

Oreiflitoi 269 

Oreitai 159 

Oreopbanta 167 

OrgaJioGuIf 69,60 

Orgasoi 288 

Omeon, 248,268 

Omeon, Is 250 

Orosana 300 

Oroudiaii,Mts...78, 80, 81 

Ortbiana 307 

Ortboura 64, 184-5 

Ortikane 308 

OrtoBpana (Kabtil) 20n, 
34, 311-2, 328 

Orza 130, 131 

Osanpllr 151 

Oskana.'. 144,320 

OBtba 158 

OBtobalasara 124 

Ottorokorrbas, Mta. 298- 
300, 305, 326 

Ouangalia, Is 250 

Ouindion (Yindhya), 

Mts 77 

Oulispada 250 

Ouratbenai ....^.225, 230 
Oiixentoii,Mt8. 76, 78, 80, 






Oxeia, 249, 258 ' 

Oxeian Lake 275, 281, 325 
Oieian, Mts. ... 274, 276 

Oxeiana 276 

Oxeianoi 276 

Oxus, R. 88, 260, 267-8, 

276-9, 286 

Oxydr&ngkai- 276 

Ozene 38,152, 154-5 

Ozoabia 158 

Ozoana.... 168. 171 

Ozola(or Axola)...... 316 

Pagrasa 202 

Pakidare 38 

Palaiogonoi 252-3 

Palaipatmai 45 

Palai-Simonndou ...252-3 

Palk's Passage 60 

Palanda 226 

Palandos, R. ...198, 208-9 

PaU 45 

Paliana 299 

Palibothra (Patna) 19, 30, 
99. 132, 167, 168-9 

PaUbothri 98 

Paloura23, 63, 67-70, 180 

Pamir Plateau 278n 

46 G 

jr auasa ••. ... ... ••...• xov/ - l 

Panassa 164, 166-7 

Panch&la 131, 133 

Pandasa 226.235 

Pandionoi 51. 18? 

Pandion's Land 59 

Pandouoi 121 

Pandu'sFort 133 

Paniardoi 287 

Panj&b, Rivers of ... 88 
Panj&b rivers, conflu- 
ence of ....91,94 

Pajijkora.. 87 

Panjpiir 143 

PaSjshir 312 

Panjshir.R 112 

Pantipolis 180 

Parabali 151 

Paradene 320 

Parakanake 308 

Paralia ...64, 63, 64, 184 

Parasbni, R 85 

Parautoi 306, 312 

Pardabathra 142 

Pardwa or Priya- 

deva 150 

Paripdtra or Pariya- 

tra 76 

Parri&s&,R 166 

Pamoi 263, 266 

Paropanisadai,34, 310- 13, 

Paropanisos, Mt. ... 268 




Parisara 225 

Parisi^^ 320 

Parsta 311-13 

Parsiana 311-12 

Parsidai or Parsirai. 320 

Parsis 320,322 

Parsyetai 311-12,316 

Parthalis 174 

Parw&n 112,312 

Pasage 180-1 

Pasianoi • 272 

Pasikana 124, 126 

PaaipUda 142-3, 151 

Paskai 276 

Passala 130-1 

Passalai 217-18 

Patala 146-7 

Patalene 136,139 

PatiBay 249,256-8 

Patistama 157 

P&tna 132, 168 

Pauravas 164 

Pavangarh 154 

Pegu 69,235 

Penn-ar, R 65, 67 

Pentagramma 142-3 

Pentapolis ...'. 191 

Peperin^,l8 187-8 

Perimoula ......198, 201 

Perimoulic, Gidf 198, 200 

Peringkarei 61, 183 

Persakra 131 

PesMwar 86, 117 


Peshawamn 315 

Patirgala 176,179 

Peukelaotis.. 20 n, 115-17 

Pharazana 314 

Pharetra or Pharytra 186 

Pliasis,R 249,257 

Phaunoi, 278 n, 282, 305 

Philekos, II 250 

PhokHa 316 

Pharana 307 

Phra 309,315 

Phratou 269 

Phrourion 185-6 

PhyUitai 159,160 

Pialai(orPxaddai)... 299 

Pirate Coast 45 

Pishon orPisanu, R. 107 

Piska 142 

Pithonabasta 202-3 

Piti, R 36 

Pityndra 68, 185 

Plaita 165 

Podigei or Pothigei, 

Mt 78 

Podoperoura 49, 52 

Podoukfi 66,66,260 

Poinai Tliedn, Mts. ... 75 

Poleour 185 

Poloura 72, 76 

Polytimetos, R. 281, 286, 

Port of Alexander ... 321 
P&rvaroi 163-5 




Pofiinara 225 

Poudopatana 52 

Poulindai Agriophagoi 

156-7, 160 

Poulipoula 38,39 

Pounnata 180 

Pramaras 164 

Prapiotai 158 

Prarjuna, Ib 83 

Prasiake, Is 83 

Prasiake 131-3 

Prasii 133,263 

Prafiodes Bay.. .248, 257-8 
Prasum, 0... 25, 191,246 

Pratishthana 79, 177 

Pray&g (AUah&bdd). 175 
Priapis Haven ...248, 258 
Prinas or Pinnas, R. 98 

Proklais 116-17,155 

Prokouri 249 

Prophthasia 20n, 313, 

315, 329 
Pseudostomon, R. 49, 52, 
78, 103. 180 
Pseudostomon (a 

Ganges mouth) 73-4 
Puduchcheri (Pon- 

dicherry) 67 

Pulicat 67 

Pulo Condor, Is. 204, 241 
Punya or Pdnpftn, R. 98 

Purali, R 314,321 

Pur-bandar ••.... 37 


Purt , 70 

Puslikar&vati 116 

Purrhon Oros (Red 
Hill) 53,64 

Qandahar ...34, 116, 317 
Quilon 53-4 

Ramagiri (Bamtek).. 159 

Ramana 304 

Ramancoru, C ...... • 61 

Ramesvaram, Is... 60, 189 

Mmu : 195,235 

RangAn 1^7-8 

Rapti,R 98-9 

Rasing 232 

j^gj^alx 118 

Ravi, R 90,109,123 

RM, R. ...285-6, 290, 296 

Rhabana 244 

Rbabannai ......299,305 

Rbadamarkotta 225,228-9 

Rhagirana ^^^ 

Rbambakia 1^9 

Rhamnai...l58-9,320, 322 

Rhappha 210 

Rhapta 26 




Bhatigara.. 307 

Ehea 263 

Rhibioi 289 

Rhingib^ 225, 234-5 

Rhizana 316,319 

Rhoboskoi 287' 

Rhodes, parallel of 4 n3, 

6, 11,17. 18nl5 

Rhogandanoi ...250, 259 

Rhoplautai 316 

Rhonadia, R 90 

Rhonda 313 

Riksha (Bear) Mts. .. 76 

Rikshavat 80 

Rin or Irina 94, 157 

Rizala Haven .. 249, 258 
Robber Country ... 222 
Rupanai-ayana, R. 101, 

Rymmik, Mts. 286-8, 291 
Rhymmos, R. 286, 290, 



Sabadeibai^Is....236, 239 

Sabadioi 269 

Sabana ...136,141, 198-9 

Sabalaessa, R 33, 36 

Sahara 196 

Sabaiai 172-3 

Sabouras 63, 65 

Sada 24, 195-6 


Sador, R 196 

Sagala 122, 131, lSt-5, 169 
Sagaraukai ... 289, 326 
Saghela or Sakula ... 135 
Sagapa (Gkara) R. 33, 36 

Sageda 164-6 

Sagoda or Sadoga 225, 


Sahya, Mt 76 

Sahyftdiii, Mt 79, 80 

Sailoda, R 110 

Saimur or Jaimur... 42 

Sainos, R 244-5 

Saitianoi 287 

Sajintra 154 

Sakai 283-5, b25 

Sakarauloi 272 

Sake or Sale 261 

Saketa 166, 228 

Salagissa 124, 126 

Salakenoi 171-3 

Salang, Is 238 

Salaterai 268 

Salatha 225 

SaHke (Ceylon).. 247, 252 

JSalour 59 

Salyuen, R 209 

Samarkand 12 n9, 35, 271, 


Samarade 202-3 

Sambalaka.131, 133, 167, 

Sambra 196 





Samnitai 288 

JSandabaga, R. ...*.. 89 

Sandabal, R ..81; 89 

Sandokandai 240 

Sandowe (Saiidwipa).194, 


Sanf or Chanf 203 

Sangala 122, 167 

Sangamarta 162 

Sanjan 39 

Sank, R 71 

Sannaba 131 

Sapara 33, 36 

Sapolos 210 

Sarabakic Gulf ... 196-7 

Sarabos, R 99, 210 

Saramanne 260, 323 

Saranges, R 90 

Sarasvati, R. 85, 89, 99, 


Sarata 245 

Sarayu or Sarju, R.... 99 
Sai-bana or Sardana. 148 
Sardonyx, Mts. ......76-6 

Sariga 308 

Sariphi, Mts. 262, 264, 30S> 

Sai-isabis 175-6 

Sarmagana ..r.. 307 

Sarmatia 286,296 

Sarsi 131 

Sasartu, R. 86 

Sasones 288 

Satadi*u,R 92 


Satlai, R *..... .91, 93 

Sfttpura, Mts...., 77 

Satyrs, cape of the... 245 
Satungor Tbatnng. 199 

SatyiV 1» 239, 241 

Saiirabatis ,.,„, 135 

Sazantion 162 

Seliwan 144, 

Seist^n, lake of 309 

S elampura 224, 2 2 7 

Selour 183 

Semantliinos, Mt. 204, 


Semanthinoi 245 

Semne 49,62 

Sennoi «..,.,.„. 24^ 

Seoni 171 

Sera 9, 13, 14, 19 nl6, 300,. 

Serendib (Ceylon) ... 262 

Seres ., J^ bi6, 326-8 

Serik© 297-30& 

Seripala 103, 152 

Sero8,R 202,208-9 

Sesatai 218 

Sibae 290 

Sibrion 168 

Sidhpfii* r.r„... 149 

Sidi-jayagad 188 

Sigalla ...„! 167, 16i> 

Sigerus ».. 57 

Simylla (Chaul) 29, 39, 
42-3, §7, 201 




Sina (or Sena) 263 

Sinai or Thinai ...5, 9 n6 
Sinai, Gulf of the ... 245 
Sinai, land of the ...244-7 

Sfnaka 261 

Sinda 202,204 

Sindai, Is.... 236, 238, 241 

Sindhu 82,86 

Sindhu, R 161 

Sindokanda 248,268 

Sindomana 144 

Singapur, Straits of.. 242 

Sign-an-fu 10 n 

Sinthon (Piti), R 33 

Sipiberis (or Sitt^- 

biris) 226 

Sippai-a 70-2 

Sippare 307 

Siraklne 261 

Sirimalaga 176, 179 

Siripalla 164 

Sh&hderi 121 

Sh&hjah&npar 134 

Shakohpnr 127 

Skordai 268 

Skardo. R 294 

Skorpiophoros kh&re 307 

Skopoloui'a 186 

Sky thiabeyond Imaos 

Skythia within Imaos 

286-92, 326 
Soana, R 248-9,257 

Soara 169 

SobanOs, R.... 202-3, 209 

Socimda 323 

Sogdiana 36, 274-83, 325 
Sogdian, Mts. 36, 276-6, 


Sogh4 277 

Sokanda, R 260 

Solana 300 

Solen 323 

S61en, R....67, 5.9, 78, 103 

Solomatis, R 98,99 

S6n, R 77,98-9 

SonaparSnta 198, 221 

Sonargfton 175 

Sdpatma 67 

S6phaia 41 

Sora 64, 65, 162, 185 

Sorba 261 

S6retai 64, 184 

Sdteira 308,310,328 

Souanagoura ...226, 228 

Souast^ne 105-6 

SonboTittou 176 

Soudasanna 166 

Souobenoi 287 

Soupara 39, 40 

Sotu*asSnoi 98 

Sourogana 269 

Sousikana ...142, 144-46 

Sousouara, Is 251 

Southern Cape 244 

Sozestra or Sdkstra. 320 




Spatana Haven 249, 258 

Stagabaza 163 

StMnesvara 128 

Stone Tower 12-19, 30, 

284, 326 

Stoma » 210-12 

Suari 173 

Subanrekha, B 74 

iduktimat, Mt 75 

Sumatra, Is. 190,238-40, 


SAmt 149 

Sup&r&,(see Soupara). 

Sdrparaka 72 

Sushoma, B 85 

Suvarna-rekM, R. . . . 71 

Suzantion 154 

Sveti, R 86-8 

Sydroi 316 

Sjdros •• 151 

Sy^ba,Mts.... 287-8, 292 

Syeboi 287 

Syrastra 33-37, 140, 158 

Syrastr^ne 33, 186 

Syrieni * 185 

Symisika 157 

Syzyges 299 

Tabasoi 158, 175, 178 

Tabi^noi 288 


Tagara 79,176-8 

Tagaung 231,235 

Taikkula 198 

Tainour 183 

Takdla 193-9 

Tak61a, 197 

Takoraioi 217 

TakshasM (Taxila). 115, 


Talara 183 

Talakory or Aakote... 249 

Talarga ai2, 214-6 

Talka, Is 261 

TaluctfiB 170 

Tamala 24 

Tamalit^ 167-8 

Tamasis 135 

Tambyzoi 26^ 

Tamerai 193 

Tamluk 74, 168-9 

Tdmralipta 73, 169 

T&mraparni, R. 57,59, 78, 


Tana 42 

Tanais or Don, B. ... 281 
Tangola or Taga ...183-4 

Tangalle 258 

Tanganoi 210-11 

Tanjore 64, 183 

TankorTonk 210-11 

Tantir 50 

Tapoura,Mts... 287-9, 291 
Tapoureioi 288 





Tapouroi 263, 267 

Taprobane, Is. 61, 247, 


T&pti, R 48,158,160 

Tafbakana 811 

Tarakhoi 250 

Tatakene 313-14 

Tathilba 167 

Taua 307 

Taukiana 307 

Tavoy, R, 209 

Taxila.. 20ii, 115, 118-121 

T&shkand 12 ii9 

Tashkurgan 12 n9 

Tasopion • 172 

Tejin, R 262 

Tektosakes 287 

Temala, R 196 

TOmala, 196 

Tennagora 184 

Tewar 166 

Thagora 202 

Thagouron, Mt 298 

Th&n 149 

Thanesar 128 

Tharawati 236 

Tharrha 226, 236 

Thelkheir 63 

Theophila 149 

Thina 220 

Thinai (Si-gnan-fn or 

Loyang) ... 9ii6, 245-6 
Thogara 300 


Tholonbana 163-4 

Thoule (^Shetland Is.). 5, 


Throana 202 

Throanoi 299,306 

Taitoura (Chittore). 152, 


Tiausa 142 

Tiladai 217-8 

Tilogrammon 72 

Timoula 29,42 

TinneyeH 67, 59 

Tiripangolida 175 

Tisapatinga 167 

Ti8t&, R 10a,205 

Tittoua 183 

Toana 131 

Tokharoi 268,' 272, 276, 

282, 324 
Tokosaima, R....191, 196 

Tomara 226, 235 

Tong-king 9 ii6, 243 

Tong-king, Gulf of... 246 

Tooraai 36,284. 

Toringoi 63,64 

Tosalei 225,230-1 

Tougma ...226, 231, 265 

Tribazina 308 

Triglypton or Trilingon 

226, 231-4 

Trikadiba, Is 187-8 

Trinesia, Is 187-8 

Trinkonamalai 267 




Tripuri (Tipperah) 194, 


Trisht&ma, R 86 

Triveni, R 99, 101 

Trybaktra 277 

Tuticorin 57 

Tybiakai 288 

Tyndis 48-50 

Tyndis,R....70-l, 80, J04 
Tyna, R 65, 103 

Uchh 80 

Ud^pur(Udayapura) 229, 


Udumbara 149 

Udjrana 107 

Udyslnapura 113 

Ujiain 38, 102, 154 

Uriur 185 

Ural, Mts :. 291 

Ural, R 290 

Urasa 118 

Uttarrakuru 305, 326 


Vagal, R... 184 

Vaitarani, R 71 

Vaidurya, Mts 81 

Vais&li 218 

47 d 


Vaitarna, R 41, 192 

Vak&taka 166 

Valabbi ..37, 140 

Vandabanda 276, 282 

Varad&, R 158-9, 179 

Yar&nasi 129, 248 

Vareia, C lOn 

Vamoi 269 

Vai-pna 307 

Vasai (Bassein) 40 

Vasishtha ............ 90 

Velur 187 

Vendeloos Bay 268 

Yengi 186 

Viliv&yakura 179 

Yindion (Yindhya), 

Mts 76-77,80 

Yingorla Rocks 188 

Yip&s&, R 90 

Yipula, Mt 205 

YitastA, R 85 

Yolga, R 290 


Washati, Mts. , 314 

Wildbeast Gulf 244, 246 
Worahkal 187,233 


Xarxiare 314 

Xoana 151-2 

Xodrake 148 





J^^muna (Jamna), R. 85, 


Tarkand 12 n 8 

YeUapur 181 

Yetflr 186 

Yuma, Mt 205 

Zaba 25, 27, 209 

Zaba, Is 251 

Zabai 9 n 6, 202-3 

Zaen 224 


Zamirai 219, 221 

Zanzibar, Is 191 

Zaradros, B 91 

ZarafsMn, R 290 

Zarab Lake ... 314, 317 
Zarangoi or Sarangai 314 

Zaratai 288 

Zariaspa ... 19n, 269, 274 

Zariaspai 268 

Zariaspis, R. ... 268, 324 

Zerogerei 152, 154 

Zeus, 248, 258 

Zibala, Is 251 

Zimyra 308 



Agastya Rishi 78 

Albirflnt 120 

Alk;tnaA 295 

Ammianus Marcel- 
linns 323 

Andhrabritya dy- 
nasty 46 

Antiokhos Theos ... 271 
Ants, gold-digging. 107, 

ApoUonins of Tyana. 119 
Aristeas of Prokon- 

nesos 295 

Arrian 292 

Arsakes 324 

Asoka, 116, 119, 154, 300 
Ast^s 117 

Baleokonros ... 176, 177 

Basarcnagos 185-6 

Bdellinm II7 

Beryl... 180-1, 247 

Bhrigu 153 

Boukephalos ... 125, 126 
Brankhidae 283 


Camels 324 

Cannibals 299 

Carnelian stone » 77 

Chandragupta 169 

Cocks 225,232-3 

Copper 222 

Cottons 68 

Darius Hystaspes... 82 

Diamonds 71, 158, 167, 

169, 172 
Dionysios 114 

Elephants 247, 249 


Cinger 247 

Gold. 107, 219, 239, 241, 

247, 295 
Griffins 295 

Gymnosophistai...... 130 




Honey 247 

Hyacinths 247 

Kadphises 272 

Kanerkea 272 

Kanishka ...116, 119, 138 

Kauravas 121 

K^ralapntra 182 

Kostus 117 

Krishna 60,128 

Kerobothros 52, 180 

Lunar Race. 121, 129, 164 

Maes or Titianus ... 14 
Malabathrum (Cin- 
namon)... 193,219,220 

Mambares 40 

Marinos of Tyre. ..... 3 

Megh}lyahai*a 109 

Murex, shell-fish ... 236 

Musikanos 144 

Muslin 60 


Nard 117, 225,229 

Ninus 271 


Onyx-stones. 77, 155, 176 

P&ndavas 12S 

Pandya Dynasty ... 58 

Paradise 107-8 

Paradise (Aryan) ... 279 

Parasang 13 n 10 

Pearl Fishery. 57, 64, 201, 


Pepper 50,53 

Pirates 180 

Poros 89,125, 164 

Ptolemy, Geogl. sys- 
tem of 1-32 

Rachia(Ra3&) 254 

Ravens, white 232-3 

Rhinoceros ...13 n 11, 16 

n 14 
Rice 247 


Sakyamuni 135, 166,228-9 

Saliv&hana 176 

Samudragupta 213 

Sandanes 40 

Sandrakottos 169 




Saraganes 40 

B^takariii Dynasty... 

Schoinos 13 n 10 

Semiramis 271,274 

Silver...219, 221, 237,247 

Siroptolemaios 177 

Skylax 82, 108 

Solar Race 166 

Somagos 64, 184 

Sramana 52 


Tiastanes (Chastdna) 152, 

Tigers 247,323 

Yijaya 253.4 

Yikramaditya ...122, 154 
Vine-trees 264, 271, 308 

Yayati 129 

Taxiles 119 ; Yetha 138 


Works by J. W. McGRINDLE, MA, M.RA8., 
Late Principal of the Government College. 
Patna, ana Fellow of the University of 



Being a series of copiously annotated Translations of all extant 
works relating to India, written by The Ancient Greek and Roman 
Authors. The following volumes of the series have appeared : — 

AND ARRIAN : Being a translation of the fragments of the 
Indika of Megasthen^s, and of the first part of the Indika 
of Arrian : with Introduction, Notes, and Map of Ancient 
India • I^s. 2-8 

ERYTHR^AN SEA: Being a translation of the Periplus 
Maris Erythraei (Circumnavigation of the Red Sea and Indian 
Ocean), and of Arrian's account of the Voyage of Nearkhos : 
with Introduction, Commentary and Index Rs. 3-0 

EINIDIAN : Being a translation of the fragments of his 
Indika, with Introduction, Notes and Index Rs. 3 

Being a translation of the Chapters on India and on Central 
and Eastern Asia in the Treatise on Geography by Klaudios 
Ptolemaios, the celebrated Astronomer : with Introduction, 
Commentary, Map of India according to Ptolemy, and a very 
copious Index Rs. 4-4 

The 5tb and last volume will contain Strabo*s Geography of 
India and the accounts of the Makedonian Invasion of India given 
by Arrian and Curtius. 



In rendering the results of Dr. Schwanbeck's industry accessible to 
English readera by this translation of the collected fragments of the 
lost Indika of Megasthenes, perhaps the most trustworthy of the 
Greek writers on India, Mr. McCrindle would have performed a most 
valuable service even had he not enriched the original by the addition 
of copious critical notes, and a translation of Arrian's work on the 
same subject. — Calcutta Review. 

Mr. McCrindle's translations of the accounts of Ancient India by 
Megasthenes and Arrian is a most valuable contribution to our know- 
ledge of the subject in the days when Greeks and Romans were ruling 

the world Mr. McCrindle has conferred agreat boon on society 

by translating Dr. Schwanbeck's learned work into English, illustrat- 
ing it by a valuable map of Ancient India, and publishing it at a small 
price. There is more bond fide information regarding Ancient India in 
this unpretending volume than is to be found in the great bulk of 
Sanskrit Puranas ; whilst it forms a most valuable adjunct to the mass 
of traditions and myths which have been preserved in the Hindu epics 
of the Mahabharata and Ramayana, &c. — Pioneer. 

Mr. J. W. McCrindle, of Patna, has given us a readable translation 
both of Schwanbeck's Megasthenes, and of the fii-st part of Arrian's 
Indiha, Mr. McCrindle deserves the thanks of all who take an 
interest in Ancient India, and, should he be able to fulfil his promise 
to translate " the entire series of classical works relating to India," he 
will give an impetus to the study of the eai'ly civilization of this country 
among native as well as European scholai's. His work is well printed, 
and, as far as we have been able to judge, carefully edited. ^2%e 
Madras Times, 

Mr. McCrindle, who has already published a portion of the transla- 
tion of AiTian, reprints these valuable contributions to our scanty 

knowledge of Ancient India An introduction and notes add 

value to the translation, a value which happens to be very great in this 
case, and to centre in one long note on the identification of the old 
Palibothra or Pataliputra with the modem Patna. — The Daily Review, 

Mr. McCrindle, who holds a very high position in the Education 
Department of the Indian Government, has collected into a volume 
some translations which he has lately contributed to the "Indian 

Antiquary" from Megasthenes and Arrian Strabo and Pliny 

thought fit to condemn the writings of Megasthenes as absolutely false 

and incredible, although they were glad to copy into their own works 
much that he had written. We modems, however, with our longer 
experience of travellers' tales, and of the vitality of fabulous state- 
ments, and practised in comparing accounts that vary, find much in 
these fragments that agrees with what we can reasonably conjecture of 
the past of India We may observe that many of the sin- 
gularities of the human race, which are depicted on the famous 
Mappemonde, at Hereford, are described by Megasthenes. Mr. 
McCrindle's volume ends with an excellent translation of the first part 
of Arrian's Indika. He is to be congratulated on having made a 
very useful contribution to the popular study of Indian antiquities, — 
Westminster Review. 

A good notion of the extent of the knowledge respecting India 
possessed by the old Greeks and Romans may be formed from the 
translation of the wi-itings on the subject of Megasthenes and Arrian, 
presented by Mr. McCrindle, under the title of Ancient India. Many 
of the statements made by the old writers are unmixed fable, although 
Megasthenes, there can be no doubt, travelled as far as Bengal, but on 
the whole, as much accurate knowledge was possessed by the Romans 
in the first century after Christ, as by the European nations in the 16th 
century. An introduction, notes, and map of India add to the prac- 
tical utility of Mr. McCrindle's work. — Scotsman' 

Both of these ancient works are very interesting as illustrating 
the knowledge possessed by the later Greeks and the Romans 
respecting the geography of India and the neighbouring regions. 
Mr. McCrindle's prefaces, each with an informatory introduction, 
embody the results of the most recent investigations of modem scholar- 
ship on the subjects to which they relate. — Scotsman, 

Mr. J. W. McCrindle, Principal of the Government College, Patna, 
has set himself the task of publishing, from time to time, translations 
of the Greek and Latin works which relate to Ancient India, and in 
pursuance of this intention, some time since he published a work 
entitled Ancient India as described by Megasthenes and Arrian. A 
second instalment has now appeared under the title of The Commerce 
and Navigation of the Erythraean Sea ; being a translation of the 
Periplus Maris Erythraei, by an anonymous writer, and of Arrian s 
account of the Voyage of Nearkhos, from the mouth of the Indus to the 
head of the Persian Gulf, with introduction, commentary, notes, and 
index. The introduction and commentary embody the main substance 
of Miiller's prolegomena and notes to the Periplus and of Vincent's 
Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients, so far as it relates specially 
to that work. The identification of places on the Malabar and 
Coromandel Coasts is derived from Bishop Caldwell's Dravidian 
Grammar, Other recent works have been resorted to for verification 

and connection of the contents of the narrative. To those stndents 
who have neither the learned work of Dr. Vincent, nor the Geographi 
Graeci Minores of C. Miiller, within reach, this handy volume will 
prove very serviceable. — The Academy. 

The careful and scholarly translations of ancient texts relating to 
India, which Mr. McCrindle is prepajnng in serial order, promises to be 
of great value. The method which he follows is in accordance with 

the best traditions of English scholarship As to the historical 

importance of these texts there can be only one opinion. History in 
Sanskrit literatui'e is conspicuous by its absence, so that external 
authorities are at once the only ones available, and at least redeem 
by theii' unbiassed chai-aeter their relatively deficient opportunities of 
information. Those who are best acquainted with the difficulties of 
English rule in India, are best aware that the problems of Indian 
administi*ation are, in fact, problems of Indian history. ... It is thus 
of vital importance that every possible hint and clue as to the course 
of the legal, social, and economical history of the country should be made 
available. It is the special value of Mr. McCrindle's work that it 
will form a solid, positive basis for the earliest period of authentic 
Indian history, &c. — The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore. 

The fragments of the Indiha of Megasthenes, collected by Dr. 
Schwanbeck, with the first part of the Indika of Anian, the Periphts 
Maris Erythraei, and Arrian's account of the voyage of Nearkhos have 
been translated, in two most useful volumes, by Mr. J. W. McCrindle, 
M.A. The Indika of Ktesias with the fifteenth book of Strabo is also 
promised, and the sections referring to India in Ptolemy's Geography 
would complete a collection of the highest value to Indian history.— 
Note under the article India, in the new edition of the Encyclopcediok 

We are glad to learn that the papers by Mr. J. W. McCrindle (on 
Ptolemy's Geography of India) which have recently been appearing in 
tlie Indian Antiquary are to be published separately. The amount of 
patient and scholarly work which they indicate is of the kind that we 
are rather accustomed to look for from a German savant, and can 
hardly be properly appreciated by one who does not know by expe- 
rience the difficulties of such investigations. — The Scottish Geographical